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Accounting for Business Combinations and Consolidated Financial Statements

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Joint World Bank and IFRS Foundation ‘train the trainers’ workshop hosted by the ECCB,
30 April to 4 May 2012

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Accounting for Business Combinations and Consolidated Financial Statements

  1. 1. International Financial Reporting Standards Accounting for business combinations and consolidated financial statements Joint World Bank and IFRS Foundation ‘train the trainers’ workshop hosted by the ECCB, 30 April to 4 May 2012The views expressed in this presentation are those of thepresenter, not necessarily those of the IASB or IFRS Foundation.© IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
  2. 2. International Financial Reporting Standards Control IFRS 10 Consolidated Financial Statements [[[The views expressed in this presentation are those of thepresenter,not necessarily those of the IASB or IFRS Foundation© IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
  3. 3. Objective 3• Information about • resources under the control of the group (assets) and • claims against those resources assists users to better assess the prospects for future net cash inflows to the group which is useful in making decisions about providing resources to the group.• The global financial crisis highlighted the importance of enhancing disclosure requirements, in particular for special purpose or structured entities.© IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
  4. 4. Definition of control 4 An investor controls an investee when the investor is exposed, or has rights, to variable returns from its involvement with the investee and has the ability to affect those returns through its power over the investee.• Single consolidation model for all entities, including structured entities• Consolidation based on control – ‘power so as to benefit’ model • Investor must have some exposure to risks and rewards • Exposure is an indicator of control but not control of itself • Power arises from rights—voting rights, potential voting rights, other contractual arrangements, or a combination thereof.© IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
  5. 5. Assessing control of an investee 5• Consider the purpose and design• Identify the activities of the investee that significantly affect the returns of the investee (relevant activities)• Identify how decisions about relevant activities are made• Determine whether the rights of the investor give it the ability to direct the relevant activities (see next slide)• Determine whether the investor is exposed, or has rights, to the variability associated with the returns of the investee• Determine whether the investor has the ability to use its power over the investee to affect its own returns© IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
  6. 6. Example:Control 6In the absence of evidence to the contrary, in eachscenario below, does A control Z?i. A owns 100% of Z.ii. A owns 51% of Z.iii. A owns 50% of Z.iv. A owns 50% of Z and holds currently exercisable ‘in the money’ options to acquire another 100 shares in Z.v. Same as (iv) except B owns the options.© IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
  7. 7. Example:Structured entity 7A pharmaceutical manufacturer (entity A) established aviral research centre (RC) at a university.• A determined sole & unalterable purpose of RC = research & develop immunisation & cures for viruses that cause human suffering.• RC is owned and staffed by the university.© IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
  8. 8. Example:Structured entity continued 8 • All costs of establishing & running RC are paid by the university from the proceeds of a grant from A. • the budget for the research centre is approved by A yearly in advance. • A benefits from the research centre: • by association with the university; and • through exclusive right to patent any immunisations and cures developed.© IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
  9. 9. De facto control 9• Entity can control with less than 50% of voting rights.• Factors to consider include: • size of the holding relative to the size and dispersion of other vote holders • potential voting rights • other contractual rights• If the above not conclusive consider additional facts and circumstances that provide evidence of power (eg voting patterns at previous board meeting, etc)© IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
  10. 10. Example:de facto control 10• Entity A owns 45 per cent of the ordinary shares of Entity B to which voting rights are attached.• Entity A is the largest shareholder of Entity B.• It also has the right to appoint the majority of the members of the Board of Directors (the management board) of Entity B in accordance with special rights given to Entity A in the founding document of the entity.© IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
  11. 11. Example:Assessing power 11 • Entity A and B each have 50% ownership interest in the trust. • Entity A appointed as manager of trust. • Manager: manages the assets of the trust, identifies development opportunities, manages development activity and manages leasing activity. Cannot be removed without cause. • Relevant activities?© IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org • Who directs?
