Successfully reported this slideshow.

Effectiveness of online advertsiment on students in zambia

1

Share

Upcoming SlideShare
MY PROJECT WORK
MY PROJECT WORK
Loading in …3
×
1 of 57
1 of 57

Effectiveness of online advertsiment on students in zambia

1

Share

Download to read offline

This is a case study of Mulungushi University written in partial fulfillment of a Bachelors Degree in Information Technology.

Email: mishechchindele@gmail.com

This is a case study of Mulungushi University written in partial fulfillment of a Bachelors Degree in Information Technology.

Email: mishechchindele@gmail.com

More Related Content

Related Books

Free with a 14 day trial from Scribd

See all

Effectiveness of online advertsiment on students in zambia

  1. 1. 0 MULUNGUSHI UNIVERSITY ‘A Final Report for the project submitted in partial fulfilment of the Mulungushi University Bachelor’s Degree’ Research Title: EFFECTIVENESS OF INTERNET ADVERTISING ON STUDENT IN ZAMBIA. CASE STUDY: Mulungushi university Name : MESHACH CHINDELE Student ID : 201405785 Bachelor Programme : BIT Supervisor : DR. C. CHEMBE Submission Date : 4TH JUNE, 2018
  2. 2. 1 DECLARATION I, MESHACH CHINDELE the signatory here does declare that the Effectiveness of Internet Advertising on student in developing countries (Zambia) is my own work and that there has not been any submission for any degree or examination in any other university, and that all the sources I have used or quoted have been indicated and acknowledged by complete references. I understand that failure to attribute material which is obtained from another source may be considered plagiarism. Author: Chindele Meshach Supervisor: Dr. C. Chembe Date: June 4, 2018 Date: 4th June, 2018 Signature……………………….… Signature……………………….… i
  3. 3. 2 DEDICATION This project is dedicated to my parents Mr. and Mrs. Innocent Chindele Katuya who greatly influenced my decision to purse a Bachelor’s Degree in Information Technology. To the rest of THE family for the support they have given me to make it easier for me to study from first year till this point. ii
  4. 4. 3 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I thank God for making it possible for me to reach this far, my ever-supporting parents and brothers and sisters. I would like to acknowledge my Supervisors Dr. C. Chembe and Mr. S. Mwanei, who has been helpful mentor. Their enduring encouragement and practical advice have been an immeasurable source of knowledge and support for me during this process. I would also like to thank all lecturers in the school of Science Engineering and Technology for their knowledge, advice and feedback for whom I would not be where I am now. iii
  5. 5. 4 ABSTRACT The size and scope of online advertising is expanding significantly. Organizations are spending more on online advertising than before. Understanding the factors that influence online advertising effectiveness is critical. An internet broadcast model is what many major advertisers have been waiting for. They want to make Internet advertising more like TV broadcasting. As a matter of fact, they need to improve it more than TV broadcasting: all visuals effect of ordinary broadcast with the extra value of interactivity. The objective of advertisers is to make their advertisements more involving. Interactive advertising enables customers to become more involved because they initiate most of the action Experiences during this interaction will drive mark states of mind. The purpose of this study is to analyze different types of online advertising and explore how online advertisements affect consumers purchasing behavior. Information and communications of new technologies, has created the intelligence community and rise this community has put a particular conditions facing the audience. One of proposed fields is commercial advertising. Commercial advertising Brokers are trying beside use of the symbols, colors combination, with emphasis on principles and practices of internet advertising to use of the latest communication and media technologies for products present, to attract the audience than a product or service. They are trying to communicate with a wider audience that are familiar with their favorite through different ways and currently are trying to advertise products with this operational. Important factor in successful marketing and advertising strategies is an understanding of consumer behavior. Consumer behavior involves people and what they purchase, why and how to their purchase and market. The development of the Internet as a new media in communication and advertising realm, has prompted researchers to carry out research in this field that two commonly used strategies include awareness and entertainment strategies and each of them will be selected depending on product complexity and customer behavior. That is, it is important to identify customers and consumer’s behaviors on Internet advertising. This study aims to analyze and test the effect of online advertising on consumer attitudes and purchase interest online, a survey conducted on students of Internet users. The study was iv
  6. 6. 5 conducted on students of public and private universities of Zambia. Dimensions interactivity of online advertising provides the highest influence on the attitudes and interests of consumers purchasing online. Understanding the consumer behavioral factors that influence e-marketing effectiveness is crucial. While some researchers have addressed this issue, few studies draw their conclusions focusing on the customers’ angle. More also is the fact that the study of the developing countries in this regards have been lesser than expected. The work seeks to validate empirically, while analyzing Zambian firm engaging in internet marketing, the impact of the same on consumers’ purchase behavior. The survey research used a structured questionnaire to draw data from individuals in Zambia. v
  7. 7. 6 Table of Contents DECLARATION ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ i DEDICATION -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ii ACKNOWLEDGEMENT------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------iii ABSTRACT -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------iv DEFINITIONS OF KEY TERMS ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 8 1.0 CHAPTER ONE ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 9 1.1 Introduction ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 9 1.2 Background------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 10 1.3 Statement of the Problem ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 11 1.4 Aim and objectives -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 11 Aims---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 11 Objectives -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 11 1.5 Significance of the Study ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 12 1.6 Research Hypotheses ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 12 1.7 Scope of the study and limitations------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 13 Limitation ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 13 Scope 13 AIMS OF ADVERTISING------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 14 ADVERTISING STRATEGIES AND PROMOTIONS ONLINE -------------------------------------------- 15 Issues in online advertising------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 17 1.8 Thesis Outline--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 19 CHAPTER TWO-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 20 2.0 Literature review ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 20 2.1 Conclusion ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 23 CHAPTER THREE ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 24 DATA COLLECTION ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 24 PRIMARY DATA ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 24 SECONDARY DATA-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 24 METHODS OF SPREADING THE QUESTIONNAIRES ------------------------------------------------------ 25 RELIABILITY OF RESULT AND EVALUATION -------------------------------------------------------------- 25 Data Analysis Approach ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 25 Sample ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 25
  8. 8. 7 3.0 Methodology----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 26 THE PROCESS OF AIDA------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 27 CHAPTER FOUR ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 34 4.0 DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS---------------------------------------------------------------- 34 Survey results ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 34 Demographic Variables------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 34 CHAPTER FIVE-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 41 5.0 DISCUSSION--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 41 Website Characteristics and its effects on shopping habits------------------------------------------------------ 42 CONCLUSION ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 47 6.0 CHAPTER SIX------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 49 6.1 Main learning outcome -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 49 6.3 Future recommendations------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 50 REFERENCES ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 51
  9. 9. 8 DEFINITIONS OF KEY TERMS Consumers – actual and potential customers who may buy an advertised product or service Internet - applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web 2.0, and that allow the creation and exchange of user generated content” (Kaplan & Haenlein, 2010). Internet marketing – marketing through the use of social media or social networking sites. Internet marketing techniques often exist to increase brand awareness, increase sales, improve customer service, and implement marketing campaigns (Mangold & Faulds, 2009). Marketing - research conducted by Reijonen (2010) found that from a business general point of view, marketing can be described as “a means to inform the customer about the firm, its products, and services.” Businesses believe marketing is also interested in creating and maintaining customer relationships. Consumer Behavior - Consumer behavior is a psychology process during which consumers know their needs, find ways to estimate, adopt the purchasing decisions, analysis and planning to data and will run the program. (Perner 2008). Awareness - Extent to which a brand is recognized by potential customers, and is correctly associated with a particular product. Entertainment - is a form of activity that holds the attention and interest of an audience, or gives pleasure and delight.
