INTRODUCTION OF AFGHANISTAN
HISTORY OF AFGHANISTAN
MATHER WITH AFGHANISTAN
TARADITIONAL AND NON-TRADITIONAL PROBLEMS
THE COMPOSITION OF ETHNIC CONSTRUCTION
ILLICIT DRUG PRODUCTION AND SECURITY
Officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan is a
landlocked country located in South Asia.
It has a population around 31 million people, making it
the 42 st most populous country in the world.
It is bordered by Pakistan in the south and east; Iran in
the west; Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan in
the north; and China in the far northeast. Its territory
covers 652,000 km2 making it the 41st largest country
in the world. Its official language are Darica and
Kabul is taken in 1818 by an Afghan tribe, the Barakzai, led
on this occasion by Dost Mohammed.
By the end of 1840 the Rightful Amir, Dost Mohammed, were
a prisoner of the British. He and his family are sent into exile
During the 1800s generally went under Britania invasion.
In 8 August 1919 end of the Britania war it gained
Daud Khan resigned in 1963 because of tense relations with
Pakistan (the border was closed from 1961 until just after his
The constitution put in place in 1964 transforms Afghanistan
in principle into a constitutional monarchy.
1973 Daud Khan has came back into power and he took
steps to mend fences with Pakistan.
1978 – 79 Daud's government was overthrown (and he and
most of his family killed) by a lef-wing faction within the army
(President of faction was Nur Muhammed Taraki)
1979-1989 Soviet occupation.
1989-1994 Sivil war.
1994-2011 Taliban control.
After 11 September 2001 with ABD attacks NATO has
taken the control.
After 11 September 2001, with attacks of ABD to
Afghanistan conflict starts.
Afghanistan still poses a major threat to the United States
as a potential safe haven for anti-American elements.
Afghanistan, a country at the center of the longest war in
Karzai (at present, Ashraf Ghani Ahmadzai)
government could not take full responsibility for national
There are other problems, lack of security, abject poverty,
negligible government services and a myriad of other
challenges, that affect them on a daily basis.
Invested in only a select few regions of their country over
Taliban could control most of the region and so the
center authority can not control all of the country
Only Kabul is now home to more universities, television
stations and Internet cafes, but the many others were
banned under Taliban rule.
Geopolitical Analysis of Afghanistan
Afghanistan’s strategic position at the crossroads of so
many trade routes has for centuries made it vulnerable
to invasion by distant as well as neighbouring powers,
and this situation persists today.
Because of geopolitical important, Afghanistan
exposured invations many time.
The Army Of Afghanistan
Afghan armed forces to about 260,000.
Despite billions of dollars of international investment,
army combat readiness has been undermined by
weak recruitment and retention policies, inadequate
logistics, insufficient training and equipment and
ISAF was established on the basis of a request for
assistance by the Afghan authorities and under a
United Nations (UN) mandate.
Since August 2003 till 2015 the NATO-led International
Security Assistance Force (ISAF) had been conducting
security operations, while also training and developing
the Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF).
Resolute Support Mission
RSM was launched on 1 January 2015 to provide
further training, advice and assistance for the Afghan
The mission will operate with one central hub (in
Kabul/Bagram) and four spokes in Mazar-e Sharif,
Herat, Kandahar and Laghman.
Governance and Democracy
Afghanistan has drafted a new constitution and
organized presidential, parliamentary.
Unfortunately Afghanistan has not effective
Economy in Afghanistan.
The economy of Afghanistan has improved significantly
since 2002 due to the infusion of billions of US dollars in
international assistance and investments, as well as
remittances from expats. It is also due to dramatic
improvements in agricultural production but in recent
years drought influenced most of the country.
Afghanistan still remains one of the poorest and least
developed countries in the world that is highly dependent
on foreign aid.
Economy in Afghanistan.
About half the population suffer from shortages of housing,
clean drinking water, electricity and employment.
The Government of Afghanistan and international donors have
remained committed to improving access to these basic
necessities by prioritizing infrastructure development,
education, housing development, jobs programs, medical care,
and economic reform over the recent years.
The replacement of the opium trade, which probably makes up
about one-third of the country's GDP, is one of several potential
spoilers for the economy over the long term.
Economy in Afghanistan
Cattle grazing is an important part of Afghan economy.
Afganistan has deposits of coal, copper, barium, sulfur, lead,
zinc, iron ore, salt and emeralds.
Small manufacturers process agricultural products and
produce coton and other fabrics.