  12. 12. Example:Delegated rights 12 Responsible Other Responsible entity: entity investors • Broad decision making powers • Removal by simple majority Investment trust • Remunerated via market- based fee - 1% of assets under management and Investment 20% of profits over a hurdle portfolio • Equity interest of 20%© IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
  13. 13. Potential voting rights 13• Substantive potential voting rights (PVR) can give the holder power• Consider the terms and conditions, including: • Whether there are any barriers that prevent the holder from exercising • Whether exercise of the rights would be beneficial to the holder • Whether the rights are exercisable when decisions need to be made© IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
  14. 14. Agency relationships 14• Consider all of the following factors: • scope of the decision-making authority • rights held by other parties (ie kick-out rights) • remuneration of the decision-maker • other interests that the decision maker holds in the investee© IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
  15. 15. Judgements and estimates 15• Determining whether an investor controls an investee involves assessing whether the investor: • has power over the investee • exposure, or rights, to variable returns from its involvement with the investee • the ability to use its power over the investee to affect the amount of the investor’s returns.© IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
  16. 16. Judgements and estimates continued 16• Factors to consider when assessing whether control exists include, for example: • assessing the purpose and design of the investee (eg are voting rights or contractual arrangements the dominant factor?) • identifying relevant activities and how decisions about those activities are made • assessing current ability to direct (practical ability to direct the relevant activities unilaterally?)© IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
  17. 17. International Financial Reporting Standards IFRS 3 Business Combinations [[[The views expressed in this presentation are those of thepresenter,not necessarily those of the IASB or IFRS Foundation© IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
  18. 18. Introduction 18• A business combination is a transaction or other event in which a reporting entity (the acquirer) obtains control of one or more businesses (the acquiree).• IFRS 3 does not apply to the following: • the formation of a joint venture • the acquisition of an asset or group of assets that is not a business as defined • a combination of entities or businesses under common control© IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
  19. 19. The acquisition method 19• Business combinations are accounted for using the acquisition method, ie • identifying the acquirer; • determining the acquisition date; • recognise and measure the identifiable assets acquired and the liabilities assumed and any non- controlling interest; and • recognise and measure any goodwill or bargain purchase.© IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
  20. 20. Identifying the acquirer 20• The acquirer is the entity that obtains control of another entity© IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
  21. 21. Example:Who is the acquirer? 21• On 31/12/20X0 A has 100 shares in issue.• On 1/1/20X1 A issued 200 new A shares to the owners of B in exchange for all of B’s shares.© IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
  22. 22. Determining the acquisition date 22• The acquisition date is the date on which the acquirer obtains control • often the date the consideration is transferred, assets are acquired and liabilities assumed—closing date • may be other dates (earlier or later than the closing date) at which control is assumed© IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
  23. 23. Recognition and measurement 23• Recognition principle (IFRS 3.10–17): • separate recognition of identifiable assets acquired, liabilities and contingent liabilities assumed (think Conceptual Framework)• Measurement principle (IFRS 3.18–20): • assets and liabilities that qualify for recognition are measured at their acquisition-date fair values • measurement at fair value provides relevant information that is more comparable and understandable (IFRS 3.BC198)© IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
  24. 24. Exceptions to the measurement 24• Reacquired rights • measured at fair value based on remaining contractual term ignoring the fair value effect of renewal• Share-based payment transactions • replacement awards: measured in accordance with IFRS 2• Assets held for sale • measured in accordance with IFRS 5 (ie fair value less costs to sell)© IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
  25. 25. Exceptions to both the recognitionand measurement principles 25• Income taxes • deferred tax assets or liabilities arising from acquired assets or liabilities accounted for using IAS 12• Employee benefits • accounted for using IAS 19• Indemnification assets • may not be recognised at fair value if it relates to an item not recognised or measured in accordance with IFRS 3© IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
