St. Paul College
Open Source Textbooks
January 10, 2014

Kristi Jensen, MLS
eLearning Librarian, University Libraries
Open...
Education

http://www.flickr.com/photos/rocketboom/4400484443/
“…higher education shall be
equally accessible to all…”

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (United Nations) - http...
http://www9.georgetown.edu/grad/gppi/hpi/cew/pdfs/collegepayoff-complete.pdf
Question
How many low and moderate-income
college-qualified high school graduates did
not complete college in the last dec...
The cost barrier kept

2.4 million
low and moderate-income collegequalified high school graduates from
completing college ...
Financial stresses are
the main reason that

46%
of enrolled students do not graduate
with any credential within six years...
Question
In 2002, students borrowed $56 billion.
In 2012, students borrowed $__________.
In 2012, students borrowed

$113 billion
(compare to $56 billion in 2002)

HCM Strategists http://www.hcmstrategists.com/a...
The average borrower
owes more than

$29,400
in student loans
(class of 2012)
Institute for College Access and Success htt...
Billions

$1,300
$1,200
$1,100
$1,000
$900
$800
$700
$600
$500

$400
1/2006

1/2007

1/2008

1/2009

Student Loan Debt
Fed...
What can we do?
Tuition and Fees
Room and Board
Books and Supplies
Personal Expenses
Transportation
https://bigfuture.coll...
What can we do?
Tuition and Fees
Room and Board
Books and Supplies
Personal Expenses
Transportation
https://bigfuture.coll...
Textbooks
Question
Compared to the rate of inflation, how much
have textbook prices increased in the past
30 years?
Textbook prices have risen

4x
the rate of inflation.

https://bigfuture.collegeboard.org/pay-for-college/college-costs/qu...
700%

Cost Increase – Textbooks vs. Inflation
600%
500%
400%
300%
200%
100%

1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
...
Question
How much can the average student expect
to pay for textbooks and course materials in
2013-14?
The average student
can expect to pay

$1,200
on textbooks and course
materials in 2013-14.
https://bigfuture.collegeboard...
http://www.mndaily.com/sites/default/files/imagecache/node_image_full/images/cartoons/2013/12/stopCartoon1204%20%281%29.jp...
A broken model
There is a lot to indicate that the college textbook publishing system is
broken. Students complain about t...
How do students approach the
issue of textbook costs?
Impact
Buy used
Rent
eTextbooks
Delay purchasing
Never purchase
Purchase old edition
Pirate
Take fewer courses
Not registe...
Impact
Buy used
Rent
eTextbooks
Delay purchasing
Never purchase
Purchase old edition
Pirate
Take fewer courses
Not registe...
Impact
Buy used
Rent
eTextbooks
Delay purchasing
Never purchase
Purchase old edition
Pirate
Take fewer courses
Not registe...
Impact
Buy used
Rent
eTextbooks
Delay purchasing
Never purchase
Purchase old edition
Pirate
Take fewer courses
Not registe...
Impact
Buy used
Rent
eTextbooks
Delay purchasing
Never purchase
Purchase old edition
Pirate
Take fewer courses
Not registe...
Impact
Buy used
Rent
eTextbooks
Delay purchasing
Never purchase
Purchase old edition
Pirate
Take fewer courses
Not registe...
Impact
Buy used
Rent
eTextbooks
Delay purchasing
Never purchase
Purchase old edition
Pirate
Take fewer courses
Not registe...
Impact
Buy used
Rent
eTextbooks
Delay purchasing
Never purchase
Purchase old edition
Pirate
Take fewer courses
Not registe...
Impact
Buy used
Rent
eTextbooks
Delay purchasing
Never purchase
Purchase old edition
Pirate
Take fewer courses
Not registe...
Impact
Buy used
Rent
eTextbooks
Delay purchasing
Never purchase
Purchase old edition
Pirate
Take fewer courses
Not registe...
Impact
Buy used
Rent
eTextbooks
Delay purchasing
Never purchase
Purchase old edition
Pirate
Take fewer courses
Not registe...
Impact
Buy used
Rent
eTextbooks
Delay purchasing
Never purchase
Purchase old edition
Pirate
Take fewer/different courses
N...
Impact
Buy used
Rent
eTextbooks
Delay purchasing
Never purchase
Purchase old edition
Pirate
Take fewer/different courses
N...
Impact
Buy used
Rent
eTextbooks
Delay purchasing
Never purchase
Purchase old edition
Pirate
Take fewer/different courses
E...
Impact
Buy used
Rent
eTextbooks
Delay purchasing
Never purchase
Purchase old edition
Pirate
Take fewer/different courses
E...
Impact
Buy used
Rent
eTextbooks
Delay purchasing
Never purchase
Purchase old edition
Pirate
Take fewer/different courses
E...
Impact
Buy used
Rent
eTextbooks
Delay purchasing
Never purchase
Purchase old edition
Pirate
Take fewer/different courses
E...
Open
Shared Content
MIT OCW
Flickr
Jamendo
Google Images
TED Talks
BY
NC
SA
ND
Definition of “Open”
Reuse
Revise
Remix
Redistribute