  10. 10. 9 1.0 CHAPTER ONE 1.1 Introduction Browsing is a continuous activity a client performs on a website, be it a news site, a blog, or a social system; similarly visit is the presentation of clients to online advertisement, which is likely to be the most important income hotspot for such a site. Advertisement, in any case, is additionally a factor that irritates browsing forms that visitors participate in. From a client perspective, adverts can both provide additional channels for satisfying informational or emotional needs In the present social media driven environment, it is essential that businesses comprehend the importance of internet in advertising their items and services. The Internet has undeniable benefits in the two its applications and number of clients because of its unique characteristics of flexibility, interactivity, and personalization. Internet advertising, additionally alluded to as online advertising or online marketing or web advertising, is a type of marketing and advertising which utilizes the internet to deliver promotional marketing messages to consumers. This strategy for advertising hugy affects consumer behavior and the consumer buying design, for instance, a few businesses utilize social media, for example, Facebook and Twitter to advertise their items using internet. In this manner, understanding the consumer behavior is a vital part of marketing. Consumer behavior is the investigation of how individuals settle on decisions about what they purchase, what they need or act as to an item or service of organization or business. This is on account of a consumer's buying behavior is characterized by social, social, individual and psychological components. The vast majority of these influences are wild and past the hands of advertisers, however they must be considered while trying to comprehend the unpredictable behavior of the consumers. According to Solomon (1995, 7) "consumer is the investigation of the procedures involved when individuals or gatherings select, buy, utilize, or dispose of items, services, ideas, or experiences to satisfy needs and desires."
  11. 11. 10 According to the ongoing examination on consumer behavior on the Internet clients (Cotte, Chowdhury, Ratenshwar and Ricci, 2006), there are four distinct consumer groups with different intentions and motivations: i. Exploration ii. Entertainment iii. Shopping iv. Information Majority of young adults interviewed for purpose of this research tend to be active information seekers. A high level of technological confidence within this group tends to be an encouraging factor when it comes to product information research online. Online advertising is a type of mass communication which is based on traditional form of advertising but develops its own communication strategies in correlation with the new technical and medium based requirements. Broadly, online advertising is about delivering advertisements to Internet/online users via Web sites, e-mail, ad-supported software and Internet-enabled smart phones Examples of online advertising include contextual ads on search engine result pages, banner ads, Rich Media Ads, Social network advertising, interstitial ads, online classified advertising, advertising networks and e-mail marketing, including e-mail spam etc. 1.2 Background The Internet has existed since the late 1960s when a limited number of computers were connected in the United States from the Advanced Research Project Agency (ARPA). This was used mainly to enable academics and military personnel to exchange defense information (Chaffey, et al., 2000:10). Until the advent of the World Wide Web in 1990, the Internet was almost absolutely unfamiliar outside universities and corporate research departments and was reachable mostly via command line interfaces such as Telnet and File Transfer Protocol (FTP). Griffiths (2002:2) indicates that the recent dramatic growth in the use of the Internet has occurred because of the development of the World Wide Web. The World Wide Web
  12. 12. 11 changed the Internet from a difficult-to use tool for academics and specialists to an easy-to- use tool for discovery of information for businesses and consumers. On October 27, 1994, the world of advertising was forever transformed by a small graphic bearing the convincing words, "Have you ever clicked your mouse right here? You will," in a kitschy rainbow font. The age of banner ads had officially begun. In 1995 the banner ads continuously gained popularity, advertisers became increasingly interested in targeting specific consumer demographics, rather than just placing their ads wherever space was offered and wanting the right people to see it. This led to the beginning of targeted ad settlement. 1.3 Statement of the Problem Businesses are spending more on advertisement and partaking in online marketing than ever before. Understanding marketing framework and the consumer behavioural factors that influence e-marketing effectiveness is crucial. Even though business companies are spending more on advertisement they are not doing much in research of their brand awareness, eventually the target audience does not know the brand. Advertising mission is to make the brand the best known to the target group 1.4 Aim and objectives Aims The aim of the study is to establish the value of internet advertising on consumer behavior and to understand the role of online advertising in business. The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of internet advertising on consumer behavior. A case study of Zambia is presented, followed by an in-depth interview with some business owners, and the results of the case study are analyzed to find out the effectiveness of internet advertising in building and maintaining relationships with consumers. Objectives  To investigate about online advertising in Zambia  Investigate the use of Online Advertising in Zambia  To investigate the reaction of consumers on the adverts they receive whilst online
  13. 13. 12 1.5 Significance of the Study 1) The study will benefit marketers and businesses. This study may be able to inform advertisers on the consumer preference of the advertising media and whether by means of Internet adverting would be effective in reaching and increasing awareness of the target viewers. Before familiarizing marketing practices to the Internet, it is vital to recognize the characteristics of the online customers towards online advertising as would be exposed by this research. 2) The Internet has grown in popularity as an advertising medium because, among other things, it allows 24-hour interactivity between the advertiser and customer. It is vital for local businesses to look into internet advertising as more consumers turn to the internet for their purchasing. A small business that can offer online purchasing may be able to tap into this customer base. 3) The government from this study, would understand the value of Internet advertising and its influence on consumer choices which eventually influences electronic commerce, hence efficiently regulating how internet advertising is carried out by acting reasonably on laws that would limit data usage, making an ambient environment. 4) For scholars and academic researchers, the current study forms a basis upon which future research on Internet Advertising may be established. The findings may be resourceful in providing feasible information to academicians, researchers and consumers on various concepts related to internet advertising. 1.6 Research Hypotheses H0: There is correlation between gender and advertisement characteristic H1: There is no correlation between gender and advertisement characteristic.
  14. 14. 13 1.7 Scope of the study and limitations Limitation The first limitation of this study is that the extensive and complex phenomenon of “effectiveness of internet advertising on student” has been studied from a rather narrow empirical perspective of a small population of students. This has made it difficult to draw a general conclusive picture (in relation to Zambia) as far as the ‘human’ sample population is concerned. The second limitation is that data collection through interviews was limited to the short period from June to August 2011. This period proved hard for most mainstream media and other government departments to avail me persons that I could interview. In addition to having returned to Norway from Zambia, it was not possible for me to make follow-up visits to these institutions for more data collection or clarifications. I had to depend on communicating with my respondents using the phone, Facebook, twitter and emails. Sampling a closed population: You have a list of email addresses for the population (for example, lists of company employees, university staff members, or magazine subscribers) that you take a sample from, and they are then sent the web survey link Scope The study investigated into the usefulness of internet in advertising on consumer behavior in marketing goods and services by businesses.
  15. 15. 14 AIMS OF ADVERTISING To Remind the Customers When the advertiser gives advertisement second time or repeatedly its objective is not to inform first time to create awareness but to remind regarding the first advertisement. Further, when the company is interested to inform its existing customers regarding its products or services already existing in market is to remind the customers. They should not forget the offers of the advertisers. This helps in keeping update knowledge of the customers regarding products availability in the markets. Most of the companies are giving advertisement with this objective in market competitive situation. To Persuade Customers The advertiser is giving advertisements with the interest to remind them repeatedly so that it would become difficult for them to avoid advertisement. One-day sooner or later they have to pay attention and agree for the products of the company. The efforts are to make them agree for buying the products or service of the company. The objective is to persuade them for the desired action. Only thing is that if time taken by the customer to get persuade is longer than it may be costly for the advertiser due to repeated advertisements for longer period. To Retain Existing Customers Another objective of advertising is to retain the existing customers. The company is interested to keep its existing customers regarding products attributes, new changes, improvements etc. They should continue with their products and should not change over to the products of their competitors. It is very easy to lose a customer but difficult to retain a customer. In markets, the companies are putting their sincere efforts in advertising with the objective to keep their customers well intact. With retaining the customers, the company can sustain its sales, profits and market shares. To Neutralize Competition In markets the companies are facing stiff competition in most of the areas. It has become very difficult for them to carry out their business effectively and efficiently. It is a matter of survival, growth, stabilize and excel in their business. Every competitor is putting sincere