  26. 26. Consideration transferred 26• The consideration transferred is measured at the fair value of the sum of assets transferred and liabilities assumed • acquisition-related costs are excluded • contingent consideration is included at its fair value at acquisition date (subsequent changes in fair value are not included in the consideration transferred at acquisition-date)© IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
  27. 27. Example:What is the cost of the Bus Com? 27• Entity A acquires 75% of entity B in exchange for CU85,000 cash and 1,000 entity A shares (fair value = CU10,000) issued for the transfer.• Entity A incurred CU5,000 advisory and legal costs directly attributable to the business combination and CU1,000 share issue expenses.© IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
  28. 28. Goodwill 28Goodwill (an asset) is measured initially indirectly as thedifference between the consideration transferred (see IFRS3.37–40) excluding transaction costs in exchange for theacquiree’s identifiable assets, liabilities and contingentliabilities (measured as set out above)© IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
  29. 29. Goodwill continued 29 • If the value of acquired identifiable assets and liabilities exceeds the consideration transferred, the acquirer immediately recognises a gain (bargain purchase) • Goodwill is not amortised, but is subject to an impairment test. • If less than 100% of the equity interests of another entity is acquired in a business combination, non-controlling interest is recognised. • Choice in each business combination to measure non- controlling interest either at fair value or at the non- controlling interest’s proportionate share of the acquiree’s identifiable net assets.© IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
  30. 30. Disclosure 30 • Comprehensive disclosure requirements designed to enable users to evaluate the nature and financial effects of business combinations (and any adjustments made to prior period business combinations). • Refer to IFRS 3.B64–B67.© IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
  31. 31. Comparison to the IFRS for SMEs 31 • The main differences between IFRS 3 and Section 19 Business Combinations and Goodwill of the IFRS for SMEs include: • the costs associated with acquisition are included in the consideration transferred rather than being expensed • changes in the recognised amount of contingent consideration affect goodwill • goodwill is amortised over its estimated useful life (or 10 years if a reliable estimate cannot be made) • non-controlling interest must be measured using the proportionate share method© IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
  32. 32. Judgements and estimates 32 • Determining whether a particular set of assets and activities is a business requires assessing their capabilities of being conducted and managed for the purpose of providing economic benefits. • Identifying the acquirer in some business combinations that combine two or more entities can require judgement.© IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
  33. 33. Judgements and estimates continued 33 • Accounting for business combinations requires broad use of fair value estimates. Level 3 fair value measurement can require significant judgements and estimates (see IFRS 13). • The acquiree’s identifiable intangible assets at the acquisition date are recognised separately and might include assets that have not been recognised by the acquiree.© IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
  34. 34. International Financial Reporting Standards IFRS 10 Consolidated Financial Statements [[[The views expressed in this presentation are those of thepresenter,not necessarily those of the IASB or IFRS Foundation© IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
  35. 35. Effective Date 35 • Aligned effective date for IFRS 10 and IFRS 12 • Annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2013 • Earlier application permitted if applied as a package© IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
  36. 36. Introduction 36• IFRS 10 establishes principles for the presentation and preparation of consolidated financial statements when an entity controls one or more other entities.© IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
  37. 37. Who presents consolidatedfinancial statements? 37• An entity that has one or more subsidiaries (a parent) must present consolidated financial statements.• Two exceptions: • a parent if: • its owners have been informed and do not object, • its securities are not publicly traded or in the process of becoming publicly traded, and • its parent publishes IFRS-compliant financial statements that are available to the public. • Post-employment plans or other long-term employee benefit plans to which IAS 19 applies© IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
  38. 38. Principle 38• Consolidated financial statements present the parent and all its subsidiaries as financial statements of a single economic entity • uniform accounting policies • same reporting periods • eliminate intragroup transactions and balances • non-controlling interest (the equity in a subsidiary that is not attributable, directly or indirectly, to the parent) is presented within equity, separately from the parent shareholders’ equity.© IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