http://opencontent.org/definition/
Definition of “Open”
Reuse
Revise
Remix
Redistribute

the right to reuse the
content in its unaltered /
verbatim form
e.g....
Definition of “Open”
Reuse
Revise
Remix
Redistribute

the right to adapt, adjust,
modify, or alter the content
itself
e.g....
Definition of “Open”
Reuse
Revise
Remix
Redistribute

the right to combine the
original or revised content
with other cont...
Definition of “Open”
Reuse
Revise
Remix
Redistribute

the right to share copies of
the original content, your
revisions, o...
Open Educational Resources
MIT OCW
Flickr
Jamendo
Google Images
TED Talks
Open Textbooks
Definition of “Open”
Reuse
Revise
Remix
Redistribute

http://opencontent.org/definition/
Open Textbooks
80 - 100% savings
All students have access to the content from
the first day of class
“The right edition” i...
Where do they come from?
•
•
•
•
•

Foundation funded
Government funded
Publishers
Professional organizations
Individual f...
What happens?
Students in courses that used open
textbooks tended to have higher grades and
lower failing and withdrawal r...
What happens?
• Textbook can be edited to fit the exact
content needs of the course.
University of Minnesota pilot
11 faculty adopted an open textbook
1107 students saved an average of $131 (over
$145,000 to...
Barriers
• Faculty may be unaware of the issues.
• Faculty may not know what “open” is, and
that open textbooks may exist ...
79,000 Visits
178 Countries
“This is a boon not only to students in the
United States but also in other countries.
There is so much potential world-wi...
So, what can I do?
Encourage
Explore
Adopt
Author
Advocate
open.umn.edu
dernst@umn.edu