Main exports of Afghanistan are fruits, nuts, lambskins,
gemstones and handwoven carpets. The country imports
mainly machinery, manufactured goods, petroleum products
Two separate systems of education exist in Afghanistan.
The older system is a religious one, teach by the mullahs,
who conduct schools in the village mosques. They teach
the religious precepts of the Koran, reading, writing, and
The other system was introduced in Afghanistan's 1964
constitution and provided for free and compulsory
education at all levels.
Afghanistan's health status is one of the worst in the
At the end of the conflict, what was left of the health system
was characterized by: inadequate infrastructures with
dilapidated facilities unevenly distributed across the
country; impaired access to health services due to difficult
communications and poor security; chronic shortage of
skilled health providers (especially female); poor
information system; and weak implementation of the newly
approved national health policy.
This resulted in inefficient coverage and health services
delivery, and NGOs working to some extent independently
from national structures.
Many remote areas of Afghanistan never had much
Decades of war, a harsh climate and neglect left much
of what had been built in rubble.
Most rural villages lacked electricity, running water, or
roads to link them to schools, health clinics and gov-
Without electricity, businesses could not operate
Households had no running water for drinking, cooking
and cleaning, and absence of clean drinking water
posed a major public-health challenge.
Underdeveloped roads hampered movement of goods
to domestic and international markets, and isolated
villages from basic government services, even police
or military protection.
Life in Afghanistan
There are 53 urban centers that range in size from 2500 to
Kabil is the capital and population about 3 million. Other big
cities are Herat, Kandehar, Belh, Celalabat, Kunduz.
In the smaller villages there are no schools, no stores, nor
any representative of the government.
Each village has three sources of authority within it: the
malik (village headman), the mirab (master of the water
distribution), and the mullah (teacher of Islamic laws)
Life in Afghanistan
The men wear long cotton shirts, which hang over their
trousers, and wide sashes around their waists.
The women wear a long loose shirt or a high-bodice dress
with a swirling skirt over their trousers. When urban women
leave their houses they usually wear a burka or shadier, a
long tentlike veil that covers them from head to foot.
Life in Afghanistan
Women in villages seldom wear the burka, and educated
urban women discarded the custom, especially under
Soviet domination where it was regarded as backward.
Village men work in the fields, joined by the women during
the harvest. Older children tend the flocks and look after
the smaller children.
The village mosque is the center of religious life and is
often used as the village guest house.
The biggest security Problem is Taliban:
The Taliban is a predominantly Pashtun, Islamic fundamentalist
group that ruled Afghanistan from 1996 until 2001, when a U.S.-
led invasion toppled the regime for providing refuge to al-Qaeda
and Osama bin Laden.
The Taliban regrouped across the border in Pakistan, where its
central leadership, headed by Mullah Mohammed Omar, leads an
insurgency against the Western-backed government in Kabul.
Both the United States and Afghanistan have pursued a
negotiated settlement with the Taliban, but talks have little
Pakistan supports the Afghanistan Taliban.
India is at war with Pakistan and supports forces in
Afghanistan and Iran who would seek to destabilise
Pakistan. This is very a serious issue.
Taliban militants sanctuary in the country's western tribal
areas in an effort to counter India's influence in
Pakistan's president Pervez Musharraf signed a
controversial peace agreement with seven militant
groups, who call themselves the "Pakistan Taliban."
Pakistan's army agreed to withdraw from the area and
allow the Taliban to govern themselves, as long as
they promise no incursions into Afghanistan or against
İnsufficient and lack of powerful Government:
The neglect of governance, an anaemic legal system
and weak rule of law lie at the root of problems.
Insurgents and criminal elements within the political
elite have as a result been allowed to fill the vacuum
left by the weak Afghan state.
İnsufficient and lack of power Government:
The bilateral security agreement allows about 12.000 U.S.
and NATO military personnel to continue training Afghan
security forces. But Taliban suicide bombers attacked
Afghan army buses in Kabul, underscoring the fragile
Without outside support, the Government would collapse,
the Taliban would control whole of the country and internal
conflict would worsen, increasing the prospects of a return
of the destructive war of the 1990s.
After decades of cultivation and the collapse of legal economic
opportunities, opium is deeply entrenched in the socio-
economic fabric of Afghan society and underlies much of the
country’s economic and power relations.
Many more actors than simply the Taliban participate in the
opium economy, and these actors exist at all social levels.
The longer alternative livelihoods efforts fail to generate
sufficient and sustainable income for poppy farmers, the more
problematic and destabilizing it will be for location elites to
agree to poppy bans and the greater the political capital that
the Taliban will obtain from protecting the poppy fields.
