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Coordination and Ellipsis

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Coordination and Ellipsis

  1. 1. I. Coordination 1. Denifition The linking of linguistic units that have the grammatical status. Eg: I like tea and coffee. John likes tea, but Peter likes coffee. _Indicator: Coordinators/ Coordinating conjunction
  2. 2. _Conjunction: A word linking two words or other structures together of: + Equal status: Coordinating conjunction such as: and, but, or, nor, for, yet, so • Eg: She is kind so she helps people I told him this, but he didn’t believe me. +Unequal status: Subordinating conjunction such as: although, because, before, since, till, unless, if, whether …. • Eg: I'll be home at nine if I can get a taxi. Although he tried hard, he failed.
  3. 3. *Comparision conjuncts and conjunctions: _Similarity: connect funtion. _Difference: + Conjuncts: The conjunction links units withinn sentences, the conjunct can links clauses within sentences and make links between sentences. Thus conjucnt play an important role in establishing cohesion within texts. + Conjucntions: are words which join clauses or smaller units of a sentence together. In many ways, conjunction are the links in syntatic chains, which is why some people call them connectives. Distinguishing between conjuncts and conjucntions is not diffcult. In general,the position of a conjucntion is fixed between the two units it is linking. However, a conjucnt is more mobile and can stand in various positions.
  4. 4. 2.Classfication 2.1: In term of the presence of coordination _The term coordination is used by some grammarians for both syndetic coordination, when coordinatiors( coordinating conjucntions) are present – and asyndetic coordination, when coordinators are absent but could be supplied + Syndetic coordination(explicit coordinators) Eg: He walked slowly and carefully. _+Asyndetic coordination( impicit coordinatiors) Eg: He walked slowly, carefullly.
  5. 5. Based on the structure of conjoins Segregatory coordination Combinatory coordination Dividual, separative Mixture, grouping Original sentence Two or more coordinated clauses Original sentence Two or more coordinated clauses Can be paraphrased Can NOT be paraphrased Ex: 1. John and Mary have a cold Ex: 1. John and Mary make a pleasant couple. 2. Our flag is red, white and blue. ( No analogous ) ( a combined process ) Our flag is red, our flag is white, and our flag is blue. (it means there are 3 types of flag with 3 different colors or other meanings) 2. Both my younger sister and my friend have a good job 3. She has a dog and a cat. 4. I can neither love nor hate a person. 5. Either he or she gets trouble 3. She gave all money for her parents and him. 4. She and I are close friends. 5. I watched Tom and Jery Markers of segregatory coordination: both, neither, either.. John has a cold, and Mary has a cold Clausal coordination Phrasal coordination
  6. 6. Based on the structure of conjoins Clausal coordination Phrasal coordination • definition • coordinators • Some features The combination of two or more equal clauses Ex: 1. I did my homework, and I got trouble. 2. My parents want me to do it, but I do not want this. 1. Simple coordinators: And, Or, But Ex: a) Tell me where you are, and I will not find you one more time. b) She is intelligent , but she is very lazy. c) You can play volleyball with your friends, or you can play game alone. 2. Correlative coordinators Either…or, both..and, neither…nor She eat talk.
  7. 7. • Some features of clausal coordination • Simple coordinators restricted to the initial position in the second conjoin 1 • Fixed order of coordinated clauses 2 • Coordinators precede other conjunctions or conjuncts 3 • Coordinators can link 2 subordinate clause4 • The final coordinators “and, but” should be retained5 Ex: AND _coordinator She can read this word, and my younger brother writes football. and Ex: moreover_ conjunct She can read this word, moreover my younger brother writes football. She can read this word; my younger brother, moreover, writes football. Ex: 1. She want to find him, but she can not. 2. Tom came back home, and he did not meet anyone. But she can not, she want to find him And he did not meet anyone, Tom came back home. Ex: 1. He was unhappy about it, and yet he did what he was told. 2. I like staying at home alone because I feel free and because there is no interesting thing outside. coordinator conjunct Ex: 1. He said that it was cheap but that Tom didn’t buy it. 2. I wonder whether I should send a message or whether I should call a phone. Subordinate clause Ex: 1. Time in a day is limited and now we have many things to play and use, and we waste much time for them. Clause beginning with a coordinator can not be moved in front of the preceding clause without producing unacceptable sentences or at least changing the relationships of the clauses. Time in a day is limited, now we have many things to play and use, and we waste much time for them.