  39. 39. Example:Consolidation procedures 39 • On 1/1/20X1 entity A acquires 100% of entity B for CU1,000 when B’s share capital & reserves = CU700 (net FV of B’s assets & liabilities = CU800). • B has no contingent liabilities. The CU100 difference between CA & FV is i.r.o. a machine with 5 yrs remaining useful life and nil residual value. • B’s profit for the year ended 31/12/20X1 = CU400. • In 20X1 A sold inventory which cost it 100 to B for 150. At 31/12/20X1 B’s inventory included CU60 inventory bought from A. • Ignore taxation effects.© IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
  40. 40. Example:Consolidation procedures continued 40 • The proforma journal entry at acquisition to eliminate A’s investment in B; recognise goodwill; & eliminate B’s share capital & reserves accumulated before it became part of the group. Property, plant & equipment 100 B’s at-acquisition share capital & 700 reserves Goodwill (asset) 200 A’s investment in B 1,000© IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
  41. 41. Example:Consolidation procedures continued 41 • Proforma journal entry to increase depreciation to group values (remaining estimated useful life = 5 years): Profit or loss 20 Property, plant & equipment 20© IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
  42. 42. Example:Consolidation procedures continued 42 • Proforma journal entry to eliminate intragroup sale of inventory and the unrealise profit in inventories (ignoring tax effects): Profit or loss (revenue) 150 Profit or loss (COS) 150 Profit or loss (COS) 20 Inventory (asset) 20© IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
  43. 43. Non-controlling interest (NCI) 43 • Non-controlling interest (NCI) in net assets consists of: • the amount of the NCI recognised in accounting for Bus Com at date of acquisition; plus • the NCI’s share of recognised changes in equity (ie recognised changes in Sub’s net assets) since the date of the combination.© IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
  44. 44. Example:NCI 44 • On 1/1/20X1 entity A acquires 75% of entity B for CU1,000 when B’s share capital & reserves = CU700 (net FV of B’s assets & liabilities = CU800). • B has no contingent liabilities. The CU100 difference between CA & FV is i.r.o. a machine with 5 yrs remaining useful life and nil residual value. • Ignore taxation effects. B’s profit for the year ended 31/12/20X1 = CU400. • In 20X1 A sold inventory which cost it 100 to B for 150. At 31/12/20X1 B’s inventory included CU60 inventory bought from A.© IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
  45. 45. Example:NCI continued 45 Eliminate Investment • Proforma journal entry at acquisition is: Property, plant & equip. 100 B’s at-acquisition share capital & 700 reserves Goodwill 400 Non-controlling interest 200 A’s investment in B 1,000© IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
  46. 46. Example:NCI continued 46 Adjust consolidated depreciation • Proforma journal entry to increase depreciation to group values (remaining estimated useful life = 5 years): Profit or loss 20 Property, plant & equipment 20© IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
  47. 47. Example:NCI continued 47 Allocate profit • Proforma journal entry allocating the NCI their share of B’s profit for the year: NCI profit allocation 95 NCI (equity) 95 Calculation: Profit 400 Depreciation adjust (20) 380 25% attributable to NCI 95© IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
  48. 48. Example:NCI continued 48 • Proforma journal entry to eliminate downstream intragroup sale of inventory and the unrealised profit in inventories (ignoring tax effects): Profit or loss (revenue) 150 Profit or loss (COS) 150 Profit or loss (COS) 20 Inventory (asset) 20© IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
  49. 49. Example:NCI upstream sale 49 • Same as previous example except upstream sale of inventory (ie from B to A) • Same proforma journal entries as in previous example and an additional journal entry (below) to eliminate from NCI their share of the unrealised profit: NCI (equity) 5 NCI profit allocation 5© IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
  50. 50. Loss of control 50 • If a parent no longer controls a subsidiary, the parent: • Derecognises the assets and liabilities of the former subsidiary. • Recognises any retained investment at fair value when control is lost. This investment is subsequently accounted for as a financial instrument or, if appropriate as an associate or joint venture. • Recognises a gain or loss associated with loss of control.© IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
  51. 51. Comparison with the IFRS forSMEs 51 • Section 19 Business Combinations and Goodwill of the IFRS for SMEs differs from full IFRSs—in Section 19: • goodwill is amortised over its estimated useful life (or 10 years if a reliable estimate cannot be made) • non-controlling interest must be measured using the proportionate share method • there is no specified maximum allowable difference between the reporting periods of the parent and the subsidiary.© IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