kjensen@umn.edu

David Ernst

Kristi Jensen
St. Paul College Presentation Open Textbooks
St. Paul College Presentation Open Textbooks
St. Paul College Presentation Open Textbooks
St. Paul College Presentation Open Textbooks
St. Paul College Presentation Open Textbooks
St. Paul College Presentation Open Textbooks
St. Paul College Presentation Open Textbooks
St. Paul College Presentation Open Textbooks
St. Paul College Presentation Open Textbooks
St. Paul College Presentation Open Textbooks
St. Paul College Presentation Open Textbooks
St. Paul College Presentation Open Textbooks
St. Paul College Presentation Open Textbooks
St. Paul College Presentation Open Textbooks
St. Paul College Presentation Open Textbooks
St. Paul College Presentation Open Textbooks
St. Paul College Presentation Open Textbooks
St. Paul College Presentation Open Textbooks
St. Paul College Presentation Open Textbooks
St. Paul College Presentation Open Textbooks
St. Paul College Presentation Open Textbooks
St. Paul College Presentation Open Textbooks
St. Paul College Presentation Open Textbooks
St. Paul College Presentation Open Textbooks
St. Paul College Presentation Open Textbooks
St. Paul College Presentation Open Textbooks
St. Paul College Presentation Open Textbooks
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  • http://nces.ed.gov/fastfacts/display.asp?id=77Question:What is the average income for young adults?Response:For young adults ages 25-34 who worked full time throughout a full year, higher educational attainment was associated with higher median earnings. This pattern of higher median earnings corresponding with higher levels of educational attainment was consistent for selected years 1995, 2000, and 2005-2011. For example, young adults with a bachelor’s degree consistently had higher median earnings than those with less education. During this period, this pattern also held across sex and selected racial/ethnic subgroups (White, Black, Hispanic, and Asian).In 2011, the median of earnings for young adults with a bachelor’s degree was $45,000, while the median was $22,900 for those without a high school diploma or its equivalent, $30,000 for those with a high school diploma or its equivalent, and $37,000 for those with an associate’s degree. In other words, young adults with a bachelor’s degree earned almost twice as much as those without a high school diploma or its equivalent (97 percent more), 50 percent more than young adult high school completers, and 21 percent more than young adults with an associate’s degree. Additionally, in 2011 the median of earnings for young adults with a master’s degree or higher was $59,200, some 32 percent more than the median for young adults with a bachelor’s degree.
  • http://www9.georgetown.edu/grad/gppi/hpi/cew/pdfs/collegepayoff-complete.pdfEducation has always been a great engine of social mobility. That’s true now more than ever. In the past few decades, a college credential has become a prerequisite for entry into the middle class. Median lifetime earnings for those with a bachelor’s degree are $2.3 million—74 percent more than those with just a high school diploma.14 Getting a credential doesn’t guarantee a good job, but the market punishes anyone without one. During the recent Great Recession, unemployment rates for adults with only a high school diploma reached 13.4 percent. The unemployment rate for college graduates, meanwhile, never rose above 6.8 percent.15
  • http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2014/2014169.pdf
  • http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2014/2014169.pdf
  • http://trends.collegeboard.org/sites/default/files/analysis-brief-trends-by-state-july-2012.pdf
  • http://trends.collegeboard.org/sites/default/files/college-pricing-2013-full-report.pdf
  • Seven in 10 college seniors who graduated in 2012 had student loan debt, with an average of $29,400 for those with loans.1 The national share of seniors graduating with loans rose in recent years, from 68 percent in 2008 to 71 percent in 2012, while their debt at graduation increased by an average of six percent per year. Even though the financial crisis caused a substantial decline in private education lending while these borrowers were in school, about one-fifth (20%) of their debt is comprised of private loans, which are typically more costly and provide fewer consumer protections and repayment options than safer federal loans.2http://www.hcmstrategists.com/americandream2-0/report/HCM_Gates_Report_1_17_web.pdfFor those without a job or a good salary, student debt can be crippling. Two-thirds of seniors graduating from four-year colleges in 2011 had student loans to pay back. Average debt: $26,600 per borrower.16
  • So, what is the largest part of this cost?
