Analyzing Gender Discourse in Corporate Blogs
 using Content and Correspondence Analysis
           José Esteves & Víctor ...
Agenda




Introduction
Background
Research Methodology
Findings
Discussion
Di     i


                       IIMA 2008
Introduction



•   Politics and strategies related with gender and diversity.

•   Same opportunities within organization...
Background



Blogs Overview:
              ERP 1
•   One-way communication vs. Bi-directional communication.

•   Corpora...
Research Methodology



 


                                                                                              ...
Data Collection



•   Fortune 100 corporate blogs.

•   Classify Fortune 100 companies according to their communication s...
Data Analysis




•   Corporate blogs posts represented a substantial amount of mostly qualitative
    data.

•   Challeng...
Content Analysis Step



•   Structured Content Analysis is a useful technique to determine the meaning
    and effectiven...
Correspondence Analysis Step



•   Correspondence Analysis consists of the analysis of cross-classified
    categorical, ...
Findings


 Words       Man    Woman       Son    Daughter    Dad     Mom      Boy      Wife
   Car        16       15    ...
CA table considering Fortune 100 related with
                    specific gender roles.

Company      Man   Woman   Son  ...
Findings



Positioning of gender roles
and topics in dimensions 1
          and 2.




                                  ...
Findings




Positioning of gender roles
and topics in dimensions 1
          and 3.




                                 ...
Findings




Positioning of companies
  and gender roles in
  dimensions 1 and 2.




                                    ...
Findings




Positioning f
P iti i of companies  i
  and gender roles in
  dimensions 1 and 3.




                       ...
Discussion



•   The rationale behind our analysis is to consider gender as a social process.
    Hence, organizations ca...
Theoretical Contribution




                                              Job and career
                          Women
...
Theoretical Contribution




•   Past
    P t research h di i i h d th i
               h has diminished the importance of...
Discussion




•   This line of discourse follows the new vision of contemporary managers.

•   Contemporary managers are ...
Implications for researchers




•   Additionally, to the above theoretical contributions, it is important to highlight
  ...
Implications for practitioners



•   Organizations should understand their role in society as a form of gender
    identi...
Directions for Further Research




•    Test this exploratory theory using a larger sample and a more traditional
     ap...
Thanks!

Questions?
Q    i ?


             IIMA 2008
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Analyzing Gender Discourse in Corporate Blogs

