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Afganistan nato course

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Afganistan nato course

  1. 1. AFGHANISTAN
  2. 2.  INTRODUCTION OF AFGHANISTAN  HISTORY OF AFGHANISTAN  MATHER WITH AFGHANISTAN  TARADITIONAL AND NON-TRADITIONAL PROBLEMS  THE COMPOSITION OF ETHNIC CONSTRUCTION  ILLICIT DRUG PRODUCTION AND SECURITY  CONCLUSION 2
  3. 3.  Officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan is a landlocked country located in South Asia.  It has a population around 31 million people, making it the 42 st most populous country in the world.  It is bordered by Pakistan in the south and east; Iran in the west; Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan in the north; and China in the far northeast. Its territory covers 652,000 km2 making it the 41st largest country in the world. Its official language are Darica and Pashto.
  4. 4.  Kabul is taken in 1818 by an Afghan tribe, the Barakzai, led on this occasion by Dost Mohammed.  By the end of 1840 the Rightful Amir, Dost Mohammed, were a prisoner of the British. He and his family are sent into exile into India.  During the 1800s generally went under Britania invasion.  In 8 August 1919 end of the Britania war it gained independent. 5
  5. 5.  Daud Khan resigned in 1963 because of tense relations with Pakistan (the border was closed from 1961 until just after his resignation).  The constitution put in place in 1964 transforms Afghanistan in principle into a constitutional monarchy.  1973 Daud Khan has came back into power and he took steps to mend fences with Pakistan.  1978 – 79 Daud's government was overthrown (and he and most of his family killed) by a lef-wing faction within the army (President of faction was Nur Muhammed Taraki) 6
  6. 6.  1979-1989 Soviet occupation.  1989-1994 Sivil war.  1994-2011 Taliban control.  After 11 September 2001 with ABD attacks NATO has taken the control. 7
  7. 7.  After 11 September 2001, with attacks of ABD to Afghanistan conflict starts.  Afghanistan still poses a major threat to the United States as a potential safe haven for anti-American elements.  Afghanistan, a country at the center of the longest war in American history  Karzai (at present, Ashraf Ghani Ahmadzai) government could not take full responsibility for national security. 8
  8. 8.  There are other problems, lack of security, abject poverty, negligible government services and a myriad of other challenges, that affect them on a daily basis.  Invested in only a select few regions of their country over the years  Taliban could control most of the region and so the center authority can not control all of the country  Only Kabul is now home to more universities, television stations and Internet cafes, but the many others were banned under Taliban rule. 9
  9. 9.  Geopolitical Analysis of Afghanistan  Afghanistan’s strategic position at the crossroads of so many trade routes has for centuries made it vulnerable to invasion by distant as well as neighbouring powers, and this situation persists today.  Because of geopolitical important, Afghanistan exposured invations many time. 10
  10. 10.  The Army Of Afghanistan  Afghan armed forces to about 260,000.  Despite billions of dollars of international investment, army combat readiness has been undermined by weak recruitment and retention policies, inadequate logistics, insufficient training and equipment and inconsistent leadership. 11
  11. 11.  ISAF  ISAF was established on the basis of a request for assistance by the Afghan authorities and under a United Nations (UN) mandate.  Since August 2003 till 2015 the NATO-led International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) had been conducting security operations, while also training and developing the Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF). 12
  12. 12.  Resolute Support Mission  RSM was launched on 1 January 2015 to provide further training, advice and assistance for the Afghan security.  12,000 personnel.  The mission will operate with one central hub (in Kabul/Bagram) and four spokes in Mazar-e Sharif, Herat, Kandahar and Laghman. 13
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  14. 14.  Governance and Democracy  Afghanistan has drafted a new constitution and organized presidential, parliamentary.  Unfortunately Afghanistan has not effective government. 15
  15. 15.  Economy in Afghanistan.  The economy of Afghanistan has improved significantly since 2002 due to the infusion of billions of US dollars in international assistance and investments, as well as remittances from expats. It is also due to dramatic improvements in agricultural production but in recent years drought influenced most of the country.  Afghanistan still remains one of the poorest and least developed countries in the world that is highly dependent on foreign aid. 16
  16. 16.  Economy in Afghanistan.  About half the population suffer from shortages of housing, clean drinking water, electricity and employment.  The Government of Afghanistan and international donors have remained committed to improving access to these basic necessities by prioritizing infrastructure development, education, housing development, jobs programs, medical care, and economic reform over the recent years.  The replacement of the opium trade, which probably makes up about one-third of the country's GDP, is one of several potential spoilers for the economy over the long term. 17
  17. 17.  Economy in Afghanistan  Cattle grazing is an important part of Afghan economy.  Afganistan has deposits of coal, copper, barium, sulfur, lead, zinc, iron ore, salt and emeralds.  Small manufacturers process agricultural products and produce coton and other fabrics.  Main exports of Afghanistan are fruits, nuts, lambskins, gemstones and handwoven carpets. The country imports mainly machinery, manufactured goods, petroleum products and foodstuffs. 18