  • I’m not here to debate the merits of textbooks. Some would say we should replace them. I’m really just accepting that they are a significant part of many instructors’ courses. Despite so many changes in the world around us and the volume of information available to instructors and students, they continue to be used.
  • This is one of the few cost variables a student can control…..
  • http://trends.collegeboard.org/sites/default/files/college-pricing-2013-full-report.pdf
  • http://scholarlykitchen.sspnet.org/2013/06/24/disrupting-the-faculty-the-changing-face-of-the-college-textbook-business/Text book model business discussionThere is a lot to indicate that the college textbook publishing system is broken. Students complain about textbook prices. The sales of used books, for which publishers receive no revenue, reduce sales of new books thereby prompting publishers to increase prices to compensate for lost revenue. Instructors require publishers to produce a host of expensive supplementary materials, such as instructor manuals, test bank questions, and PowerPoint slides, which drive the cost of textbook even higher. And of course, students don't decide which textbooks they use; that decision is made by their instructors. There is a fundamental disconnect between publishers and a large subset of their customers. - http://www.techrepublic.com/resource-library/whitepapers/textbook-publishing-in-the-21st-century-changing-the-higher-education-system/
  • http://chronicle.com/article/Students-Get-Savvier-About/136827/?cid=at&utm_source=at&utm_medium=en
  • Central Florida survey – don’t take as many courses, ….
  • Central Florida survey – don’t take as many courses, ….
  • Central Florida survey – don’t take as many courses, ….
  • Central Florida survey – don’t take as many courses, ….
  • Central Florida survey – don’t take as many courses, ….
  • Central Florida survey – don’t take as many courses, ….
  • Central Florida survey – don’t take as many courses, ….
  • Central Florida survey – don’t take as many courses, ….
  • Central Florida survey – don’t take as many courses, ….
  • Central Florida survey – don’t take as many courses, ….
  • Central Florida survey – don’t take as many courses, ….
  • Central Florida survey – don’t take as many courses, ….
  • Central Florida survey – don’t take as many courses, ….
  • Central Florida survey – don’t take as many courses, ….
  • Central Florida survey – don’t take as many courses, ….
  • Central Florida survey – don’t take as many courses, ….
  • Central Florida survey – don’t take as many courses, ….
  • There are two issues that get in the way of making textbooks freely available. Paper cannot be distributed in the same way as electronic versions and copyright typically imposes one of the biggest restrictions on the distribution of textbook content…..but there are more and more alternatives available and most of these begin with an alternative license.
  • If you have ever heard Cable Green from Creative Commons talk about the changing educational environment you will have heard him say that If copy and distribute are free – that changes everything.Open educational resources are items that fall within the public domain or that have an open license that allow them to be reused and/or repurposed (depending on the license selected).
  • Need creative commons wordmarkSome rights reservedgive everyone from individual creators to large companies and institutions a simple, standardized way to grant copyright permissions to their creative work. The combination of our tools and our users is a vast and growing digital commons, a pool of content that can be copied, distributed, edited, remixed, and built upon, all within the boundaries of copyright law.
  • This license lets others distribute, remix, tweak, and build upon your work, even commercially, as long as they credit you for the original creation. This is the most accommodating of licenses offered. Recommended for maximum dissemination and use of licensed materials.
  • This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, and although their new works must also acknowledge you and be non-commercial, they don’t have to license their derivative works on the same terms.
  • This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work even for commercial purposes, as long as they credit you and license their new creations under the identical terms. This license is often compared to “copyleft” free and open source software licenses. All new works based on yours will carry the same license, so any derivatives will also allow commercial use. This is the license used by Wikipedia, and is recommended for materials that would benefit from incorporating content from Wikipedia and similarly licensed projects.
  • This license allows for redistribution, commercial and non-commercial, as long as it is passed along unchanged and in whole, with credit to you.
  • Khan Academy
  • TED Talks
  • St. Paul College Presentation Open Textbooks