  16. 16. 15 efforts to taken the advantage. For fighting this situation, the advertisers are giving advertisements with the objectives to keep them in the race in the market. Therefore, the objective of advertising given is to neutralize competition effect. From the situation of the market, it has been observed that the objectives of the companies are not same all the times. These vary from time to time. But the objectives are out of the above mentioned objectives individually or in combination. ADVERTISING STRATEGIES AND PROMOTIONS ONLINE Social Media Marketing An excess of sources (Gaikwad & Kate, 2016); Kingsnorth, 2017; Patrutiu Baltes, 2016; Piñeiro-Otero & Martínez-Rolán, 2016; Slade, 2016; Vien, 2015; Wienclaw, 2017; Zimmer, 2017) within the body of literature points to Social Media Marketing as being a powerful marketing tool. Social networking through an online community allows users to communicate with each other. The social networking platform allows marketing between individuals or organizations to be facilitated through online information post and messaging (Zimmer, 2017). Wienclaw (2017) cited Kaplan & Haenlien (2010) definition of social media as “a group of Internet-based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web 2.0 and that allow creation and exchange of user-generated content (p.4).” Piñeiro-Otero & Martínez-Rolán (2016) commented in his work that social media is an amazing method used to establish communication between members through dynamic exchanges. Gaikwad & Kate (2016) elaborated on the importance of social media in marketing by drawing an adjacent link between social media and word of mouth marketing. Patrutiu Baltes (2016) cited Bafton (2012) recollection per Fleishman-Hillard, that 79% of consumers follow or like their brands on social media. Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, YouTube, Instagram and Pinterest were named by Patrutiu Baltes (2016), as well-known and regularly-used social media platforms. Slade (2016) gave insight that companies benefit from setting aside a social media marketing budget, to finance using premium services offered on social media. Social media advertising covers those advertising activities which advertisers engage in on social me-dia. It includes classic ads placed in social media and influencer advertising. This uses influencers whose blogs, posts and videos appear on YouTube, Instagram or Facebook
  17. 17. 16 to drive ad messages. In-fluencers are people whose comments younger Internet users in particular read and rate highly, and whom advertisers use to deliver their ad messages. E-mail Marketing The literature review revealed that a digital marketing strategy called E-mail marketing. Piñeiro-Otero & Martínez-Rolán (2016) defined E-mail marketing as an online system, using e-mail to distribute announcements and commercial information. E-mail marketing is a strategy that allows a business or organization to reach a large customer-base through the distribution of messages and information using an electronic messaging tool (Zimmer, 2017). Weinclaw (2017) pointed out that theoretically, E-mail marketing is a simplistic concept. The distribution of coupons, online newsletters, promotional events and advertising materials are among methods of email marketing. Gaikwad & Kate (2016) brought the term E-mail marketing into focus, by presenting thoughts that every E-mail directed toward a prospective customer could be viewed as email marketing. Search advertising is the term used when ads are placed alongside search results based on a term keyed into a search engine like Google or Bing. It involves the placement of bookable ads (often text) either in a sidebar to the right of or above the actual (so-called organic) search results. Google’s product is called AdWords, Microsoft’s Bing Ads. Search advertising is particularly interesting for advertisers because users have already indicated a concrete interest when making their search query, enabling ads to be tailored specifically to a certain group of Internet users. Search-based online advertising is especially suited to enticing users to buy a specific product. Search engine optimisation (SEO) is related to search engine advertising. Advertisers use SEO to get their own website as high on the list of organic results as possible. It covers all those methods which improve a site’s positioning in a search engine’s unpaid organic results lists. These include optimising the content of individual subpages of a website, incorporating the most appropriate keywords and other metadata, or keeping the volume of data to be transferred when a page is viewed to a minimum.
  18. 18. 17 Mobile advertising refers to advertising which is specially designed to be displayed on smartphones, that is optimised for a smaller screen and other specific features particular to mobile use. Ads placed on mobile devices as part of an installed app may use additional user data such as location and con-tact data to adjust and control the delivered ad as required. Issues in online advertising The main problem related to this is the interference of online advertisements in the work of people and the fear of falling prey to online advertising fraud and malpractice. As people get more accustomed to finding product information on the web, more and more readers will actively seek out Internet advertising sites. Advertisers often refer to online advertising platforms like those run by Google and Facebook as walled gardens, that is closed platforms or systems on which producers or operators impose user restrictions. It is claimed that walled gardens deny users deeper insights into the platforms. That is why these advertising platforms are less transparent for advertisers, the claim goes, which makes it more difficult to independently measure advertising coverage or impact, for instance. Some claim that data collected during advertising campaigns cannot be exported from these systems and that it will also be much harder to combat ad fraud. In addition, walled gardens are accused of prioritizing their own inventory on their own platforms, although that is hard to make out given that the plat-forms are closed to third parties. Ad fraud occurs when computer programs (bots) generate fictitious traffic on websites with embedded ads or automatically generate clicks on banners. In both cases ads are delivered which no-one actually sees and which are then invoiced to the advertiser. Other types of fraud involve the masking of URLs (domains) and the manipulation of sites on which the invoiced ads are not even displayed to users. Ad fraud causes the advertising companies financial losses because they pay for ad delivery although the ads never actually reach the intended audience. The digital market research firm Juniper Research has calculated that ad fraud will cost advertisers a total of 19 billion dollars globally in 2018. This is said to be due above all to the growth in programmatic advertising and the lack of transparency of walled gardens, where
  19. 19. 18 closed platforms restrict the flow of advertising performance data and thus make it more problematic or even impossible to control ad delivery. An ad blocker is a program which runs automatically in the background to ensure that ads placed on websites are not displayed to users. The use of ad blockers has a direct impact on the success of online advertising, to which the advertising industry has responded in various ways. Some advertisers are using technical means to counter ad blockers: website operators simply exclude users who enable ad blockers. On the other hand, the increased use of ad blockers can lead to advertisers not using particularly intrusive ads and developing forms of advertising which users are more likely to accept. This could reduce the incentive to use ad blockers. The debate around ad blocking will likely have a key role to play in future as the new generation of browsers like Google Chrome and Apple Safari will incorporate ad blocking technology. Google plans to introduce an ad blocker on its browser which is set on by default. Apple has announced that its updated Safari suppresses the auto play function for videos, which is regarded as particularly intrusive, and ad targeting. Brand safety refers to the placing of ads in an attractive environment relevant to the advertiser. In particular, placing real-time ads can lead to ads appearing on inappropriate websites (e.g. political platforms or gambling sites) or in an inappropriate editorial context. This can be detrimental to the advertising message or even harmful to the advertiser’s brand. There have been calls for fully automated solutions to be able to control programmatic advertising. Against the background of brand safety, Google’s and YouTube’s advertising clients are to be given more control and transparency as regards which third-party sites are displaying their ads.
  20. 20. 19 1.8 Thesis Outline The research will be organized in five chapters as follows: chapter one will constitute the updated research proposal; Chapter one present introduction and background of the study Chapter two present literature review Chapter three contain the methodology Chapter four be data presentation and analysis Chapter five contain the summary, Chapter six contains conclusion and recommendations of the research study. References
  21. 21. 20 CHAPTER TWO 2.0 Literature review Internet advertising is still in development stage in Zambia and very few studies have undertaken research exploring effectiveness of internet advertising on student in Zambia. Although there has been a scarcity of internet advertising related studies in Zambian context, imaginary exploration can be based on various international studies carried out in other countries. Online advertising Ha (2017) defines online advertising as deliberate messages placed on third- party web sites including search engines and directories available through Internet access. The author adds that online advertising can be categorized into a variety of functions including creating awareness, attractiveness and visual image and slogans. Firms and brands on Facebook should have in mind that consumers rely heavily on average ratings (de Langhe, 2016). Most important for marketers and firms would be the study of Hamilton (2014), it shows that user generated content in form of reviews can affect the willingness to pay of consumers. Being active on Facebook for firms and brands means not just pushing communications to the consumers. 93% are interactions with consumers but most of the firms are still focusing on pushing communications (Schultz and Peltier, 2013; Kerns, 2016). That means brands and firms should comment on consumer content on Facebook and maybe share important user generated-content with the other followers. Sharing more content to consumers means that there is a greater chance to catch them (Barger, Peltier and Schultz, 2016). Facebook is a Social Network Site that has been the most important social phenomenon of the last ten years. Almost two billion people (Kallas, 2017) are known to use it around the globe every day. Businesses are interested in exchanging information, trading products or services, connecting to current and potential customers, ensuring a better understanding of targeted customers and business benefits offered by Facebook. It should be noted, however, that Facebook is not a substitute for the traditional marketing media but it’s a complement to the existing systems.
