Lim Distributivejustice

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Lim Distributivejustice

  1. 1. Distributive Justice
  2. 2. Libertarian • equal distribution of rights • process over product/consequence • mostly against government -- but S&T policy is inherently govt activity • Milton Friedmann -- govt should get out of the business of funding S&T -- market stimulated
  3. 3. • center: individual rights -- but if pure market fails to produce these? • Sen’s development as ‘freedom’ • individual’s action and condition at the center
  4. 4. Utilitarian • distributional system is moral as long as it increases total happiness for the group (not individuals) • “we grow the pie; someone else cuts it” problem • innovation-development geared towards wealth creation
  5. 5. • ST for economic growth -- how the benefits are distributed (unequal distribution) is other areas’ problem... • believe in ‘trickle down’ or ‘the rising tide that lifts all boats’ effect • economic growth at national level almost always help the poor
  6. 6. ST Justice as fairness (contractarian) • John Rawls’ critic of utilitarianism: contract theory -- a moral system of distribution is one that rational individuals would agree to • but one’s starting point is affluent • a twist: moral system where individuals would agree to behind a ‘veil of ignorance’
  7. 7. • anti-utilitarian -- because of unfair distribution • justice as fairness -- least advantaged get at least some benefit • no tolerance for ‘culture’ (race, gender, etc) based patterns of unequal distribution
  8. 8. • distinctly different that dominant paradigm • current: disease of affluence (cardio- vascular, obesity, etc) than those of poverty (malaria, tubercolosis, etc); telecomm on business market phone/ email than basic communication for village; the poor more likely to bear the environmental cost of production and innovation
  9. 9. • better-grounded moral justification for current S&T policy without demanding any change in policy orientation • ‘inclusive utilitarianism’ -- but still sanctioning the world with growing inequality • ‘S&T for the poor’ -- is still marginal
  10. 10. Communitarian • cannot embrace the permanently growing gap between rich and poor Rawlsian contract theory permits • inequality produces worse outcomes for everyone -- not just for the poor • reduction in inequality at the center
  11. 11. • ‘poverty reduction’ is at the center, not ‘wealth creation’ or ‘economic growth’ • how innovation is done is as important as what innovation focuses on • participatory, capacity building, public research, private sector stimulation

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