 Explain the two types of order and theresponsibilities in carrying out order List and elaborate the 6 right of administ...
 Drug(pharmacological definition):A chemical substance administeredfor the diagnosis, cure, treatment,relief or preventio...
 Drug administration is very important andcan be a dangerous duty› Given correctly – restore patient tohealth› Given inco...
Nurses must:› Understand principles of pharmacology› Understand fundamentals of drugadministration Routes Dosage calcula...
 Standing Order- it is carried out until thespecified period of time or until it isdiscontinued by another order. Single...
 1. Observe the “6 Rights” of drugadministration.› 1. Right drug› 2. Right dose› 3. Right time› 4. Right route› 5. Right ...
 2. Practice asepsis 3. Nurses who administer medicationsare responsible for their own actions.Question any order that y...
 7. Return liquid that are cloudy or havechanged in colour to the pharmacy 8. Before administering a medication,identify...
Identify the drug from the Dr.’s order. Clarifywith the Dr. if in doubt.Check the drug three times:- before removing it fr...
 The nurse should be familiar with thegeneric drug name as well as the tradename. The use of generic name in clinicalpra...
- Check the dose, read the containerlabel, calculate the dose & checkwith a RN if necessary.- Use proper measuring devices...
 If a drug is required in another form youmay get it from the pharmacy. Pediatric & elderly more sensitive tomedications...
 For routine medication orders, themedications must be given no more than30 min before or after the actual timespecified ...
 Other factors must be considered whendetermining the right time e.g., multipledrug therapy, drug-drug or drug-foodcompat...
 Oral Route Forms: a) solid: tablet, capsule, pill,powder. b) liquid: syrup, suspension, emulsion. Enteric coated table...
 2. Sublingual- drug placed under thetongue, where it dissolves. 3. Buccal- medication is held in the mouthagainst the m...
18
 6. Parenteral- administration of medications byneedle. a) Intradermal (ID)- under the epidermis (into thedermis). b) s...
› Checking the pt’s identity before givingeach medication dose is critical to thept’s safety.› Ask the patient to state hi...
 Documentation of information r/toadministrations is crucial to pt safety. The pt’s chart should always have thefollowin...
 Improvement of the pt’s condition,symptom, disease process. No changes/lack of improvement. Patient’s teaching/degree ...
 Other info:› if a drug not administered & reason why?› Refusal of a medication & reason for refusal.› Actual time of dru...
Drugs can have three types of names:a. chemicalb. genericc. trade/brand/proprietary
a.Chemical name:- a very precise description of the drug’schemical composition, identifying thedrug’s atomic and molecular...
b. Generic name:- The name assigned by themanufacturer who first develops thedrug. Often the generic name is derivedfrom t...
c.Trade/ Brand/ Proprietary name:- Is selected by the drug companyselling the drug and is copyrighted- a drug can have sev...
e.g. Chemical name= Acetylsalicylic acidGeneric name = AspirinTrade names include Aspro, DisprinBe aware that in different...
Drugs can be classified from differentperspectivese.g. drugs may be classified by -(a) body systemsi.e. drugs affecting th...
 MANE MIDI NOCTE BD/BID TDS/TID QID STAT PRN morning midday Night twice a day three times a day four times a...
 ac Pc q.h.or 1/24 q2h or 2/24 q4h or 4/24 qod before meals after meals every hour every two hours every four h...
 BUC O/P.O S/L ID IM SC/SQ inside cheek oral/per oral sublingal(under the tongue) intradermal intramuscular su...
 SCI IVI IVT NEB PR TOP VAG subcutaneousinjection intravenous injection intravenous therapy nebuliser per rect...
 Rx NPO/NBM Prescribe, take Nil per oral/nil bymouth
6rulesofdrugadministration 120322135333-phpapp01
6rulesofdrugadministration 120322135333-phpapp01
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6rulesofdrugadministration 120322135333-phpapp01

  1. 1.  Explain the two types of order and theresponsibilities in carrying out order List and elaborate the 6 right of administeringmedication Identify the do and don’t in administeringmedication Identify the common abbreviation whenadministering medication Discuss the important consideration ofmedication administration Practice the right technique in administeringmedication by following the 6 rights
  2. 2.  Drug(pharmacological definition):A chemical substance administeredfor the diagnosis, cure, treatment,relief or prevention of disease. Usedto otherwise enhance physical ormental well-being
  3. 3.  Drug administration is very important andcan be a dangerous duty› Given correctly – restore patient tohealth› Given incorrectly – patient’s conditioncan worsen
  4. 4. Nurses must:› Understand principles of pharmacology› Understand fundamentals of drugadministration Routes Dosage calculations Techniques for injection Six rights Patient education
  5. 5.  Standing Order- it is carried out until thespecified period of time or until it isdiscontinued by another order. Single Order- it is carried out for one time only. Stat Order- it is carried out at once orimmediately. PRN Order- it is carried out as the patientrequires.
  6. 6.  1. Observe the “6 Rights” of drugadministration.› 1. Right drug› 2. Right dose› 3. Right time› 4. Right route› 5. Right patient› 6. Right documentation
  7. 7.  2. Practice asepsis 3. Nurses who administer medicationsare responsible for their own actions.Question any order that you considerincorrect. 4. Be knowledgeable about medicationsthat you administer. 5. keep narcotics and barbiturates inlocked place. 6. Use only medications that are clearlylabeled containers in.
  8. 8.  7. Return liquid that are cloudy or havechanged in colour to the pharmacy 8. Before administering a medication,identify the client correctly. 9. Do not leave the medications at thebedside. 10. If the client vomits after taking oralmedication, report this to the nurse incharge and/or physician.
