MA English Education
SUBJECT: 211 APPROACHES IN TEACHING LISTENING AND SPEAKING
STUDENT: MERLYN D. MOSTOLES
PROFESSOR: DR. RENELYN BAUTISTA
Learning Language Arts:
An Active and
At the end of the discussion, graduate students are expected to:
A.] gain knowledge with regards to the theoretical perspective that learning language
arts is an active and constructive process;
B.] cite/enumerate activities which promote/ support the constructivist approach in
teaching language arts;
C.] and guided by his/ her field of experience, give opinion on the relationship of listening
and speaking in learning and teaching language arts
(Cox. C., 2002,
Teaching Language Arts for
Multicultural Education, Yang,
Tae-sik, Dept. of Korean
• Language arts have traditionally been
defined in elementary teaching as
"listening, speaking, reading, and writing."
• Students’ use of language is audible and visible.
Other times, it is silent and invisible. The language
arts also include language conventions : spelling,
punctuation, grammar usage, and handwriting.
Newer skills such as word processing are part of the
language arts, as well.
An important goal of
teaching language arts is
competence for all students.
How then, can we improve the language
competence of our students?
What activities will aid us in attaining this goal?
What will be our role as teachers of the language
three theoretical perspectives that
underlie the approach in this presentation
suggest that learning language arts is an
active, constructive process, a social
interactive process, and a transactional
process (Cox. C., 2002; 11~ 22).
What Is a Constructivist
Approach to Teaching?
The constructivist theory of education was developed by Lev Vygotsky, a
psychologist and educator born in 1896. Vygotsky's theory was centered
on the principles of social constructivism. Jerome Bruner later combined
Vygotsky's theories with those of Jean Piaget, a cognitivist who regarded
students as learners in their own right, learning through their experiences.
Vygotsky's ideas, along with those of Piaget, became widely influential in
the 1960s. Their "child-centered" theory challenged didactic teaching,
the more authoritative approach that had previously been favored. The
theories of constructivism put forth by Piaget, Vygotsky and Bruner all
have implications for contemporary classroom practice.
(By Alison Williams, eHow Contributor)
Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget's cognitive theory of
learning development contributes to our standing of
constructivism. Piaget explains that all learning is an
active process in which the learner continually
constructs meaning. According to Piaget,
children learn to organize their experiences and adapt
to their environments through
assimilation, accommodation and equilibration.
Constructivism applies to language
learning in four ways:
1) Readers actively build meaning as they read, rather than
passively receiving messages.
2) The text does not say it all; the reader brings information to
3) A single text can have multiple meanings because of
differences among readers and contexts.
4) Reading and writing are similar constructive processes,
rather than separate ones.
Constructivism also applies to
teaching language arts.
Teachers can help students learn these four skills.
1) to make connections between what they already know and what
they will learn
2) to use strategies for reading(e.g., make predictions) and writing(e.g.,
draw on prior experience)
3) to think about their own reading and writing processes
4) to discuss their responses to text they or others read and write
the traditional classroom
and constructivist classroom. What
activities can promote/ support the
constructivist approach in teaching
Places the teacher as the single
directive authority: depends on
textbooks, teaches by repetition, and
tests knowledge through exams.
Places the teacher as a guide on a
subject, while students are the active
researchers and discoverers of
knowledge. Teachers use primary
resources to teach, interactive
learning, group work, and student-led
Deepening the Topic (Relating the Topic to
Significant Human Experience)
Guided by our field of experience, give opinion on the relationship of listening and speaking.
What are its implications in learning and teaching the language arts or how does it affect
our daily lives?
Speaking and listening share a very close relationship of communication. They really couldn't
exist without the other. There is a symbiotic relationship between speaking and listening. One
cannot exist without the other effectively. This goes back to the age old saying, if a tree falls
in the forest but if no one is around to hear it did the tree actually make any noise when it
fell. You can speak all you want but if no one is listening there is no point in speaking. You
can listen all you want but if no one is speaking there is no point in listening. It is our own
choice who we talk to and who we listen to, but shutting out everyone will not lead to
anything good. If someone had physical pain that was not visible and they did not let
someone know where that pain was or how bad it was, no one would be able to help them.
They could end up being severely injured. The same goes for emotional pain too. Without
letting someone know the pain being felt, it will only get worse.