  1. 1. Analyzing Gender Discourse in Corporate Blogs using Content and Correspondence Analysis José Esteves & Víctor Bohórquez Instituto de Empresa Business School, Madrid, Madrid Spain IIMA 2008
  2. 2. Agenda Introduction Background Research Methodology Findings Discussion Di i IIMA 2008
  3. 3. Introduction • Politics and strategies related with gender and diversity. • Same opportunities within organizations. • Proliferation of research studies related with how sexes differ in a variety of ways in an organizational environment (e.g. Calas and Jacques, 1988). • S Sociologists recognize that gender is an institutionalized system of social g g g y practices (Ridgeway and Correll 2000). • According to the traditional gender stereotypes (Öngen 2006): (Öngen, • Men: independent, competitive, assertive, aggressive, and masters of the environment. • Women: nurturing passive dependent warm and not aggressive nurturing, passive, dependent, warm, aggressive. IIMA 2008
  4. 4. Background Blogs Overview: ERP 1 • One-way communication vs. Bi-directional communication. • Corporate blogging. p gg g • Companies have to take advantage of this new communication tool to reach their target audience with the right message according to the objectives of the company. • Bloggers bypass the corporate media gatekeepers to say and show practically anything they could think of to tens of millions of computer users around the world world. IIMA 2008
  5. 5. Research Methodology   Gender roles  Gender roles vs.  Topics Gender Fortune 100  Discourse i Di in  Communication Content  Correspondence Companies Corporate Tool Analysis Analysis Blogs World Companies vs.  Related Topics Gender roles Communication Strategy What Role? What topics? Relationships? Perceptual Maps? IIMA 2008
  6. 6. Data Collection • Fortune 100 corporate blogs. • Classify Fortune 100 companies according to their communication strategy and discourse shown in their corporate blogs. • Sample: 17 corporate blogs from the Fortune 100. • Periods analyzed: 2004-2007. y • Topics analyzed: related with gender. Despite that this is a small number of corporate blogs; our sample covers the complete population of the current corporate blogs in Fortune 100 companies. companies IIMA 2008
  7. 7. Data Analysis • Corporate blogs posts represented a substantial amount of mostly qualitative data. • Challenge: Identification of the main gender issues which could be used in formulating a theory. • The Th analysis was di id d i t steps: l i divided in two t • Content Analysis. • Correspondence Analysis. IIMA 2008
  8. 8. Content Analysis Step • Structured Content Analysis is a useful technique to determine the meaning and effectiveness of this information to its users and the research community. • Collect all the posts and comments done in our sample of Fortune 100 corporate blogs. • TextAnalyst software (Megacomputer, 2003) to obtain words frequency. • Identify the relative importance of the words and word combinations in the document being analyzed. • Based on words frequency, we have identified specific gender roles in the organization discourse and we obtained also their related topics considering related words with higher frequencies frequencies. IIMA 2008
  9. 9. Correspondence Analysis Step • Correspondence Analysis consists of the analysis of cross-classified categorical, ordinal or mixed data to portray patterns of associations among row ro and col mn objects mapping that correspondence in a joint space column objects, (Greenacre, 1984) and producing a visual representation of the relationships between the row categories and the column categories in the same space; therefore, f ili i i understanding. h f facilitating its d di • According to Remenyi (1992), there are two important results in this step: inertia report and perceptual map. • Inertia is defined as a measure of the total variability in the original data set y g and is useful to determine the number of dimensions required to explain the original data set. • Perceptual map shows the relative position of the different concepts and the different participating informants (in this case the corporate blogs of Fortune 100). IIMA 2008
  10. 10. Findings Words Man Woman Son Daughter Dad Mom Boy Wife Car 16 15 6 5 5 7 6 13 Child 10 56 - 6 12 10 - 12 College - 9 6 10 - 0 - - Community - 8 - - - 9 - - Company 7 46 7 - - 7 12 6 Customer - 11 - - - 5 - - Family F il - 18 - 7 7 16 - 9 Life 6 16 - 9 - 5 - 8 Money y 12 6 6 7 - 5 - 7 Office - 7 - - - 0 - 5 System - - 6 - - 6 - - Vehicle - 9 - - - - - 5 Correspondence table considering words related with specific gender roles. IIMA 2008
  11. 11. CA table considering Fortune 100 related with specific gender roles. Company Man Woman Son Daughter Dad Mom Boy Wife Boeing - 10 - - - - - - Cisco - 22 13 12 9 8 - 13 Dell - 34 31 29 15 21 26 54 Ford 19 43 9 - 11 - - 13 General - 6 - - - - - - Electric GM 31 85 19 18 44 19 39 74 Honeywell - - 6 - - 12 6 - HP - - - - - 4 - - IBM - - 9 - - 0 - - Intel 7 8 - - - 0 - - Johnson - - - - - 0 - - Control Microsoft - - 16 - - 0 - 20 Motorola - 43 - - - 0 3 - Sprint - - - - - - - - Nextel Time - 19 19 - - 11 29 - Warner Verizon - 6 - - 7 - 7 10 Wellsfargo 24 43 20 18 19 19 19 26 IIMA 2008
  12. 12. Findings Positioning of gender roles and topics in dimensions 1 and 2. IIMA 2008
  13. 13. Findings Positioning of gender roles and topics in dimensions 1 and 3. IIMA 2008
  14. 14. Findings Positioning of companies and gender roles in dimensions 1 and 2. IIMA 2008
  15. 15. Findings Positioning f P iti i of companies i and gender roles in dimensions 1 and 3. IIMA 2008
  16. 16. Discussion • The rationale behind our analysis is to consider gender as a social process. Hence, organizations can contribute to shape gender identity identity. • Compared with previous studies, we have identified enactments of non- traditional gender identities and behaviors behaviors. • This reversal may occur because: • G d Gender stereotypes may simply b weaker and l t t i l be k d less t diti l traditional participants are simply reacting to them by behaving in a counter stereotypical manner (Dijksterhuis et al., 1998; Kray et al., 2001). • Might be this is a gender communication strategy (see our theoretical contribution). IIMA 2008
  17. 17. Theoretical Contribution Job and career Women role salience Gender Stereotype Shift Work and family Men role salience IIMA 2008
  18. 18. Theoretical Contribution • Past P t research h di i i h d th i h has diminished the importance of j b and career salience f t f job d li for women compared to family role salience (Marcinkus and Hamilton, 2006). • They suggest that women experience a high important pressure to conform or disassociate from traditional gender roles in order to reach their identity. • The main theoretical issue here is to identify how much of political discourse is within this new vision or whether it is a real change in gender vision. IIMA 2008
  19. 19. Discussion • This line of discourse follows the new vision of contemporary managers. • Contemporary managers are required to be caring and relationship-oriented. • The Th traditional masculine/feminine hi di i l li /f i i hierarchy of l i / h f logic/emotion i b i i is being reshaped by the imperative to be ‘passionate’ in the workplace (Hatcher, 2003). • From a conceptual perspective it will be interesting to evaluate if this new g gender discourse focuses more on changing the masculine vision of g g management to a ‘feminization of management’ (Rosener, 1990), or in fact, it attempts to establish a new real gender culture within organizations. IIMA 2008
  20. 20. Implications for researchers • Additionally, to the above theoretical contributions, it is important to highlight the research methodology used. • Content analysis is useful to analyze documents manuscripts speeches or any documents, manuscripts, type of communication. • However, th challenge th f d i th analysis of th d t i such a way t H the h ll then faced is the l i f the data in h to establish principal concepts which could be used in formulating a theory. • Correspondence analysis helps to identify clusters and to gain a greater understanding of the data. IIMA 2008
  21. 21. Implications for practitioners • Organizations should understand their role in society as a form of gender identity and that this new communication channel (corporate blogs) brings benefits but also some hindrances. • It is very critical to analyze and identify the message and discourse that these companies want to share and disseminate. • Ambiguous messages may cause wrong i t A bi interpretations of corporate t ti f t discourses. • Companies should analyze their discourses not only in their corporate blogs but also in the traditional media to convey the message that promoting non- discrimination, diversity and inclusion is a corner stone in their y communication’s strategy. IIMA 2008
  22. 22. Directions for Further Research • Test this exploratory theory using a larger sample and a more traditional approach incorporating a survey and statistical measures measures. • Conduct in-depth interviews with people in charge of corporate blogs to explore the motivations of their creation and b l h i i f h i i d better understand their d d h i communication purpose from a gender perspective. • If the suggested trend in our findings is confirmed, where companies are changing their attitudes because in their discourses they relate women roles with topics such as CEO, corporation, education, business and so on: p , p , , Do the rest of Fortune 100 companies and other companies like SMEs will adopt this attitude to follow Fortune 100 companies with blogs? IIMA 2008
  23. 23. Thanks! Questions? Q i ? IIMA 2008

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