    1. 1. St. Paul College Open Source Textbooks January 10, 2014 Kristi Jensen, MLS eLearning Librarian, University Libraries Open Textbook Initiative University of Minnesota
    2. 2. Education http://www.flickr.com/photos/rocketboom/4400484443/
    3. 3. “…higher education shall be equally accessible to all…” The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (United Nations) - http://www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/
    4. 4. http://www9.georgetown.edu/grad/gppi/hpi/cew/pdfs/collegepayoff-complete.pdf
    5. 5. Question How many low and moderate-income college-qualified high school graduates did not complete college in the last decade due to cost barriers?
    6. 6. The cost barrier kept 2.4 million low and moderate-income collegequalified high school graduates from completing college in the previous decade. The Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED529499.pdf
    7. 7. Financial stresses are the main reason that 46% of enrolled students do not graduate with any credential within six years. HCM Strategists http://www.hcmstrategists.com/americandream2-0/report/HCM_Gates_Report_1_17_web.pdf
    8. 8. Question In 2002, students borrowed $56 billion. In 2012, students borrowed $__________.
    9. 9. In 2012, students borrowed $113 billion (compare to $56 billion in 2002) HCM Strategists http://www.hcmstrategists.com/americandream2-0/report/HCM_Gates_Report_1_17_web.pdf
    10. 10. The average borrower owes more than $29,400 in student loans (class of 2012) Institute for College Access and Success http://www.ticas.org/files/pub/Release_SDR12_101812.pdf
    11. 11. Billions $1,300 $1,200 $1,100 $1,000 $900 $800 $700 $600 $500 $400 1/2006 1/2007 1/2008 1/2009 Student Loan Debt Federal Reserve http://www.federalreserve.gov/releases/g19/Current/ 1/2010 1/2011 Consumer Revolving Credit 1/2012 1/2013
    12. 12. What can we do? Tuition and Fees Room and Board Books and Supplies Personal Expenses Transportation https://bigfuture.collegeboard.org/pay-for-college/college-costs/quick-guide-college-costs
    13. 13. What can we do? Tuition and Fees Room and Board Books and Supplies Personal Expenses Transportation https://bigfuture.collegeboard.org/pay-for-college/college-costs/quick-guide-college-costs
    14. 14. Textbooks
    15. 15. Question Compared to the rate of inflation, how much have textbook prices increased in the past 30 years?
    16. 16. Textbook prices have risen 4x the rate of inflation. https://bigfuture.collegeboard.org/pay-for-college/college-costs/quick-guide-college-costs
    17. 17. 700% Cost Increase – Textbooks vs. Inflation 600% 500% 400% 300% 200% 100% 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 0% Bureau of Labor Statistics http://www.bls.gov/cpi/ Textbooks CPI
    18. 18. Question How much can the average student expect to pay for textbooks and course materials in 2013-14?
    19. 19. The average student can expect to pay $1,200 on textbooks and course materials in 2013-14. https://bigfuture.collegeboard.org/pay-for-college/college-costs/quick-guide-college-costs
    20. 20. http://www.mndaily.com/sites/default/files/imagecache/node_image_full/images/cartoons/2013/12/stopCartoon1204%20%281%29.jpg
    21. 21. A broken model There is a lot to indicate that the college textbook publishing system is broken. Students complain about textbook prices. The sales of used books, for which publishers receive no revenue, reduce sales of new books thereby prompting publishers to increase prices to compensate for lost revenue. Instructors require publishers to produce a host of expensive supplementary materials, such as instructor manuals, test bank questions, and PowerPoint slides, which drive the cost of textbook even higher. And of course, students don't decide which textbooks they use; that decision is made by their instructors. There is a fundamental disconnect between publishers and a large subset of their customers. http://www.techrepublic.com/resource-library/whitepapers/textbook-publishing-in-the-21st-centurychanging-the-higher-education-system
    22. 22. How do students approach the issue of textbook costs?
    23. 23. Impact Buy used Rent eTextbooks Delay purchasing Never purchase Purchase old edition Pirate Take fewer courses Not register for specific courses Earn a poor grade Drop a course
    24. 24. Impact Buy used Rent eTextbooks Delay purchasing Never purchase Purchase old edition Pirate Take fewer courses Not register for specific courses Earn a poor grade Drop a course 25% savings Not always available Not always the right edition http://www.slideshare.net/txtbks/open-education-and-solving-the-textbook-cost-crisis
    25. 25. Impact Buy used Rent eTextbooks Delay purchasing Never purchase Purchase old edition Pirate Take fewer courses Not register for specific courses Earn a poor grade Drop a course
    26. 26. Impact Buy used Rent eTextbooks Delay purchasing Never purchase Purchase old edition Pirate Take fewer courses Not register for specific courses Earn a poor grade Drop a course 33% savings Not always available Must return the book after course completion Can’t write or highlight in textbook http://www.slideshare.net/txtbks/open-education-and-solving-the-textbook-cost-crisis
    27. 27. Impact Buy used Rent eTextbooks Delay purchasing Never purchase Purchase old edition Pirate Take fewer courses Not register for specific courses Earn a poor grade Drop a course
    28. 28. Impact Buy used Rent eTextbooks Delay purchasing Never purchase Purchase old edition Pirate Take fewer courses Not register for specific courses Earn a poor grade Drop a course 8% savings Not always available Lease model DRM “Book under glass” http://www.slideshare.net/txtbks/open-education-and-solving-the-textbook-cost-crisis
    29. 29. Impact Buy used Rent eTextbooks Delay purchasing Never purchase Purchase old edition Pirate Take fewer courses Not register for specific courses Earn a poor grade Drop a course 38% of 4th and 5th-year students report that they have had to wait for their financial aid check to purchase textbooks. Unpublished Minnesota State University Student Association survey
