Plan Of The Theme:1-Types of Classifications of Languages2-Defintion of the term “Areal Linguitics”3-Objectives of “Areal Linguitics”4-Linguistic Geography and Scientists5-Main notions of “Areal Linguitics”6-Balcanic ―Sprachbund‖7-Investigation of Balcanic “Sprachbund”on the map.8-Common grammatical features ofBalcanic Sprachbund Languages.
Types of Classifications of World Languages (On the basis of Comparativism)Genealogical Areal Classification Typological(Morphological)classification Classification Tree, family, 1-Area branch, group 2-Zone Types, , comparative Classes, historical 3-Language Structure method contacts 4-“Sprachbund” 5-Isoglosses 6-Dialect area 7-Convergence, Divergence 8-Adstrat Superstratum, Subs trate
History of the development of an Areal Linguistics The concept of language union first clearly formulated by N.S Troubetzkoy in "The Tower of Babel and the confusion of tongues" in 1923. To define this notion, he suggested the German term "Sprachbund", which in many other languages used without translation. Areal linguistics - is a branch of linguistics that studies (using the methods of linguistic geography )distribution of linguistic phenomena in the spatial extent and interlingual (interdialectic) interaction. Linguistic geography appeared in 70-80 years of 19th century, When there were revealed facts of different boundaries of linguistic phenomena. In 1876 in Germany G.Venner began collecting material for making linguistic atlas of German language.In France Zh.Zhileronom and E.Edmonom created "Linguistic Atlas of France," which had a great influence on the development of Romanesque and European linguistic geography. There were published atlases of Italy, Spain, Switzerland, Romania,The term "spatial / areal linguistics" was first introduced by MJ Bartoli and J. Vidossi, but the principles were developed by Bartoli in 1925. Areal linguistics is closely linked tolinguistic geography and dialectology. And it comes from the Dialectology. In the USSR there were ―linguistic Atlases” of nation`s languages.
Subject, Object, Aim and Methods of Areal LinguisticsI-Its main Aim - to determine the area of language (or dialect) within the boarders of its linguistic features.II-The main research Methods are linguageographical method(displaying of linguistic phenomena on the map) or areal (isoglossive) method . The studies identify the regions (areas) the interaction of dialects, languages, and areal communities – ―sprachbunds‖ sharing common structural features.III-The Object of Areal linguistics is territorial distribution of languages and linguistic phenomena.IV-The Subject of Modern Areal linguistics are general linguistic problems: Division of proto-language states at historically attested languages and dialect continuum; Giving areal characteristic features of the interacting languages and dialects of certain region; Finding regularities of language contacts; Development of areal typology principles, setting a theory of language interaction (theory of sprachbund); Defining the role of substrates in the area of contacts; The study of language interference in geographically contiguous languages; Development of ethno-linguistic and socio-linguistic typology for geographically contiguous languages.
GLOSSARY Is the geographical boundary of a certain linguistic feature, such as the pronunciation of a vowel, the1-”Sprachbund” (From German -"federation of meaning of a word, or use of some syntactic languages") feature.2-Dialects (ancient Greek word diálektos- Coincidence of two or more linguistic "discourse―/diá-"through" + legō- "I speak") entities.(Glottonic C. ors tructural-diachronic C.) Is a group of languages that have become similar3-Isogloss (ancient Greek ísos- "equal, similar" in some way because of geographical proximity and glōssa- "tongue, dialect, language") and language contact. A regional or social variety of a language4-Convergences( from Latin"converge" –come distinguished by pronunciation, grammar, or closer) vocabulary, especially a variety of speech differing from the standard literary language of a 5-Divergences (latin ‖divergere” -go in different particular group. directions) 1)The phonologization of the variants of a phoneme in connection with the elimination of the positional conditions that initially determined the given variation. 2) The positional change of sounds 3) Linguistic evolution, when certain dialects became isolated and form independent languages.
