Lim Jus394 Sea Censorship

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Lim Jus394 Sea Censorship

  1. 1. Activism vs Censorship: The Internet in Southeast Asia
  2. 2. The Conviviality of the Internet <ul><li>One-to-one and many-to-many </li></ul><ul><li>Low/affordable cost </li></ul><ul><li>Ease of use </li></ul><ul><li>Broad availability </li></ul><ul><li>Enthrenced </li></ul><ul><li>Technological resistance to surveillance and censorship </li></ul>
  3. 3. ICT development in Southeast Asia The State of Internet Usage
  4. 4. Index of “Voice” in Selection and Accountability of Government (1997-1998) Freedom of Speech and Press
  5. 5. Press Freedom in Southeast Asia, 1994-2002
  6. 6. Controlling the Internet <ul><li>VIETNAM: </li></ul><ul><li>utilizing firewalls, arresting cyber-dissidents, blocking websites </li></ul><ul><li>MYANMAR: </li></ul><ul><li>limited ‘Intranet’ (MWW), <10,000 emails, no free email, </li></ul><ul><li>licensing modem ownership </li></ul><ul><li>LAOS: </li></ul><ul><li>monitoring/controlling access, punishment </li></ul><ul><li>SINGAPORE: </li></ul><ul><li>SBA control, ICLS, ICP, no ‘prohibited material’ </li></ul><ul><li>MALAYSIA: </li></ul><ul><li>no censor, but …… </li></ul><ul><li>THAILAND, PHILIPPINES, INDONESIA: </li></ul><ul><li>freer cyberspace, but … </li></ul>
  7. 7. CYBERACTIVISM <ul><li>VIETNAM: </li></ul><ul><li>active cyber-dissidents - cybercafe phenomenon </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>LAOS & MYANMAR </li></ul><ul><li>diasporic community’s websites </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>SINGAPORE </li></ul><ul><li>soc.culture.singapore, Feedback.gov.sg, ThinkCentre.org, Sintercom.org </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>MALAYSIA </li></ul><ul><li>Malaysiakini.com, FreeAnwar.com, HarakahDaily.com </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>INDONESIA </li></ul><ul><li>Reformasi 1998 - Overthrow of Soeharto </li></ul>Mediator Internet users Mass mobilization Printed/Photocopied/Faxed material Political activists Cyber activists Ordinary people Info Online info Oral & Textual (Fax, fixed phone, mobile phone, email, etc.) Physical Physical Cyber Hybrid coordinating organising/mobilising
  12. 12. <ul><li>PHILIPPINES </li></ul><ul><li>Overthrow of Estrada 2001 </li></ul>Mediator Internet users Mass mobilization Oral and textual Mobile phone - SMS Political activists Cyber activists Ordinary people Info Online info Oral & Textual (mainly mobile phones) Physical Physical Cyber Hybrid coordinating organising/mobilising
  13. 13. Some thoughts…… <ul><li>All assumptions about political empowerment -> technologically determinism of debate was misplaced </li></ul><ul><li>An understanding of the political dimensions of the Internet in SEA -> historical context; existing civil society development, civil and political liberties, freedom of speech and press </li></ul><ul><li>Dichotomy of have and have-not ? </li></ul><ul><li>The rise of urban middle class (major users of ICT) vs. economic (per capita GDP) or access ? </li></ul><ul><li>Level of surveillance vs resistance/cyberactivism? </li></ul>

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