    30. 30. Impact Buy used Rent eTextbooks Delay purchasing Never purchase Purchase old edition Pirate Take fewer courses Not register for specific courses Earn a poor grade Drop a course Question How many students surveyed had not purchased a required textbook due to cost? http://www.slideshare.net/txtbks/open-education-and-solving-the-textbook-cost-crisis
    31. 31. Impact Buy used Rent eTextbooks Delay purchasing Never purchase Purchase old edition Pirate Take fewer courses Not register for specific courses Earn a poor grade Drop a course 7/10 students surveyed hadn’t bought a required textbook due to cost. http://www.slideshare.net/txtbks/open-education-and-solving-the-textbook-cost-crisis
    32. 32. Impact Buy used Rent eTextbooks Delay purchasing Never purchase Purchase old edition Pirate Take fewer courses Not register for specific courses Earn a poor grade Drop a course "I figured French hadn't changed that much.” - U of MN Student
    33. 33. Impact Buy used Rent eTextbooks Delay purchasing Never purchase Purchase old edition Pirate Take fewer courses Not register for specific courses Earn a poor grade Drop a course 2010 2013 Electronic Files 20% 34% Photocopying 21% 31% http://thedailycougar.com/2013/08/25/bts-textbook-piracy-rise/
    34. 34. Impact Buy used Rent eTextbooks Delay purchasing Never purchase Purchase old edition Pirate Take fewer/different courses Not register for specific courses Earn a poor grade Drop a course 49.2% took fewer courses http://www.openaccesstextbooks.org/pdf/2012_Florida_Student_Textbook_Survey.pdf
    35. 35. Impact Buy used Rent eTextbooks Delay purchasing Never purchase Purchase old edition Pirate Take fewer/different courses Not register for specific courses Earn a poor grade Drop a course 45.1% didn’t register for a specific course http://www.openaccesstextbooks.org/pdf/2012_Florida_Student_Textbook_Survey.pdf
    36. 36. Impact Buy used Rent eTextbooks Delay purchasing Never purchase Purchase old edition Pirate Take fewer/different courses Earn a poor grade Drop a course 33.9% earned a poor grade because they could not afford to buy the textbook http://www.openaccesstextbooks.org/pdf/2012_Florida_Student_Textbook_Survey.pdf
    37. 37. Impact Buy used Rent eTextbooks Delay purchasing Never purchase Purchase old edition Pirate Take fewer/different courses Earn a poor grade Drop a course 17.0% failed a course because they could not afford to buy the textbook http://www.openaccesstextbooks.org/pdf/2012_Florida_Student_Textbook_Survey.pdf
    38. 38. Impact Buy used Rent eTextbooks Delay purchasing Never purchase Purchase old edition Pirate Take fewer/different courses Earn a poor grade Drop/withdraw from a course 26.7% dropped a course http://www.openaccesstextbooks.org/pdf/2012_Florida_Student_Textbook_Survey.pdf
    39. 39. Impact Buy used Rent eTextbooks Delay purchasing Never purchase Purchase old edition Pirate Take fewer/different courses Earn a poor grade Drop/withdraw from a course 20.7% withdrew from a course http://www.openaccesstextbooks.org/pdf/2012_Florida_Student_Textbook_Survey.pdf
    40. 40. Open
    41. 41. Shared Content MIT OCW Flickr Jamendo Google Images TED Talks
    42. 42. BY
    43. 43. NC
    44. 44. SA
    45. 45. ND
    46. 46. Definition of “Open” Reuse Revise Remix Redistribute http://opencontent.org/definition/
    47. 47. Definition of “Open” Reuse Revise Remix Redistribute the right to reuse the content in its unaltered / verbatim form e.g., make a backup copy of the content http://opencontent.org/definition/
    48. 48. Definition of “Open” Reuse Revise Remix Redistribute the right to adapt, adjust, modify, or alter the content itself e.g., translate the content into another language http://opencontent.org/definition/
    49. 49. Definition of “Open” Reuse Revise Remix Redistribute the right to combine the original or revised content with other content to create something new e.g., incorporate the content into a mashup http://opencontent.org/definition/
    50. 50. Definition of “Open” Reuse Revise Remix Redistribute the right to share copies of the original content, your revisions, or your remixes with others e.g., give a copy of the content to a friend http://opencontent.org/definition/
    51. 51. Open Educational Resources MIT OCW Flickr Jamendo Google Images TED Talks
    52. 52. Open Textbooks
    53. 53. Definition of “Open” Reuse Revise Remix Redistribute http://opencontent.org/definition/
    54. 54. Open Textbooks 80 - 100% savings All students have access to the content from the first day of class “The right edition” is no longer an issue Retain access to the content forever Can write or highlight in textbook
    55. 55. Where do they come from? • • • • • Foundation funded Government funded Publishers Professional organizations Individual faculty
    56. 56. What happens? Students in courses that used open textbooks tended to have higher grades and lower failing and withdrawal rates than those in courses that did not use open texts. http://www.eurodl.org/?p=current&article=533
    57. 57. What happens? • Textbook can be edited to fit the exact content needs of the course.
    58. 58. University of Minnesota pilot 11 faculty adopted an open textbook 1107 students saved an average of $131 (over $145,000 total) 3 faculty edited a Statistics textbook (including adding a chapter) to better fit their students’ needs
    59. 59. Barriers • Faculty may be unaware of the issues. • Faculty may not know what “open” is, and that open textbooks may exist as an option. • Faculty don’t know where to find open textbooks. • Faculty don’t know if an open textbook is quality.
    60. 60. 79,000 Visits 178 Countries
    61. 61. “This is a boon not only to students in the United States but also in other countries. There is so much potential world-wide that is not realized because of the lack of access to quality study material.” - Faculty Member, University of Zimbabwe
    62. 62. So, what can I do? Encourage Explore Adopt Author Advocate
    63. 63. open.umn.edu dernst@umn.edu kjensen@umn.edu David Ernst Kristi Jensen

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