  22. 22. 21 Furthermore, every kind of organization, association and team can post information or display advertisements. There are not only companies with the purpose to market products or services to increase the turnover. Social or donation organisations, sport clubs, universities or at least private persons organizing parties use the opportunity of Facebook to reach a wide range of users (Rawee, 2016). Every brand page can create endless events and invite whoever they want. Often people underestimate the effect of this kind of marketing because it is free (Rawee, 2016). Private persons can sell clothes, electronic devices or event tickets. The use of Online Advertising in Zambia Creating awareness is the primary role of advertising such as communicating to target consumers on products, services, experiences, ideas, and so forth, offered by the companies (Manickam, 2014). Online advertisements outperform the print advertisements because the web’s vividness and interactivity characteristics cater for differences in how advertisements are processed in the two media (Belanche, Flavián, & Pérez-Rueda, 2017). Compared to print, the authors add that online advertising offers more stimuli and could thus potentially effectively create brand awareness and keep the user’s attention and interest longer. Advertising is the primary revenue stream for many of the ‘‘free’’ services provided to Internet users (Castro, 2012) and is essential to the continued economic sustainability of many services, such as email, news and search engines. According to Jacques, Perry and Kristensson (2015), online advertising networks may offer advice to advertisers on how to best present their products or services. For instance, in order to help publishers maximize their return from the online program Google offers suggestions to publishers to customize the colors and fonts of adverts to match the website’s ‘look and feel.’ In addition to colors and fonts, the location of an advert is also considered an important factor in user recognition. Rastogi and Khan, (2015) agree that advertising on the Internet has the dual benefit of being generally more efficient and effective compared to other media channels. According to the authors, the effectiveness of creating brand and product awareness through online advertising, for instance can be measured using a variety of tracking methods through
  23. 23. 22 which advertiser can tell, for example, who clicked on their online advert and therefore determine how many consumers are aware of their product or service. On the other hand, Soukup (2014) focused on social media usage but more specifically YouTube. He argues that YouTube is a massive platform that can be used for multiple purposes such as advertisements, archival work, education, entertainment, journalism, political communication, art and culture, religion, healthcare, military, fandom, interpersonal communication, and observation. Because this platform is so diverse, the author argues that communication theories will need to be re-constructed to analyze this platform that is constantly evolving. Attitude refers to the way someone thinks or feels about something and also to the manner, and disposition on the subject (Oxford Dictionaries, 2013). Attitude influences the mental position that the person will take on a certain matter and the behavior that follows it. Essentially, one’s state of mind and the behavior that arises because of this state is what is referred to as their attitude Online advertising and customer behavior change The authors Li and Lo (2014) analyzed the effects of the ad length, positioning, and context congruity in an online video advertising context. The study found that ad length did have an effect in brand recognition, where the longer ads were more recognized and memorable. The study also found that if the advertisement was related to the video the user was about to observe, the brand recognition and effectiveness increased. Overall, the study showed that ad length and context were crucial for brand recognition and effectiveness. Coursaris et al. (2016) analyzed the results of a theoretical combination of three standpoints for analyzing brand messages that were purchase involvement, message appeal, and message richness. The authors examined if the higher the customer is involved with the brand, the more informational the message appeal, and if the lower the brand involvement, the more transformational the message appeal. The authors were also analyzing if the more transformational the messaging appeal, the higher the consumer engagement. The study found that purchase involvement and message appeal are linked; the richer the medium, the more appealing the message.
  24. 24. 23 Furthermore, Salem (2016) observed that advertisement credibility influences customer’s attitude towards an advertisement and purchase intention. A logical following Punawirawan (2015) found was that positive reviews will make the reader recommend the product to others more than negative reviews. A positive word-of mouth recommendation has the strongest positive advertising effect (Baker et al., 2016). Market research (2017) informed that the internet’s expansion has had a meaningful, tremendous impact on the marketing of customer goods. A review of the literature displayed a direct, solid connection between marketing and technology. Ashish Bajpai et al. (2015) examined the effect of humorous advertisements on consumer behavior among 150 university students. Through analysis by application of chi-square and binomial test. It was found that humorous advertisements persuade the consumers to buy the product at least once. It was also found that the celebrities used in the advertisements are considered to be more attractive than the keywords / captions used in the advertisements. 2.1 Conclusion In conclusion, advertisers can increase awareness of their product by being creative when engaging customers on social media sites. “As more consumers are using social media (e.g., Twitter, Facebook, Myspace, and LinkedIn) and rely on them for marketing, shopping, decisions, promotion through these media has become important” (Shankar et al. 2011, 32). According to Curran et al. (2011), social media sites such as Facebook are better than other advertising paths because it stores information on all its users thus ensuring marketing reaches an advertiser’s specific target market. Social media sites are a great stage for retailers to create an experience and retailers can use information stored on social media sites to improve user experience with their brand. Advertising campaigns aim to create awareness, inform, promote brand differences and in parallel to business objectives. The essence of making advertisements is to attract consumers to patronize the company’s product or service, which in turn gather profits from sales to the company. Advertising without understanding the targeted consumers and the nature of advertising media carries risks.
  25. 25. 24 CHAPTER THREE This Chapter describes the techniques that were utilized to accomplish the objectives, in my survey. Including the summary and data gathering and investigation instruments utilized are also talked about in this part. The dangers observed in doing this exploration will likewise be talked about in this section DATA COLLECTION In order to accomplish the research objectives and to address the research question this dissertation draws on both primary and secondary data collection methods. Secondary data also provide a useful source to answer the research question (Saunders et al, 2009; 256). Furthermore, secondary data allows to understand the topic area while informing the primary research design. The research will use of primary data, which will be collected using structured questionnaires distributed to students. This includes respondent with Mulungushi University found outside the library, from classes, within the university square and within the hostels. PRIMARY DATA Survey In order to collect data from viewpoint of consumers, the strategy of the research is the survey. To investigate effectiveness of internet advertising, a quantitative approach is used to analyze the results from the survey. Survey in the form of questionnaire is chosen for this research. Surveys are a kind of research which are more rigid than interviews. They are usually used to gather ideas from a large population. Each respondent is asked to respond to the same set of questions, it provides an efficient way of collecting responses from a large sample prior to quantitative analysis (Saunders et al., 2009: 361). SECONDARY DATA Secondary resource provides original intuition into the research problem and include both raw data and published summaries, sources, such as, articles, books, journals, etc. In this research, secondary data will mainly be collected from published journals which provides so many articles and researches.
  26. 26. 25 METHODS OF SPREADING THE QUESTIONNAIRES The questionnaires were distributed online through google forms, this is to match with the research topic “effectiveness of internet advertising on students in Zambia”. The questionnaire was distributed through e-mails and social media to various students in Zambia. RELIABILITY OF RESULT AND EVALUATION In terms of the reliability of results, the accuracy of raw data was generated through computer program called Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) v25. This software has been widely adopted for statistical analysis. The data are presented in the form of frequency tables, diagrams or bar. Data Analysis Approach Quantitative research measures the data using descriptive statistics. The coding process is to convert the raw data from the results of questionnaires into numerical data. It is then followed by a calculation for each question by using an SPSS program. The data are presented in the form of tables and following a detailed explanation of the figures is offered.  Descriptive and frequencies were used to draw the general profile of the respondents.  Correlate analysis will be done to investigate the relationship between gender and advertisement characteristics Data interpretation The results generated from the statistical software were compiled. Graphs and tables were used to find out the trends deductively. Sample The factor that intended to examine can be applied to and investigated in Zambian students that uses the internet and buys electronic goods. Since there are time and resource constraint that is why specific population had been approached in order to generalize the results among student respondents. The questionnaire was mainly distributed in universities and colleges but the major reliance was on the distribution through email, social media and through personal contacts. 175 Respondents are studied for analysis and research.