  18. 18.  Education  Two separate systems of education exist in Afghanistan. The older system is a religious one, teach by the mullahs, who conduct schools in the village mosques. They teach the religious precepts of the Koran, reading, writing, and arithmetic.  The other system was introduced in Afghanistan's 1964 constitution and provided for free and compulsory education at all levels. 19
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  20. 20.  Healty System  Afghanistan's health status is one of the worst in the world. 21
  21. 21.  Healty System  At the end of the conflict, what was left of the health system was characterized by: inadequate infrastructures with dilapidated facilities unevenly distributed across the country; impaired access to health services due to difficult communications and poor security; chronic shortage of skilled health providers (especially female); poor information system; and weak implementation of the newly approved national health policy.  This resulted in inefficient coverage and health services delivery, and NGOs working to some extent independently from national structures. 22
  22. 22.  İnfrastructure  Many remote areas of Afghanistan never had much infrastructure.  Decades of war, a harsh climate and neglect left much of what had been built in rubble.  Most rural villages lacked electricity, running water, or roads to link them to schools, health clinics and gov- ernment services. 23
  23. 23.  İnfrastructure  Without electricity, businesses could not operate machinery.  Households had no running water for drinking, cooking and cleaning, and absence of clean drinking water posed a major public-health challenge.  Underdeveloped roads hampered movement of goods to domestic and international markets, and isolated villages from basic government services, even police or military protection. 24
  24. 24.  Life in Afghanistan  There are 53 urban centers that range in size from 2500 to 350.000 people.  Kabil is the capital and population about 3 million. Other big cities are Herat, Kandehar, Belh, Celalabat, Kunduz.  In the smaller villages there are no schools, no stores, nor any representative of the government.  Each village has three sources of authority within it: the malik (village headman), the mirab (master of the water distribution), and the mullah (teacher of Islamic laws) 25
  25. 25.  Life in Afghanistan  The men wear long cotton shirts, which hang over their trousers, and wide sashes around their waists.  The women wear a long loose shirt or a high-bodice dress with a swirling skirt over their trousers. When urban women leave their houses they usually wear a burka or shadier, a long tentlike veil that covers them from head to foot. 26
  26. 26.  Life in Afghanistan  Women in villages seldom wear the burka, and educated urban women discarded the custom, especially under Soviet domination where it was regarded as backward.  Village men work in the fields, joined by the women during the harvest. Older children tend the flocks and look after the smaller children.  The village mosque is the center of religious life and is often used as the village guest house. 27
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  37. 37.  The biggest security Problem is Taliban:  The Taliban is a predominantly Pashtun, Islamic fundamentalist group that ruled Afghanistan from 1996 until 2001, when a U.S.- led invasion toppled the regime for providing refuge to al-Qaeda and Osama bin Laden.  The Taliban regrouped across the border in Pakistan, where its central leadership, headed by Mullah Mohammed Omar, leads an insurgency against the Western-backed government in Kabul.  Both the United States and Afghanistan have pursued a negotiated settlement with the Taliban, but talks have little momentum. 38
  38. 38.  Pakistan:  Pakistan supports the Afghanistan Taliban.  Because:  India is at war with Pakistan and supports forces in Afghanistan and Iran who would seek to destabilise Pakistan. This is very a serious issue.  Taliban militants sanctuary in the country's western tribal areas in an effort to counter India's influence in Afghanistan. 39
  39. 39.  Pakistan:  Pakistan's president Pervez Musharraf signed a controversial peace agreement with seven militant groups, who call themselves the "Pakistan Taliban."  Pakistan's army agreed to withdraw from the area and allow the Taliban to govern themselves, as long as they promise no incursions into Afghanistan or against Pakistani troops. 40
  40. 40.  İnsufficient and lack of powerful Government:  The neglect of governance, an anaemic legal system and weak rule of law lie at the root of problems.  Insurgents and criminal elements within the political elite have as a result been allowed to fill the vacuum left by the weak Afghan state. 41
  41. 41.  İnsufficient and lack of power Government:  The bilateral security agreement allows about 12.000 U.S. and NATO military personnel to continue training Afghan security forces. But Taliban suicide bombers attacked Afghan army buses in Kabul, underscoring the fragile security.  Without outside support, the Government would collapse, the Taliban would control whole of the country and internal conflict would worsen, increasing the prospects of a return of the destructive war of the 1990s. 42
  42. 42.  Drug Trade  After decades of cultivation and the collapse of legal economic opportunities, opium is deeply entrenched in the socio- economic fabric of Afghan society and underlies much of the country’s economic and power relations.  Many more actors than simply the Taliban participate in the opium economy, and these actors exist at all social levels.  The longer alternative livelihoods efforts fail to generate sufficient and sustainable income for poppy farmers, the more problematic and destabilizing it will be for location elites to agree to poppy bans and the greater the political capital that the Taliban will obtain from protecting the poppy fields. 43