  9. 9. Identify the drug from the Dr.’s order. Clarifywith the Dr. if in doubt.Check the drug three times:- before removing it from the trolley or shelf- when the drug is removed from the container- before the container is returned to storage- check the expiry date of the drugCheck the drug with another RN for DDA &barbiturate.
  10. 10.  The nurse should be familiar with thegeneric drug name as well as the tradename. The use of generic name in clinicalpractice is preferred to reduce the risk ofmedication errors.
  11. 11. - Check the dose, read the containerlabel, calculate the dose & checkwith a RN if necessary.- Use proper measuring devices forliquids, do not crush tablets or opencapsules unless directed to by thepharmacist. (do not crush entericcoated tablets).
  12. 12.  If a drug is required in another form youmay get it from the pharmacy. Pediatric & elderly more sensitive tomedications – need extra caution withdrug dosage.
  13. 13.  For routine medication orders, themedications must be given no more than30 min before or after the actual timespecified in the prescriber’s order. E.g.,9.00am med, may be given between8.30am-9.30am. The effect of changing in dosing or timingof medication should never beunderestimate because one missed dose ofcertain medication can be life threatening.
  14. 14.  Other factors must be considered whendetermining the right time e.g., multipledrug therapy, drug-drug or drug-foodcompatibility, scheduling of diagnosticstudies, bioavailability of drug (e.g., theneed for consistence timing of dosesaround the clock to maintain bloodlevels), drug actions, and any biorhythmeffects such as occur with steroids.
  15. 15.  Oral Route Forms: a) solid: tablet, capsule, pill,powder. b) liquid: syrup, suspension, emulsion. Enteric coated tablets should not be crushedbefore administration. Suspensions are neveradministered intravenously. If the patientvomits within 20 – 30mins of taking the drugs,notify the physician. Do not readminister thedrug without a physicians order.
  16. 16.  2. Sublingual- drug placed under thetongue, where it dissolves. 3. Buccal- medication is held in the mouthagainst the mucous membranes. of thecheek until the drug dissolves. 4. Topical a) Dermatologic- lotions,liniments, ointment, pastes and powders. b)Ophthalmic- instillations and irrigations. c)Otic, d) Nasal, e) Inhalation, f) Vaginal-tablet, cream, jelly, foam, suppository 5. Rectal- (objectionable taste or odor)
  17. 17. 18
  18. 18.  6. Parenteral- administration of medications byneedle. a) Intradermal (ID)- under the epidermis (into thedermis). b) subcutaneous (SC)- in the subcutaneoustissue (also, hypodermic) c) intramuscular (IM)- into the muscle. d) intravenous (IV)- into a vein. e) intraarterial- into an artery. f) intraosseous- into the bone.
  19. 19. › Checking the pt’s identity before givingeach medication dose is critical to thept’s safety.› Ask the patient to state his/her name andcheck his ID band to confirm pt’s name,ID number, age, and allergies against themedication chart.
  20. 20.  Documentation of information r/toadministrations is crucial to pt safety. The pt’s chart should always have thefollowing:› Date & time of the medication administered› Name of medication, dose, route & site ofadministration.› Drug action – to assess the changes ofsymptoms the pt experiencing, adverseeffects, toxicity & other drug-related physical& physiologic symptoms.
  21. 21.  Improvement of the pt’s condition,symptom, disease process. No changes/lack of improvement. Patient’s teaching/degree of pt’sunderstanding.
  22. 22.  Other info:› if a drug not administered & reason why?› Refusal of a medication & reason for refusal.› Actual time of drug administration› Data regarding clinical observations &treatment of the pt if a medication error hasoccurred.
  23. 23. Drugs can have three types of names:a. chemicalb. genericc. trade/brand/proprietary
  24. 24. a.Chemical name:- a very precise description of the drug’schemical composition, identifying thedrug’s atomic and molecular structure.- this name is of significance to thepharmacist.
  25. 25. b. Generic name:- The name assigned by themanufacturer who first develops thedrug. Often the generic name is derivedfrom the chemical name.- the official name is the name by whichthe drug is identified in the officialpublication.
  26. 26. c.Trade/ Brand/ Proprietary name:- Is selected by the drug companyselling the drug and is copyrighted- a drug can have several trade nameswhen produced by differentmanufacturers
  27. 27. e.g. Chemical name= Acetylsalicylic acidGeneric name = AspirinTrade names include Aspro, DisprinBe aware that in different countriesgeneric and trade names will also differ,e.g. in Australia & the United States onedrug has the generic names ofparacetamol & acetaminophen, i.e.Panadol/Tylenol.
  28. 28. Drugs can be classified from differentperspectivese.g. drugs may be classified by -(a) body systemsi.e. drugs affecting the respiratory systemdrugs affecting the cardiovascular systemOR(b) the symptom relieved by the drug, or theclinical indication for the drug i.e. analgesic,antibiotic
  29. 29.  MANE MIDI NOCTE BD/BID TDS/TID QID STAT PRN morning midday Night twice a day three times a day four times a day give immediately when requiredwhen necessary
  30. 30.  ac Pc q.h.or 1/24 q2h or 2/24 q4h or 4/24 qod before meals after meals every hour every two hours every four hours Every other day
  31. 31.  BUC O/P.O S/L ID IM SC/SQ inside cheek oral/per oral sublingal(under the tongue) intradermal intramuscular subcutaneous
  32. 32.  SCI IVI IVT NEB PR TOP VAG subcutaneousinjection intravenous injection intravenous therapy nebuliser per rectum topical/skin vaginal
  33. 33.  Rx NPO/NBM Prescribe, take Nil per oral/nil bymouth

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