  27. 27. 26 Sampling Technique Stratified random sampling was used and this was in regard to the management levels in the firm. According to Cooper and Schindler (2014) stratified random sampling is the process of segmenting target population into strata. Denscombe (2007) the use of stratified random sampling gives every member of the population an equal chance of being selected. Mugenda and Mugenda (2008), stratified random sampling is useful for heterogeneous samples hence giving a true representation of the population. The finding of the study was assumed a true representative of the study population. 3.0 Methodology A research framework is established based on the literature review and theoretical introduction. A questionnaire survey and a case study will be conducted to obtain empirical data and to test and validate research hypotheses. To get a better understanding of current online advertising, secondary data will be gathered. In order to investigate the effectiveness of internet advertising, a survey will be used to explore the experience, perceptions and opinions of respondents. To identify the factors that can determine success or failure in the effectiveness of internet advertising on consumer behavior, a case study will be undertaken to collect and analyze empirical evidence from the field. Theoretical framework Even though the world of advertising has become more and more competitive, the principle behind the ad copy remains the same. The four steps that the marketers use in their ad to persuade the consumers to buy the products are attention factor, interest element, desire element and action element which is called as AIDA. Advertising and marketing objectives are met by the effective use of this model. The phrase AIDA, in marketing communication was coined by American advertising and sales pioneer Elias. St. Elmo Lewis in the late 1800s. The model talks about the different phases through which a consumer goes before going to buy a product or service. According to him, most of the marketers follow this model to fetch more consumers for their product.
  28. 28. 27 Marketers use this model to attract customers to purchase a product. This model can be seen widely used in today’s advertisements. THEORY The acronym AIDA stands for Attention, Interest, Desire and Action. These are the four stages that a consumer goes through when watching or viewing an advertisement. According to Lewis, first and foremost, the role of an advertisement is to attract the customers. Once an ad grabs attention, it has to invoke interest towards the product in the minds of the consumers. After creating an interest, the ad has to bring desire in consumer’s mind to use the product and finally the consumer has to take a favorable action towards the product by ultimately purchasing the product. THE PROCESS OF AIDA Attention: Attention is usually grabbed by the use of image, color, layout, typography, size, celebrity, model etc Interest: Once attention is grabbed, it’s necessary to create interest in the viewers’ mind so that they will read more about the brand being advertised. By the use of an attractive sub head, interest can be invoked Desire: The element of desire is usually created by the use of body copy where you write in detail about the necessity of buying the brand, thereby explaining the features of the brand, facts and figures Action: Towards the end, the contact information of the brand will be given where they expect the viewers to take action immediately. It can be in the form of shop address, toll free numbers or website address
  29. 29. 28 An advertisements success depends up on the viewer’s ability to notice and understand its message. The AIDA model helps the marketers to present the elements of an ad, Headline, Subhead, Body copy, slogan and contact information in a format that makes the viewers read in a flow and understand about the product easily. Conceptual model
  30. 30. 29 (Shannon & Weaver model of communication) introduction One of the main plans of the information theory is the model of communication by Shannon and Weaver. Claude Shannon, an architect at Bell Telephone Laboratories, worked with Warren Weaver on the great book ‘The mathematical theory of communication’. In this work Shannon and Weaver tried to recognize the speediest and most productive approach to get a message starting with one point then onto the next. Their objective was to find how communication messages could be changed over into electronic flags most effectively, and how those signs could be transmitted with at least blunder. In concentrate this, Shannon and Weaver built up a mechanical and numerical model of correspondence, known as the "Shannon and Weaver model of communication". Core Assumptions and Statements As indicated by the hypothesis, transmission of the message included sending data through electronic signs. "Data" in the data hypothesis feeling of the word, ought not be mistaken for 'data' as we usually comprehend it. As indicated by Shannon and Weaver, data is characterized as "a measure of one's flexibility of decision when one chooses a message". In data hypothesis, data and vulnerability are firmly related. Data alludes to the level of vulnerability show in a circumstance. The bigger the vulnerability expelled by a message, the more grounded the relationship between the information and yield of a correspondence channel, the more point by point specific guidelines are the more data is transmitted. Vulnerability likewise identifies with the idea of consistency. When something is totally unsurprising, it is totally sure. In this way, it contains practically nothing, assuming any, data. A related term, entropy, is additionally critical in data hypothesis. Entropy alludes to the level of arbitrariness, sloppiness, or confusion in a circumstance. Data hypothesis measures the amounts of a wide range of data as far as bits (double digit). Excess is another idea which has risen up out of the data hypothesis to correspondence. Repetition is the inverse of data. Something that is excess includes nearly nothing, assuming any, data to a message. Excess is imperative since it enables battle to commotion in an imparting framework (e.g. in rehashing the message). Commotion is any factor in the process that conflicts with the consistency of the result of the correspondence procedure. Data
  31. 31. 30 hypothesis has added to the elucidation of specific ideas, for example, clamor, excess and entropy. These ideas are inalienably part of the correspondence procedure. Shannon and Weaver broadly defined communication as “all of the procedures by which one mind may affect another”. Their communication model consisted of an information source: the source’s message, a transmitter, a signal, and a receiver: the receiver’s message, and a destination. Eventually, the standard communication model featured the source or encoder, who encodes a message by translating an idea into a code in terms of bits. A code is a language or other set of symbols or signs that can be used to transmit a thought through one or more channels to elicit a response in a receiver or decoder. Shannon and Weaver also included the factor noise into the model. The study conducted by Shannon and Weaver was motivated by the desire to increase the efficiency and accuracy or fidelity of transmission and reception. Efficiency refers to the bits of information per second that can be sent and received. Accuracy is the extent to which signals of information can be understood. In this sense, accuracy refers more to clear reception than to the meaning of message. This engineering model asks quite different questions than do other approaches to human communication research. Scope and Application Concentrates on the model of Shannon and Weaver takes two noteworthy introductions. One burdens the designing standards of transmission and discernment (in the electronic sciences). The other introduction considers how individuals are capable or unfit to impart precisely in light of the fact that they have distinctive encounters and mentalities (in the sociologies). Social Marketing Theory The other theory that can be talked about is the social marketing theory. Social marketing theory is a buildup of theories that emphasis on how socially significant information can be advanced. This theory has been utilized by social and welfare associations to help advance or demoralize different practices. The theory is regulatory in nature with the end goal that it tries to layout a structure that can be utilized to configuration, actualize and assess information crusades. The intended interest group is distinguished in light of their
  32. 32. 31 information require. When this is done information is bundled and conveyed in a way that will be effortlessly available to the target group. The theory is an endeavor to plainly see how societal and mental components function to effectively control them to build how compelling broad communications information battles are. The theory centers around distinguishing the different social and mental obstructions that ruin the stream of information through the broad communications and offers thoughts and approaches to conquer these hindrances. These procedures extend from being indigenous to the utilization of immersion promoting. Features of Social Marketing Theory 1. Creating Audience Awareness At the point when there is a need to advance any new thought, person or conduct, the initial step is to make awareness that such another idea or individual exists. Awareness is made by utilizing every accessible channel available to one like news media and even new media like the internet. One of the least demanding approaches to make awareness is having an immersion TV battle. In any case, the disadvantage is that is an exorbitant undertaking. The advantage of utilizing more up to date media then again is that a more extensive scope of audience can be connected with. The utilization of internet helps contact younger audience who may not read daily papers or rely upon TV for data. 2. Targeting the Right Audience While dispersing messages, it is important to first distinguish the gathering of people that requires the message and after that finding the most effective methods for contacting them with the message. This helps cut expenses and guarantees larger amounts of crowd entrance. For instance, if the message is expected for old individuals, utilizing the web to spread information would be an exercise in futility as most elderly individuals don't utilize PCs. A more successful way is utilizing radio and TV to get the message over.
