Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Mervin smucker 2012 - PTSD - Co-Morbidity & Predictors


Published on

Mervin Smucker (2012). Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Co-Morbidity & Predictors

Published in: Health & Medicine
  • Be the first to comment

Mervin smucker 2012 - PTSD - Co-Morbidity & Predictors

  1. 1. Mervin Smucker (2012). Post-Traumatic StressDisorder: Co-Morbidity & Predictors
  2. 2. Likelihood of Suffering PTSD (Breslau et al., 1998) %• Kidnapping 53.8• Rape 49.0• Severe physical abuse 31.9• Sexual abuse (without rape) 23.7• Severe accidents 16.8• Shootings 14.3• Unexpected death of a loved one 10.4• Death of a child 8.0• Armed robberies and assaults 7.3• Witnessing a murder (or severe injuries) 3.8• Natural Disasters 2.3
  3. 3. Psychiatric Comorbidity of PTSD Significant % of PTSD sufferers meet criteria for another disorderMajor Depression 48.2%Alcohol Abuse/Dependence 39.9%Social Phobia (other studies 10%) 29.7%Agoraphobia 19.3%GAD 15.9%Panic (other studies 31%) 9.7%OCD and eating disorders 10%Personality disorders Traumatic events were reported by > 80% of borderlines Kessler et al, 1995 Arch Gen Psychiatry, 52:1048
  4. 4. Pre-Trauma Risk Factors• Female gender• Past psychiatric history• Reported childhood abuse• Family psychiatric history. (Whitney, D., 2002)
  5. 5. Peri-trauma PTSD Predictors• Traumas due to DELIBERATE HUMAN MALICE (vs. natural or accidental traumas)• PERI-TRAUMA DISSOCIATION (emotional disconnection or "zoning out“ during the traumatic event)
  6. 6. Post-Trauma PTSD Predictors• Lack of social support• Severity of acute symptoms (in the immediate aftermath of a trauma)
  7. 7. TRAUMA PROTECTIVE FACTORSPsychological Physical Resources EnvironmentalResources Resources • Good physical• Adaptive use of coping healthmechanisms • Availability of a supportive,• Sense of competence • Intelligence nurturing familyand mastery environment• Stable sense of self • Consistent social-• Hope and optimism support networkabout the future• Realistic concept of F. Norris, et al, "Risk Factors for Adverse • Stable friendships Outcomes in Natural and Human-Causeddeath Disasters: A Review of the Empirical Literature,“ A National Center for PTSD Fact Sheet, 2002.