  8. 8. * In term of the presence of coordinators Syndetic coordination Asyndetic coordination Based on the structure of conjoins Clausal coordination Phrasal coordination
  9. 9. Semantic implications of coordination by AND, BUT, OR 1 • addition of consequence or result 2 • Addition of chronological sequence 3 • Contrast 4 • 2nd clause being a comment on the 1st 5 • 1st clause being a condition of the 2nd 6 • 2nd clause making a point similar to the 1st 7 • 2nd clause being a “pure” addition to the 1st 8 • 2nd clause being felt surprising in view of the 1st E.g.: He heard an explosion and he (therefore) phoned the police. E.g.: I washed the dishes and I dried them. AND then E.g.: Robert is secretive and (in contrast) David is candid. E.g.: They disliked John - and that's not surprising. E.g.: Give me some money and (then) I'll help escape. E.g.: A trade agreement should be no problem, and (similarly) a cultural exchange could be arranged. E.g.: He has long hair and (also) he often wears jeans. E.g.: She tried hard and (yet) she failed.
  10. 10. 1 • Exclusive choice 2 • Inclusive choice 3 • Restatement or correction of previously - mentioned idea 4 • Negative condition Semantic implications of coordination by AND, BUT, OR OR E.g.: You can go there by car or you can walk there. E.g.: You can boil an egg, or you can make some cheese sandwiches, or you can do both. E.g.: He began his educational career, or , in other words, he started to attend the local kindergarten. E.g.: Give me some money or I'll shoot.
  11. 11. Semantic implications of coordination by AND, BUT, OR BUT 1 •Unexpected contrast 2 •Contrast being restatement (negative > < affirmative) E.g.: John is poor, but he's happy. He didn't want their help, but he had to accept it. E.g.: John didn't waste his time in the week before the exam, but studied hard every evening.
  12. 12. Correlatives both…and either…or neither…nor E.g.: He both has long hair and wears jeans. E.g.: He either has long hair or wears jeans. E.g.: He neither has long hair nor wears jeans.
  13. 13. Classification Based on the structure of conjoins Clausal coordination Phrasal coordination Phrasal coordination
  14. 14. Phrasal coordination 1 • Definition 2 • Common 3 • Classification 4 • Order coordination of phrase of equal status AND and OR are the main coordinators for phrasal coordination. BUT is used only to link adjective phrases and adverb phrases. E.g: he wrote to them politely but firmly.
  15. 15. 3 3.1 • coordinated NPs (in different syntactic functions) 3.2 • coordinated Adverbial phrases (with dependent clauses) 3.3 • coordinated Adjective phrases E.g.: Peter and Tom were here. She is afraid of snakes and cockroaches. Old and young men were invited. He has secretaries from Ireland and auditors from France here. These and those chairs are wooden. E.g.: You can wash it manually or by using a machine. They can call this week or whenever they wish. I want to know by whom and for whom it was ordered . Classification E.g.: She is young and beautiful. His clear and forceful delivery impressed the audience. These jewels were very cheap and gaudy.
  16. 16. Phrasal coordination 1 • Definition 2 • Common 3 • Classification 4 • Order + a tendency for the shorter word to come first. E.g.: big and ugly cup and saucer + in virtually irreversible order. E.g.: bread and butter law and order knife, folk, and spoon by hook or by crook
  17. 17. II. Ellipsis 1. Definition: Ellipsis is the omission of part of a sentence where the missing element is understood from the context. To avoid repetition and create syntactic condensation. (1) (4) (2) (3) (5) (6) (7) Choose one word/phrase from this box to fill in each blank: repetition, omission, part, missing element, sentence, condensation, context.