  33. 33. 32 3. Reinforce the Message At the point when individuals get another message once, they have a tendency to forget it effortlessly. It's therefore important to reinforce the message by over and over guaranteeing that people are presented to the message from various channels. Advancing the media in different broad communications, going door to door, having bunch talks, having mockeries on TV are manners by which messages can be reinforced. Individuals can in the end change themselves as specialists when they begin spreading the message that they have gotten from others. 4. Cultivate Images or Impressions At the point when the gathering of people isn't interested in the person, product or service being promoted, they won't search out any information about them. In such a situation, image advertising is utilized. Here noticeable and effortlessly justifiable images are appeared and the new product or service is appeared in connection to that image. This makes a favorable setting for advancing the new product. 5. Stimulate Interest To influence group of onlookers to look for information, it is important to catch their eye and stimulate interest. When this is done, information ought to be made effortlessly accessible to the overall population. Emotional occasions or startling activities help catch the interest of the gathering of people. A politician captured cleaning oceanfront enables drive to home the point that he looks after the environment. 6. Initiate Desired Result When information has contacted the target group, efforts ought to be taken to guarantee that the desired choice is landed at. A battle against smoking needs to guarantee that individuals quit smoking. Another product being presented should result in genuine deals or use.
  34. 34. 33 3.1 Conclusion In conclusion the purpose of advertising is to communicate to potential receiver of the message. This communication is one that persuade the receiver hence the AIDA model which attention, interest, desire and action are the processes which the consumer goes through when viewing an advertisement. Hence advertisers should be able to study consumer behavior and be able to choose a suitable framework for communication to the potential consumer if their products are to sell out.
  35. 35. 34 CHAPTER FOUR 4.0 DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS 4.1 Introduction Survey results In this chapter analysis of the data collection and the findings of the study are discussed. The questionnaire was designed to collect the primary data and further on to analyze the data on effectiveness of internet advertising on online shopping for students in developing countries. The questionnaire was divided to, first, the demographics segmentation among the respondents which is Background Information and second to, collect the data about the Perceptions on Advertisement among the respondents and lastly Personal experience among the respondents Descriptive information and statistical analysis produced by the collected survey data are shown. Records are statistically analyzed with SPSS 25.0 program. Demographic Variables Demographics features of the respondents were gathered from the first section of the questionnaire and exhibited in the tables below. 1. What is your gender ender Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Female 344 57.3 57.3 57.3 Male 256 42.7 42.7 100.0 Total 600 100.0 100.0 Figure 1.0 Gender distribution shows the female had the highest percent in awareness and response to online advertisement representing 57.3% as shown in figure 1.0
  36. 36. 35 Table 1.1 The age respondents showed that 46.2% of the respondents were in the age range of 21-30 years of age and the lowest being the adults aged above 40 represented by 10.5% as shown in table 1.1. 3. Which of the following best describes your current occupation? Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Full-time working 118 19.7 19.7 19.7 Part-time working 132 22.0 22.0 41.7 Part-time working;Full-time working 4 .7 .7 42.3 Part-time working;Unemployed 2 .3 .3 42.7 Retired 20 3.3 3.3 46.0 Self-employed 152 25.3 25.3 71.3 Unemployed 172 28.7 28.7 100.0 Total 600 100.0 100.0 Table 1.2 Table 1.2 shows the occupation of the respondents and the results show that 28.7% of the respondent are unemployed. 2. How old are you? Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid 21-30 277 46.2 46.2 46.2 31-40 179 29.8 29.8 76.0 40 + 63 10.5 10.5 86.5 Under 20 81 13.5 13.5 100.0 Total 600 100.0 100.0
  37. 37. 36 4. What is your educational level? Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Master's Degree 41 6.8 6.8 6.8 PhD's Degree 8 1.3 1.3 8.2 Tertiary Education 551 91.8 91.8 100.0 Total 600 100.0 100.0 Table 1.3 The above tables represent the education level the respondents have attained and the results shows that the tertiary education level is represented by 91.8% of the respondents as shown above in table 1.3 and only 1.3% are PhD Level. Perceptions on Advertisement Perception on advertisement refers to an opinion or view of online advertisement by students. The following results were collected in the primary data collection of the survey. 5. Do you believe in online advertising? Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid 404 67.3 67.3 67.3 Maybe 22 3.7 3.7 71.0 No 24 4.0 4.0 75.0 Yes 150 25.0 25.0 100.0 Total 600 100.0 100.0 Table 2.0 Table 2.0 show that 25% of the respondents believe in online advertisement this is shown in the frequency table above.
  38. 38. 37 6. What do you think is the most important visual element on an online advertisement? Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Color 166 27.7 27.7 27.7 Font 132 22.0 22.0 49.7 Image 302 50.3 50.3 100.0 Total 600 100.0 100.0 Table 2.1 The important visual element responses were recorded in table 2.1 and the results shows that image is the most important visual element being represented by 50.3%. 7. The more times an online advertisement is viewed by a consumer, the more likely the consumer is to go and buy the product. To what extent do you agree with this statement? Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Agree 203 33.8 33.8 33.8 Disagree 81 13.5 13.5 47.3 Neutral 115 19.2 19.2 66.5 Not sure 45 7.5 7.5 74.0 Strongly agree 131 21.8 21.8 95.8 Strongly disagree 25 4.2 4.2 100.0 Total 600 100.0 100.0 Table 2.2 Table 2.2 show the frequency of an advertisement and the result show that the more and advert is seen the more likely the consumer is going to the buy that product and it is being represented by 33.8% and only a few disagree with 4.2%
  39. 39. 38 8. Do online advertisement influence your shopping trend? Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Maybe 106 17.7 17.7 17.7 No 139 23.2 23.2 40.8 Yes 355 59.2 59.2 100.0 Total 600 100.0 100.0 Table 2.3 The influence of advertisement is depicted in table 2.3 and the results shows the advertisement influence consumer shopping trend and this is represented by 59.2% Personal experience Personal experience of a human being is the moment-to-moment experience and sensory awareness of internal and external events or a sum of experiences forming an empirical unity such as a period of life. 9. Do you buy products or goods based on advertisements you see online? Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Maybe 87 14.5 14.5 14.5 No 103 17.2 17.2 31.7 Yes 410 68.3 68.3 100.0 Total 600 100.0 100.0 Table 3.0 The table shows that students buy goods based on the advertisement they see online this is represented by 68.3%.
  40. 40. 39 10. Online Advertising is essential to my shopping needs. Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Agree 273 45.5 45.5 45.5 Disagree 101 16.8 16.8 62.3 Neutral 122 20.3 20.3 82.7 Strongly agree 76 12.7 12.7 95.3 Strongly disagree 28 4.7 4.7 100.0 Total 600 100.0 100.0 Table 3.1 The above table investigated if online advertisement is essential to shopping needs of student and the results became positive showing that 45.5% agreed and only 4.7% disagree. 11. Online Advertising provides valuable source of information about a product. Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Agree 298 49.7 49.7 49.7 Disagree 63 10.5 10.5 60.2 Neutral 115 19.2 19.2 79.3 Strongly agree 107 17.8 17.8 97.2 Strongly disagree 17 2.8 2.8 100.0 Total 600 100.0 100.0 Table 3.2 Adverting provides valuable source of information to about a product to student and this is shown the table above. Out of the total respondents 49.7% agreed. 12. Quite often advertising is amusing and entertaining Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Agree 356 59.3 59.3 59.3 Disagree 60 10.0 10.0 69.3 Neutral 184 30.7 30.7 100.0 Total 600 100.0 100.0 Table 3.3
  41. 41. 40 Based on respondents experience the above table 3.3 shows that 59.3% of the respondents agree that advertisement is amusing and entertaining. 13. online Advertising tells which brands have the feature I am looking for Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid No 187 31.2 31.2 31.2 Yes 413 68.8 68.8 100.0 Total 600 100.0 100.0 Table 3.4 Table 3.4 shows that 68.8% represent “yes” to the statement that online advertisement tells which brand have the features am looking for. 14. Persuasiveness in online advertising today is essential Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid No 107 17.8 17.8 17.8 Not sure 108 18.0 18.0 35.8 Yes 385 64.2 64.2 100.0 Total 600 100.0 100.0 Table 3.5 64.2% said that persuasiveness is essential in advertising today and only 17.8% said no.
  42. 42. 41 CHAPTER FIVE 5.0 DISCUSSION Research questions 1. Does the characteristic of advertised product determine success of internet advertising? 2. What influence does advertisement characteristics have on the effectiveness of online advertising? 3. To what extent do website characteristics determine purchasing behavior of online shopping users? RESULTS INTERPRETATION ON RESEARCH QUESTION Advertisement Characteristics and consumer buying behavior Online advertisement differs in their characteristics such as size, format, content, design and type. These factors can extensively influence advertisement effectiveness and consumer buying decisions as well. Results on Table 2.1 depict opinion of respondents on adverts characteristics they consider important when shopping online. In order of priority and importance, it appears respondents in the current study consider images 50.3% then followed by color 27.7% and lastly font 22%. Currently used adverts show a large range of features, many of which have important effects on advert effectiveness and on user performance in using the publishing website. Some features of adverts are basic, that is, they can be determined from the advert independently from where it is located or how it appears during the interaction; other ones are relational, that is, dependent on the context in which the advert is used the interaction; other ones are relational, that is, dependent on the context in which the advert is used. If the advert is based on images, then relevant features are colors and those mentioned in advertisement standards, like shape and size; see Internet Advertising Bureau UK (2008a) for typical examples of shapes and dimensions. In a simple solution, animation can be implemented with alternating images, in which case a common choice is to use three