Intense eradication campaign under current
circumstances will likely make it impossible for the
counterinsurgency effort to prevail. Yet, as many other
cases of the nexus between drugs and insurgency and
terrorism show, through greater resources and improved
strategy, counter forces can defeat insurgent groups
deriving substantial income from drugs.
There is the issue of drugs in the country. Afghanistan
produces about 90 percent of the world’s opium.
Afghanistan’s national anthem recognizes 14 ethnic
Most of the larger ones have significantly greater
populations in neighbouring countries.
Maintaining harmony among these groups is one of
the biggest problems confronting Afghanistan today
and a key determinant of whether its future is to be
one of peace and reconciliation or conflict and
are an Iranic ethnic and the largest ethnic group in
Afghanistan. They made up the majority of the Taliban and
the current Afghan government.
is a general designation for a wide range of Persian-
speaking people of Iranic origin, with traditional homelands
in present-day Tajikistan, Afghanistan and Uzbekistan.
people who mainly live in central Afghanistan. They are
overwhelmingly Twelver Shia Muslims and comprise the
third largest ethnic group of Afghanistan.
Turkic ethnic group in Afghanistan
The Nuristani people are an Indo-Iranian-speaking ethnic
group native to the Nuristan region of eastern Afghanistan.
Because of the ethnic grup’s rivals in Afghanistan, security is big problem.
Ethnic minority Tajiks, Uzbeks, and Hazaras in northern Afghanistan
opposed to Taliban.
More than 100,000 people died during the civil war that followed the
withdrawal of Soviet forces from Afghanistan in 1989, a conflict that broke
largely along ethnic lines, among the Pashtuns and the smaller Tajik,
Hazara and Uzbek populations.
Taliban is Pashtun group of Islamic. They try to prevail ol of the country.
Taliban remain at war with the Northen Alliance, a loose confederation of
anti-Taliban Tajik, Hazara, and Uzbek.
All of the ethnic groups have been known for their brutality and mistrust of
other neighboring ethnic groups.
With the rise of cultivation of opiates interests of criminal and insurgents
groups in order to get easy financial resources for their activities. Thus
drug trade became a main sources of income for those who carry out
For example, mujaheddins that controlled southwestern borders of
Afghanistan with Iran and Pakistan, also controlled the major flow of drugs
to these countries and further to Europe. While domestic insurgent groups
where controlling the drug flow in order to get money for their further
continuation of fights, other criminal groups from other countries from
which passes Afghan narcotics also tried to get their pie of cake.
The difference of this criminal groups they turned drug trafficking business
to get profit, and then through various money laundering schemes try to
legalize their incomes.
In addition these organized criminal groups sometimes build very strong
networks that most of the time includes corrupted high government
officials from several countries.
Usually, most of the states form which Afghan drugs are
trafficked, are lack of strong government or ruled by authoritarian
leaders, existence of economic, political and social problems and
understanding of security in such countries differs from
understandings of ‘strong’ states.
For example, Tajikistan that shares 1206 kilometers of common
borders with Afghanistan is highly affected by the drugs
trafficking. The criminal leaders tried to create instabilities within
the country and in the region in order to pursue their interests
from drug trading enterprise.
Substantial amount of Afghan narcotics that go to Russian
Federation passes through Kazakhstan. In 2005 it reportedly
interdicted 14 organized criminal groups that were engaged in
drug trafficking. In addition Central Asian states’ borders aren’t so
strong and well organized criminal groups continuously try to
destabilize situation in order to pursue their interests.
The situation now, even after the end of major conflict, is
that drugs, insecurity, “capture” of large parts of the
country by regional powerbrokers
Weak capacity of the state (including difficulties in
centralizing revenue) contribute to a self-reinforcing
“vicious circle” that would keep Afghanistan insecure,
fragmented politically, weakly governed, poor, dominated
by the informal/illicit economy, and a hostage to the drug
Opium cultivation and trade
Disagreement with Taliban and government
Relationship with neighbour
Old fashioned education system
William Byrd, Senior Economic Adviser on Afghanistan
at the World Bank
ARSTANBEK ZHOLOCHU TEGİNİ, Hacettepe University,
• CIDOB Policy Research Project
• Narco-Jihad: Drug Trafficking and Security in
• international Crisisgroup
• The Taliban in Afghanistan: Zachary Laub
• The New York Times
• Chief Ajmal Khan Zazai’s Magazine
• World Health Organization