Students with reading difficulties benefit from instruction that is purposeful and targeted at important objectives that students need to learn, progressing logically from easier to more challenging skills. Within such a program, students’ mastery of key skills and strategies is carefully monitored so that re-teaching can be provided if needed.
Students with reading difficulties also benefit from:(a) explicit instruction in which skills are clearly modeled and key concepts are directly taught, so that students are not left to infer these critical concepts and skills;(b) extended opportunities for guided and independent practice with both corrective and positive feedback, including copious amounts of engaged practice in reading and responding to connected text; and(c) instructional formats that promote active student involvement and provide many opportunities to respond.(Denton, 2012, p.233)
Tier 1 instruction in the early grades includes explicit instruction:(a) in phonemic awareness,(b) phonics, and(c) automatic recognition of high-frequency irregular words;(d) instruction in making meaning from text, including an emphasis on vocabulary and the development of background knowledge; and(e) many opportunities to read and respond to connected text to promote reading fluency and comprehension(Chard, Vaughn, & Tyler, 2002; Ehri, 2004; Jitendra, Edwards, Sacks, & Jacobson, 2004; National Reading Panel, 2000; Snow et al., 1998).
Tier II interventions can be given by a regular classroom teacher, a reading specialist or a well trained paraprofessional. Tier II interventions may start as early as Kindergarten in group of 2-3. It should be provided 3-5 times per week for 2-40 minutes. A minimum of 20 weeks of Tier instruction is beneficial. Tier II interventions focus on the students needs based on data. Progress is constantly being monitored. Students who do no show progress in Tier II will be moved to Tier III after 10-20 weeks. Only about 25% of students don’t show progress
Tier III is provided to students who are not making progress in Tier II interventions. Tier III interventions should be given by the classroom teacher in a one-on-one setting. The number of weeks-months the student stays in Tier III will be determined by their progress.
Progress monitoring is required for determining whether students are making progress towards their instructional goals. Students are being monitored on phonemic awareness, letter knowledge, word identification, phonemic decoding, word reading fluency, and ORF in connected text.
How a student responds to the interventions determines the placement of the child in a more or less intensive intervention.
Tell me at least 3 things that you learned, 2 things you want to learn and 1 thing that you would do to a struggling tier II student. Post your answers to the blog. Find two sources (articles, websites, etc.) about RtI; post them in the blog and tell me why they are good sources for teachers or parents to use when learning about RtI.http://benefitsofrti.blogspot.com/2012/07/m odule-iii.html