  52. 52. International Financial Reporting Standards IFRS 12 Disclosure of Interests in Other Entities [[[The views expressed in this presentation are those of thepresenter,not necessarily those of the IASB or IFRS Foundation© IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
  53. 53. Introduction 53• IFRS 12 applies to entities that have an interest in a subsidiary, a joint arrangement, an associate or an unconsolidated structured entity.• It does not apply to (paragraph 6): • Post-employment plans to which IAS 19 applies. • Entities’ separate financial statements to which IAS 27 applies. • A joint arrangement where joint control does not exist (unless significant influence exists). • An interest in another entity accounted for in terms of IFRS 9 (with exceptions).© IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
  54. 54. Reasons for issuing IFRS 12 54• Users have consistently requested improvements to the disclosure of a reporting entity’s interests in other entities.• The global financial crisis also highlighted a lack of transparency about the risks to which a reporting entity was exposed from its involvement with structured entities.• In response to input received from users and others, the IASB decided to address in IFRS 12 the need for improved disclosure of a reporting entity’s interests in other entities.© IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
  55. 55. Objective 55• IFRS 12 requires an entity to disclose information that enables users of financial statements to evaluate: • the nature of, and risks associated with, its interests in other entities; and • the effects of those interests on its financial position, financial performance and cash flows.• That evaluation assists users in making decisions about providing resources to the entity.© IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
  56. 56. Disclosures 56• significant judgements and assumptions made• information about interests in: • subsidiaries • joint arrangements and associates • unconsolidated structured entities• any additional information that is necessary to meet the disclosure objective Strike a balance between overburdening financial statements with excessive detail and obscuring information as a result of too much aggregation56 IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org©
  57. 57. Subsidiaries 57• The composition of the group (including any changes)• Involvement of NCI in the group’s activities (including profit and loss allocation and summarised financial information for subsidiaries with large NCI)• The effect of significant or unusual restrictions on assets and liabilities• The nature of, and changes in, the risks associated with structured entities57 IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org©
  58. 58. Unconsolidated structured entities 58Nature and extent of interests in unconsolidated structuredentities• eg nature, purpose, size, activities and financing• For sponsors not providing other risk disclosures • Type of income earned • The carrying amount of all assets transferredNature of, and changes in, the risks associated with anentity’s interests• Carrying amount of the assets and liabilities recognised• Maximum exposure to loss and comparison to carrying amounts• Non-contractual support provided58 IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org©
  59. 59. Judgements and estimates 59• An entity must disclose information about significant judgements and assumptions it has made in determining:• control of another entity (see IFRS 10)• Joint control (see IFRS 11) of an arrangement or significant influence (see IAS 28) over an entity• type of joint arrangement when the arrangement has been structured through a separate vehicle© IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
  60. 60. Judgements and estimates continued 60• For unconsolidated structured entities, a summary of the amount that best represents the entity’s maximum exposure to loss for its interest must be provided.© IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
  61. 61. Questions or comments? 61Expressions of individual viewsby members of the IASB and itsstaff are encouraged.The views expressed in thispresentation are those of thepresenter.Official positions of the IASB onaccounting matters aredetermined only after extensivedue process and deliberation.© IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
  62. 62. 62The requirements are set out in International FinancialReporting Standards (IFRSs), as issued by the IASB at1 January 2012 with an effective date after 1 January2012 but not the IFRSs they will replace.The IFRS Foundation, the authors, the presenters andthe publishers do not accept responsibility for losscaused to any person who acts or refrains from actingin reliance on the material in this PowerPointpresentation, whether such loss is caused bynegligence or otherwise.© 2011 Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | EC4M 6XH | UK | www.ifrs.org© IFRS IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London UK. www.ifrs.org

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