  18. 18. Types of ellipse (Basing on the dependence on the linguistic context) Ellipse dependent on linguistic context (in an adverbial finite/non- finite/verbless clause, etc) - At the moment, every person in the club is dancing but Mary is not (dancing). - (I am) living far away from school, I must get up early at 5 every day to get to school.
  19. 19. Types of ellipse (Basing on the dependence on the linguistic context) Ellipse independent on linguistic context (in block language and informal style) Ellipse dependent on linguistic context (in an adverbial finite/non- finite/verbless clause, etc) - (Have) you ever been here before? - (It’s) nice to meet you. - (I) love you
  20. 20. 2.2. BASING ON THE ELLIPTED PART 2.2.1. Ellipsis in coordinated clauses (1) Ellipsis of Subject (& auxiliary) in subsequent clauses. + Identical subjects of coordinated clause are ellipted. E.g.: John played piano and (John/he) sang a song. Peter ate a sandwich and (Peter/he) drank a cup of tea. + Sometimes, ellipsis of both Subject and auxiliary occurs. E.g.: Tim was drinking milk and (Tim/he was) watching TV. She has finished the homework and (she has) washed the clothes. (2) Ellipsis of auxiliary alone. E.g.: Pan should clean the bed and Jack (should) open the door. He was sleeping and (he was) snoring.
  21. 21.  (3) Ellipsis of predicate or predication. (3.1) Ellipsis of first part of predicate/ predication: + VP only or lexical Verb only. We are studying Grammar now and (we) will be (studying) next Friday. I work in a factory and he (works) on a farm. + VP + Subject compliment It’s cold in December in England, but (it’s cold) in July in New Zealand. Brazil was the winner of USA 94 and France (was the winner) of France 98. + VP/ lexical Verb + direct Object I go to school in the morning and my brother (goes to school) in the afternoon. Ronaldo plays football for Real Madrid and Messi (plays football) for Barcelona.
  22. 22. (3.2) Ellipsis of whole predication They can pay the full fee and (they) should pay the full fee, but (they) won’t (pay the full fee). (3.3) Ellipsis of direct Object / Subject compliment Jim opened (the door), but Marry closed, the door. (3.4) Ellipsis of A (or the scope of A is extended to the subsequent clauses) To my surprise, they didn’t choose him, and they (to my surprise) didn’t even interview him. (3.5) Ellipsis of head of Noun phrase She wore a black dress, but the blue (dress) suits her better. He wanted boiled fish, but they gave him fried (fish). (3.6) Ellipsis of Cprep Bob is bored with (music), but Peter enjoys music.
  23. 23. Ellipsis in phrasal coordination E. in NP E. of the head Biology books and history books are put on the second floor. => E. of the head in NP
  24. 24. Ellipsis in phrasal coordination E. in NP E. In Adj P E. In Prep P E. of post-modifier E. of the head E. of pre-modifier E. of determiner E. of Cprep E. of the head E. of post-modifier E. of pre-modifier
  25. 25. CONSOLIDATION 1 32
  26. 26. CONSOLIDATION 1 32 Give the correct form of each word in brackets. Neither Mary nor her friends (ENJOYABLE) (TELL) what (DO) by that teacher. => Neither Mary nor her friends enjoy being told what to do by that teacher
  27. 27. CONSOLIDATION 1 32 Find two mistakes in this sentence: That none of our two projects were rejected make us very happy. => That neither of our two projects were rejected makes us very happy.
  28. 28. CONSOLIDATION 1 32 Choose the correct word to complete this sentence: (So/by) far, he (has written/writes/wrote) three books, (both/all/neither/either) of (who/whom/which/that/whose) have gained international reputation.
  29. 29. Use ellipsis to rewrite this sentence My father has encouraged me to speak English language and French language and my father has helped me to speak English language and French language. => E. of S + aux + Od + Co + the head in NP CONSOLIDATION My father has encouraged and helped me to speak English and French language.
  30. 30. CONSOLIDATION People appreciating what they have and frequently helping others are (clausal coordinator) more likely to feel a sense of happiness and contentment. (phrasal coordinator)

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