1-”Sprachbund” (From German -"federation of Is a group of languages that have become similar languages") in some way because of geographical proximity and language contact. A regional or social variety of a language2-Dialects (ancient Greek word diálektos- distinguished by pronunciation, grammar, or "discourse―/diá-"through" + legō- "I speak") vocabulary, especially a variety of speech differing from the standard literary language of a particular group. Is the geographical boundary of a certain linguistic3-Isogloss (ancient Greek ísos- "equal, similar" feature, such as the pronunciation of a vowel, the and glōssa- "tongue, dialect, language") meaning of a word, or use of some syntactic feature.4-Convergences( from Latin"converge" –come Coincidence of two or more linguistic entities.(Glottonic C. ors tructural-diachronic C.) closer) 1)The phonologization of the variants of a phoneme in connection with the elimination of the5-Divergences (latin ‖divergere” -go in different positional conditions that initially determined the directions) given variation. 2) The positional change of sounds 3) Linguistic evolution, when certain dialects became isolated and form independent languages.
Terms Infl6-Adstratum(from Latin. ad - near, and stratum -layer)linguistic phenomenon, explained by the result of the Indigenous Indigenousinfluence of one language to another in a prolonged population populationcontact of neighboring nations, where there is noassimilation and dissolution of one language intoanother. For example:Belarusian-Polish and Belarusian-Lithuanian or Turkish Adstrat in Balcanic lang.-es.7-Superstratum-(from Latin. ―supersternere―-to spread upon) influence of the alien language on thenative language as a result of conquest. For example Indigenous Conquerorelements of German (Frankish, Burgundian)superstratum in French. Word ―France‖ is a S. population Language8-Substrate-(“substratum”-to spread underneath)-Impact of indigenous languages on the foreign Indigenous Conquerorlanguage, as a result of cultural dominance, etc. People population Languageswitch to the tradition of another language, but in thenew language occur features of missing language. InBalcanic ―Sprachbund‖ (Thracian substrate inRomanian and Albanian lang.-es)
Balcanic “Sprachbund”Grammatical similarities between (having no genetic relationship) Balkan languages was firstdiscovered in 1829 by Slovenian linguist Jerne Kopitar. The ‖Balkan sprachbund” or language area isa group (union)in Areal linguistics—similarity in grammar, syntax, vocabulary and phonology—among the languages of the Balkans. There is a special linguistics discipline Balcanistics (In Saint-Petersburg).The languages that share these similarities belong to five distinct branches of the Indo-European languages:Albanian Hellenic=Greek Romance languages (Romanian)Slavic Languages (Bulgarian, Macedonian, Serbo-Croatian) Indo-Aryan(Gypsy)Most likely the earliest contact was between the Proto-Romanians and Proto-Albanians, (1st century -5th century AD) this theory being supported by the Albanian vocabulary borrowed from Balkan Latin,as well as the Romanian substrate, which has words cognate to Albanian words.Common features for most Balkan languages:1-There is no Dative case;2-Lack or limited use of the infinitive;3-Formation of the analytic form of the future tense with the auxiliary verb (or particle, which arosefrom the verb), who had the original meaning "want";4-A number of common phenomena in phonetics and phonology;5-A heavy amount of lexical layers (common words from Albanian, Roman, Slavic, Greek, Turkishorigin).
MapsBalcanic sprachbundPic.1 Central Balkan Region Pic.2 Balkan “Sprachbund”
This example translates in the Balkan languages the phrase "You should go!", using the subjunctive constructions.language example notesMacedonian Да (си) одиш! "Оди" [odi] in the imperative is more common, and has the identical meaning.Bulgarian Да си ходиш!Serbo-Croatian Да идеш! "Иди!" in the imperative is grammatically correct, and has the identical meaning.Albanian Të shkosh! "Shko!" in the imperative is grammatically correct. "Të shkosh" is used in sentence only followed by a modal verbs, ex. in these cases: Ti duhet të shkosh (You should go), Ti mund të shkosh (You can go) etc.Modern Greek Να πας!Romany (Gypsy) Te dža! Compare with similar Spanish "¡Que teRomanian Să te duci! largues!"in Romanian, the "a se duce" (to go) requires a reflexive construction, literally "take yourself (to)"
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