  43. 43. 42 repeating frames, which may be considered as a phrase made of simple components constituting a rhythmic structure. Website Characteristics and its effects on shopping habits 14.Persuasiveness in online advertising today is essential Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid No 107 17.8 17.8 17.8 Not sure 108 18.0 18.0 35.8 Yes 385 64.2 64.2 100.0 Total 600 100.0 100.0 Table 3.5 Table 3.5 surveyed online persuasiveness and the results showed that 64.2 % said yes. Given that the purpose of most website is to persuade visitors to act or think in a certain way, all the theories and findings mentioned above are relevant to a website’s success. If important cues or information or interaction widgets are implemented in such a way that they are subject to blindness, they will not be attended upon. Persuasion has become very important in advertising. A main reason is that market competitor found it very easy to erode any functional or value advantage attached with a product. Organizations are attempting to receptive wide dismissed conduct of coming to clients. Influence is to change someone’s mentality, discernment or behavior as a correspondence objective. “Persuasion is a symbolic process in which communicators try to convince other people to change their attitudes or behavior regarding an issue through the transmission of a message, in an atmosphere of free choice” (Perloff, 2003). As we think about communication as a way of persuasion tool and its social impact on general people’s life there is one more word can come to mind, is Propaganda. Persuasion is very effective element for marketing. Persuasion occurs in interpersonal relations or in mediated settings and in the noble situation it allows a free flow of information in the direction of two-way. Persuasion is positive process of communication that can produce valuable results.
  44. 44. 43 10. Online Advertising is essential to my shopping needs. Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Agree 273 45.5 45.5 45.5 Disagree 101 16.8 16.8 62.3 Neutral 122 20.3 20.3 82.7 Strongly agree 76 12.7 12.7 95.3 Strongly disagree 28 4.7 4.7 100.0 Total 600 100.0 100.0 Table 3.1 Table 3.1 showed distribution of respondents on the Online Advertising is essential to my shopping needs. It is clear from the results that 45.5% of the respondents agreed hence the need for advertisers or marketers need to put up more business online for the better survival of student and also for their huge profit turnout. Influence of advertised product features on online shopping decision 7. The more times an online advertisement is viewed by a consumer, the more likely the consumer is to go and buy the product. To what extent do you agree with this statement? Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Agree 203 33.8 33.8 33.8 Disagree 81 13.5 13.5 47.3 Neutral 115 19.2 19.2 66.5 Not sure 45 7.5 7.5 74.0 Strongly agree 131 21.8 21.8 95.8 Strongly disagree 25 4.2 4.2 100.0 Total 600 100.0 100.0 Table 2.2 On Table 2.2, respondents gave their thoughts on the more times an online advertisement is viewed by a consumer, the more likely the consumer is to go and buy the product? As indicated, most respondents agree (33.8%) to all other factors as they make their decision to utilize online shops, this was ranked 1st and 4.2% strongly disagreed.
  45. 45. 44 8. Do online advertisement influence your shopping trend? Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Maybe 106 17.7 17.7 17.7 No 139 23.2 23.2 40.8 Yes 355 59.2 59.2 100.0 Total 600 100.0 100.0 Table 2.3 On table 2.3 respondents gave their thoughts on Do online advertisement influence your shopping trend? The results indicated that 59.2% of the respondents agreed which is a good turn out and a catch for business entities to go online for advertisement of their products. 13. online Advertising tells which brands have the feature I am looking for Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid No 187 31.2 31.2 31.2 Yes 413 68.8 68.8 100.0 Total 600 100.0 100.0 Table 3.4 Table 3.4 surveyed if online advertising tells which brands have the features the shopper is looking for. The results showed that 68.8% agreed that online advertising tells me brands have the feature I am looking for. Discussion The Internet has become a major source of information consumption, and has been argued to be gradually replacing old media such as the radio, television and the newspaper. With the increased adoption of the Internet, World Wide Web is becoming gradually a standard advertisement platform. The Web is offering business advertisement world with more rich media tools, interactive services, and global reach.
  46. 46. 45 This study therefore investigates effectiveness of internet advertising on online shopping for students in developing countries. The results revealed the following notable findings: Majority of online users for shopping purposes were female. Communities of interest and communities of practice involve three types of groups that are men, women and children. According to Heermann (2010), organisations adopt different marketing initiatives for men and women as the gender difference plays significant role to alter disliking and liking of a product. “According to a study conducted at the University of Wisconsin, women notice and recall 70% more details in their environments than do men.” This shows as highlighted by Kraft and Weber (2012) that women are more brand conscious than men hence online marketing initiatives adopted by organisations focus the gender differences as well. The purchasing decision of men and women is different from each other due to gender differences. Kraft and Weber (2012) believes that men are short sighted and want immediate satisfaction while in comparison to these attitude women make purchasing decisions for long term benefits. Due to any such reasons organisations should focus on inventing new tricks to get online customers’ attention. Cause marketing as noted by Shayon (2011), is an effective tool to merge into online marketing to attract female attention. Yoplait’s tops have been evaluated effective enough to relieve breast cancer and the sense of satisfaction increases brand loyalty among female buyers. Moore (2008) believes that marketers need to change online marketing strategies according to changing social trends. Recent research supports this notion of change and further highlights that social changes affect the thinking and behaviour of customers. This largely has altered traditional or typical family dynamics of purchasing. The concept of women attitude and behaviour is no longer traditional but has changed a lot. Working women have increased in numbers and the concept of staying at home has declined at greater scale. Any certain marketing initiatives that focus house wives or mothers only will bring limited number of customers to the organisation. According to Heermann (2012), a case study of McDonald’s suggests that the organisation changed its online marketing strategy after facing sheer decline in its customers’ strength. The dominant factor was that they focused
  47. 47. 46 children only and ignored mothers. The new strategy “find the woman inside the mom” helped them to get their customers’ strength. Roggio (2012) believes that online marketers pay less attention to male buyers rather they focus on women and children with great interest. It is believed that it is complex and difficult for organisations to engage with male buyers using social networks while the case with female internet surfers is different. Moore (2008) notes that “men seek enlightenment, they seek experience, they seek success on their own terms, men happily define themselves as principle-driven and men identify themselves as family-centric.” However, recent years witness that male attitude of doing shopping is changing. Smith (2010) notes that in health care filed men are attracted towards plastic surgeries and it’s the result of successful marketing practice that also includes online marketing. Testing hypothesis H0: there is a relationship between gender and advertisement characteristics Correlationsa What is your gender What do you think is the most important visual element on an advertisement What is your gender Pearson Correlation 1 -.040 Sig. (2-tailed) .322 What do you think is the most important visual element on an advertisement Pearson Correlation -.040 1 Sig. (2-tailed) .322 a. Listwcise N=600 Positive correlation is a relationship between two variables in which both variables move in tandem. A positive correlation exists when one variable decreases as the other variable decreases, or one variable increases while the other increases. the hypothesis shows a linear relationship between two variables he H1 is null hypothesis
  48. 48. 47 correlation basics  Correlations are never lower than -1. A correlation of -1 indicates that the data points in a scatter plot lie exactly on a straight descending line; the two variables are perfectly negatively linearly related.  A correlation of 0 means that two variables don't have any linear relation whatsoever. However, some non linear relation may exist between the two variables.  Correlation coefficients are never higher than 1. A correlation coefficient of 1 means that two variables are perfectly positively linearly related; the dots in a scatter plot lie exactly on a straight ascending line. CONCLUSION Despite the numerous advantages of internet advertising and online sales over other forms of commerce many Zambians are yet to adopt this technology in their daily buying and selling activities. The study established that while internet advertising is desirable to most companies operating in the study area, lack of technical know-how, low level of awareness and preference for traditional advert media are the major constraints to adopting e- commerce. Consumers on the other hand cite lack of internet access, irregular power supply, and cost of internet access as the limiting factors to adopting online shopping. Moreover, the study has established that income of the user, internet skills, cost of using the internet, content of the advert, location of advert, opinion of other users, and the quality of advertised products are significant factors that affect the effectiveness of online advertisement and therefore influences buyers’ decision. Similarly, it is concluded in this study that Internet advertising and online sales have the capacity to change the face of retail business in Zambia. Most companies and consumers alike are willing to adopt it as a veritable means of doing business in Nigeria. However, the problems of irregular power supply; insufficient trained personnel; low level of awareness; and high cost of internet access need be addressed. However, findings have shown that there is relationship between internet skills, advert content, product quality, and effective internet advertising/online sales. There is relationship between perfect knowledge about market situations concerning internet facilities and exact information on consumers’ behavior. There is evidence to show