  43. 43.  Drug Trade  Intense eradication campaign under current circumstances will likely make it impossible for the counterinsurgency effort to prevail. Yet, as many other cases of the nexus between drugs and insurgency and terrorism show, through greater resources and improved strategy, counter forces can defeat insurgent groups deriving substantial income from drugs.  There is the issue of drugs in the country. Afghanistan produces about 90 percent of the world’s opium. 44
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  45. 45.  Afghanistan’s national anthem recognizes 14 ethnic groups.  Most of the larger ones have significantly greater populations in neighbouring countries.  Maintaining harmony among these groups is one of the biggest problems confronting Afghanistan today and a key determinant of whether its future is to be one of peace and reconciliation or conflict and discord. 46
  46. 46.  Ethnic Groups;  Pashtun  are an Iranic ethnic and the largest ethnic group in Afghanistan. They made up the majority of the Taliban and the current Afghan government.  Tajik  is a general designation for a wide range of Persian- speaking people of Iranic origin, with traditional homelands in present-day Tajikistan, Afghanistan and Uzbekistan. 47
  47. 47.  Hazara  people who mainly live in central Afghanistan. They are overwhelmingly Twelver Shia Muslims and comprise the third largest ethnic group of Afghanistan.  Uzbek  Turkic ethnic group in Afghanistan  Turkmen  Aimaq  Kabuli 48
  48. 48.  Arab  Kyrghyz  Wakhi  Nuristani  The Nuristani people are an Indo-Iranian-speaking ethnic group native to the Nuristan region of eastern Afghanistan.  Brahui  Qizilbash  Jat 49
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  50. 50.  Because of the ethnic grup’s rivals in Afghanistan, security is big problem.  Ethnic minority Tajiks, Uzbeks, and Hazaras in northern Afghanistan opposed to Taliban.  More than 100,000 people died during the civil war that followed the withdrawal of Soviet forces from Afghanistan in 1989, a conflict that broke largely along ethnic lines, among the Pashtuns and the smaller Tajik, Hazara and Uzbek populations.  Taliban is Pashtun group of Islamic. They try to prevail ol of the country.  Taliban remain at war with the Northen Alliance, a loose confederation of anti-Taliban Tajik, Hazara, and Uzbek.  All of the ethnic groups have been known for their brutality and mistrust of other neighboring ethnic groups. 51
  51. 51.  With the rise of cultivation of opiates interests of criminal and insurgents groups in order to get easy financial resources for their activities. Thus drug trade became a main sources of income for those who carry out illegal activities.  For example, mujaheddins that controlled southwestern borders of Afghanistan with Iran and Pakistan, also controlled the major flow of drugs to these countries and further to Europe. While domestic insurgent groups where controlling the drug flow in order to get money for their further continuation of fights, other criminal groups from other countries from which passes Afghan narcotics also tried to get their pie of cake.  The difference of this criminal groups they turned drug trafficking business to get profit, and then through various money laundering schemes try to legalize their incomes.  In addition these organized criminal groups sometimes build very strong networks that most of the time includes corrupted high government officials from several countries. 52
  52. 52.  Usually, most of the states form which Afghan drugs are trafficked, are lack of strong government or ruled by authoritarian leaders, existence of economic, political and social problems and understanding of security in such countries differs from understandings of ‘strong’ states.  For example, Tajikistan that shares 1206 kilometers of common borders with Afghanistan is highly affected by the drugs trafficking. The criminal leaders tried to create instabilities within the country and in the region in order to pursue their interests from drug trading enterprise.  Substantial amount of Afghan narcotics that go to Russian Federation passes through Kazakhstan. In 2005 it reportedly interdicted 14 organized criminal groups that were engaged in drug trafficking. In addition Central Asian states’ borders aren’t so strong and well organized criminal groups continuously try to destabilize situation in order to pursue their interests. 53
  53. 53.  The situation now, even after the end of major conflict, is that drugs, insecurity, “capture” of large parts of the country by regional powerbrokers  Weak capacity of the state (including difficulties in centralizing revenue) contribute to a self-reinforcing “vicious circle” that would keep Afghanistan insecure, fragmented politically, weakly governed, poor, dominated by the informal/illicit economy, and a hostage to the drug industry. 54
  54. 54.  Opium cultivation and trade  Powerless government  Ethnic division  Instability economy  Disagreement with Taliban and government  Relationship with neighbour  Insufficient infrastructure  Old fashioned education system  Human rights 55
  55. 55.  William Byrd, Senior Economic Adviser on Afghanistan at the World Bank  ARSTANBEK ZHOLOCHU TEGİNİ, Hacettepe University, International Relations • http://afghantribes.com/ethnic-groups • CIDOB Policy Research Project • Narco-Jihad: Drug Trafficking and Security in Afghanistan • international Crisisgroup • The Taliban in Afghanistan: Zachary Laub 56
  56. 56.  http://www.historyworld.net • http://afghanistan.saarctourism.org • http://usaid.gov • http://usacac.army.mil • http://www.nato.int • WIKIPADIA • The New York Times • Chief Ajmal Khan Zazai’s Magazine • World Health Organization 57
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