  49. 49. 48 that high cost of providing information scientifically through internet adverts affect consumer behavior.
  50. 50. 49 6.0 CHAPTER SIX 6.1 Main learning outcome Advertiser should target the youth age group if they are to advertise their products online. The population of Zambia has a lot of youths who are not in employment. It has also been noted that women are engaging in online advertisement hence advertisers are to target women and children. 6.2 Challenges encountered Online surveys can be an effective and economic way to collect information. Miller and colleagues (Miller, Neal, Roberts, Baer, Cressler, Metrik, & Marlatt, 2002) noted that the superiority of Internet-based research to traditional methods lies in that “it potentially provides increased accessibility; capability for dynamic and interactive forms, which eliminate the viewing of irrelevant questions; and customized feedback tailored to the content of the responses” (p.56). When researchers use an online survey, they can enjoy a number of benefits linked to the Internet. However, they should also be prepared to face several challenges resulting from response rates, the response rate of questionnaire was quiet low
  51. 51. 50 6.3 Future recommendations Based on the findings, the following recommendations are made: i. Within the examination, a portion of respondents' express ignorance of internet shopping sites, some have never shopped on the web, and some vibe they don't have requirement for web based shopping. Organizations offering items on the web ought to in this manner advance the benefits of internet shopping to customary methods for trade. ii. Government should make policies to regulate business through the internet activities to minimize fraud and reduce incidence of internet theft. iii. Web advertisers should attempt to give satisfactory and pertinent substance to purchasers thinking about the internet as a shopping decision. iv. The number of companies advertising online is soaring, but even then fraud and deception may reduce consumer confidence. Therefore, it should be ensured that products and services are described truthfully in online advertisements. v. Trust or confidence can be built in online business by using testimonials with the permission of customers. vi. To avoid interference in work, advertisements should be designed to meet the preferences of target customers or target audience. vii. Use of multi-media' and use of banner advertisements give viewers a chance to interact with banners which helps in online advertising. 6.4 Conclusion Counting favorable circumstances of internet advertising can be referred to two-way correspondence with the group of observers, moderately ease, all-inclusive and boarding access. Internet advertising is effective on buyer conduct in process of items buy. Internet advertising have that fits needs of people and contain adequate data about the item constitutes furthermore, could recognize buyer conduct as for influencing factors furthermore, select suitable systems, can incredibly add to the procedure of buying and at last client dedication.
  52. 52. 51 REFERENCES Ahmed, David. (2014) “An Impact of Advertising and Pricing on Consumers Online Ticket Purchasing” Vol.5 (No.5) Janoschka, Anja — 'Web Advertising' - John Benjamins Publishing, 01Jan-2004 Shimp, Terence and Andrews, Craig J — 'Advertising Promotion and Other Aspects of Integrated Marketing Communications' - Ccngage Learning, 16-Jan-2013 The Economic Times: 'Online Ad Market in India to reach rupees 1000 crore by 2015' published on 20th February, 2012. Golden, S. A. R., & Regi, S. B. Mobile Commerce in Modern Business Era. 'Getting the Eyeballs' published on 19th July, 2007. 'Internet Advertising Boom Next in Line' published on 29th March, 2010. Golden, S. A. R. (2015). Regional Imbalance affecting quality of e-banking services with special reference to Tuticorin District-An Analysis. International Journal of Research, 2(3), 788-798. Soukup, P. A. (2014). Looking at, with and through YouTube. Communication Research Li, H., & Lo, H. (2014). Do you recognize its brand? the effectiveness of online in-Stream video advertisements. Journal of Advertising, 44(3), 208-218. doi:10.1080/00913367.2014.956376 Coursaris, C. K., Van Osch, W., & Balogh, B. A. (2016). Informing brand messaging strategies via social media analytics. Online Information Review, 40(1), 6-24. doi:10.1108/oir-02-2015-0062 Ankita Shrivastava. (2014) “Do advertisements work? A study on change in consumers’ purchasing behavior due to advertisements” Volume 3, Issue 5.
  53. 53. 52 Ayo C.K et al. (2011); Business-to-Consumer E-commerce in Nigeria: Prospect and Challenges; African Journal of Business Management; Vol.5(13) AZIZ NORZALITA ABD, ARIFFIN AHMAD AZMI M. (2010) Exploring consumers attitude towards Web advertising and its influence on Web Ad usage in Malaysia‟; Pg. 55- 66 Bagheri, Mehdi. Ranjbar, Mokhtar. 2007. Internet advertising and Survey of its position in Iran sites, Journal of Age of Information Technology. No 24 BAKSHI GAURAV AND GUPTA K DR. SURENDER (2013) „Online advertising and its impact on Consumer buying behaviour‟. International Journal of Research in Finance & Marketing, Vol. 3, Issue 1(ISSN 2231-5985) Baltas, G., (2003), Determinants of Internet advertising effectiveness: An empirical British Journal of Marketing Studies Vol.3, No.7, pp.1-14, September 2015 International Journal of Applied Research 2016; 2(2): 200-204 Constantinides, E., 2004, Influencing the online consumer,s behavior , Internet Research , volume 14 . number 2 , pp 111-126 DashtiShahrokh, Zohreh. NiakanLahiji, Nazila. 2009, Effectiveness of internet advertising on consumer behavior goods and computer services,Journal of Scientific - Retail Management Studies, Twentieth Year, No 60 Ducoffe, R. H. 1996. Advertising value and advertising on the web. Journal of advertising research, 36(5), 21-35. European Journal of Business and Management www.iiste.org ISSN 2222-1905 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2839 (Online) Vol 3, No.3. Gilaninia, Shahram. Shahbazi, Shahriar. 2010, The role of risk reduction strategies on the Internet purchase intentions in the Third Millennium Griffiths, R.T. 2002. “From Arpanet to world wide web”.
  54. 54. 53 Hawes, L.C. (1975). Pragmatics of analoguing: Theory and model construction in communication. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. HOODA DR. SANJAY AND AGGRAWAL MR. SANDEEP (2012) „Consumer Behavior towards E-marketing: A study of Jaipur Consumers‟. Journal of Arts, Science & Commerce. Vol.– III, Issue 2(2) http://www.manic.co.zm/2015/12/07/effective-marketing-in-the-zambian-digital-age/ https://www.communicationtheory.org/social-marketing-theory/ International Journal of Economic Practices and Theories, Vol. 4, No. 2, 2014, Special issue on Marketing and Business Development, e-ISSN 2247–7225. IOSR Journal Of Humanities And Social Science (IOSR-JHSS) Volume 21, Issue 9, Ver. 1 (Sep. 2016) PP35-41 e-ISSN: 2279-0837, p-ISSN: 2279-0845. Kraft and Weber (2012) gender difference Lages, L. 2004. The STEP Scale: A Measure of Short-Term Export Performance Improvement, Journal of International Marketing,12(1): 36-56. Muhammad Aqsa, Dwi Kartini. (2015). Impact of online advertising on Consumer Attitudes and Interests Buy Online” volume 4, issue 04. Papacharissi, Z., and Rubin, A. 2000.Predictors of Internet use. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 44:175–195. Perner, Lars, 2008, Product Issues in International Marketing Pieters, R., Wedel, M., and Batra, R. 2010." The stopping power of advertising: measures and effects ofvisual complexity". Journal of Marketing, 74(5), 48-59. Rettie, R., Robinson, H., & Jenner, B. 2003. Does Internet Advertising Alienate Users? Journal of Academy of Marketing, 12(4): 221-235.
  55. 55. 54 Shannon, C.E., & Weaver, W. (1949). The mathematical theory of communication. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. Shumaila, Ashfaq. (2013) “Impact of Advertising on Consumers’ buying behavior through Persuasiveness, Brand Image, and Celebrity endorsement “ Stoica, I., (2011). Specific tools in online marketing research, Revista Economică, indexed BDI: RePEc, Ulrich`s Periodicals Directory, DOAJ - Directory of Open Access Journals, Code NURC 478, ISSN: 1582-6260, Sibiu, 305-311. study. International Journal of Market Research, 45: 505-513. https://www.forbes.com/sites/jaysondemers/2017/01/26/what-googles-mobile-first-index- means-for-your-seo-strategy/; https://searchengineland.com/faq-google-mobile-first-index- 262751 https://www.adzine.de/2017/05/walled-gardens-hebeln-das-programmatic-konzept-aus/ ; https://www.adzine.de/2017/08/walled-gardens-nutzen-nicht-umgehen/ ; https://www.wuv.de/debatte/wider_die_walled_gardens_im_digitalen_marketing/die_wee -branche_im_wuergegriff_der_walled_gardens ; https://www.wuv.de/debatte/wider_die_walled_gardens_im_digitalen_marketing/gafa_di_ antwort_auf_america_first_darf_nicht_europe_first_sein https://www.juniperresearch.com/press/press-releases/ad-fraud-to-cost-advertisers-$19- billion-in-2018
  56. 56. 55 APEDIX A : QUESTIONNAIRE Research questionnaire on the effectiveness of internet advertising on consumer behavior. I am a student of Mulungushi University pursuing Bachelor of Information Technology. I am currently doing a research regarding “the effectiveness of online advertisement on students in developing countries”. Please spend your valuable time by filling up this questionnaire. Your feedback will be kept confidential. Your answers are valuable to my research. Thank you for your kind cooperation. SECTION A: Background Information 1. What is your gender? Female Male 2. How old are you? Under 21 21-30 31-40 41 and over 3. Which of the following best describes your current occupation? Student Part-time working Full-time working Self-employed Retired Unemployed 4. What is your educational level? High School Diploma Bachelor's Degree Master's Degree PhD's Degree SECTION B: Perceptions on Advertisement 5. Do you believe in advertising? Yes No 6. What do you think is the most important visual element on an advertisement?
  57. 57. 56 The font The image The colours 7. The more times an advertisement is viewed by a consumer, the more likely the consumer is to go and buy the product. To what extent do you agree with this statement? I agree I disagree Not sure 8. Do online advertisement influence your shopping trend? Yes No SECTION C: Personal experience 9. Do you buy products or goods based on advertisements you see online? Yes No maybe 10. Advertising is essential to my shopping needs Yes No 11. Quite often advertising is amusing and entertaining Yes No 12. Advertising results in better product for public Yes No 13. Advertising tells which brands have the feature I am looking for Yes No maybe 14. Persuasiveness in advertising today is essential Yes No

×