Jus394 Nethistory


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Jus394 Nethistory

  1. 1. History of the Internet networks of humans and non-human actors JUS 394: CYBERPOLITICS at ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY PROFESSOR: MERLYNA LIM
  2. 2. the internet today....
  3. 3. common history.... (Hobbes' Internet Timeline v8.2) 1957: USSR launches Sputnik, first artificial earth satellite. In response, US forms the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), the following year, within the Department of Defense (DoD) to establish US lead in science and technology applicable to the military 1961: Leonard Kleinrock, MIT: First paper on packet-switching (PS) theory 1962: J.C.R. Licklider & W. Clark, MIT: quot;On-Line Man Computer Communicationquot; (August) 1964: Paul Baran, RAND: quot;On Distributed Communications Networksquot; Packet-switching networks; no single outage point 1965: ARPA sponsors study on quot;cooperative network of time-sharing computersquot; TX-2 at MIT Lincoln Lab and AN/FSQ-32 at System Development Corporation (Santa Monica, CA) are directly linked (without packet switches) via a dedicated 1200bps phone line; Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) computer at ARPA later added to form quot;The Experimental Networkquot; 1966: Lawrence G. Roberts, MIT: quot;Towards a Cooperative Network of Time-Shared Computersquot; (October) -- First ARPANET plan 1967: ARPANET design discussions held by Larry Roberts at ARPA IPTO PI meeting in Ann Arbor, Michigan (April), ACM Symposium on Operating Systems Principles in Gatlinburg, Tennessee (October) -- First design paper on ARPANET published by Larry Roberts, first meeting of the three independent packet network teams (RAND, NPL, ARPA), 1968: PS-network presented to the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), Request for quotation for ARPANET (29 Jul) sent out in August; responses received in September, University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) awarded Network Measurement Center contract in October, Bolt Beranek and Newman, Inc. (BBN) awarded Packet Switch contract to build Interface Message Processors (IMPs), 1969: ARPANET commissioned by DoD for research into networking -- Nodes are stood up as BBN builds each IMP [Honeywell DDP-516 mini computer with 12K of memory]; AT&T provides 50kbps lines, 4 nodes were established at UCLA, Stanford, UCSB, and Utah U.
  4. 4. What’s happening before that? click: http://wwwmcc.murdoch.edu.au/ReadingRoom/VID/jfk/timeline.htm and long even before that.......
  5. 5. the TimeLine 1964 Vin Cerf’s 24 MAY 1844 TCP/IP first first unsolicited email 700 BC email 1974 ARPA 1978 19 MAY 1924 @ 1958 1969 ARPANET connected 1927 1961 2007 4 MAY 1536 UCLA Kleinrock AT&T Stanford 1937 Vin Cerf’s paper transatlantic UCSB gateway 700 pounds phone Utah architecture computer 1973
  6. 6. the unlikely formula • BIG SCIENCE • MILITARY RESEARCH • THE CULTURE OF FREEDOM Flexibility, absence of command center, and maximum autonomy of each node
  7. 7. The ARPA Innovative think tanks Major research universities centers
  8. 8. the internet and grassroots • The culture of individual freedom -- university campuses in the 1960s and 1970s • The role of grad students in ARPANET -- Network Working Group --- bridging the big science and the broader student culture (BBs and Usenet) • The rise of autonomous networks -- influenced the development of commercial services
  9. 9. self evolution • Self-evolving development • Users became producers and shapers of the networks self governance • Shared protocol development • Agreement on standards • Assignments of Internet names and addresses IETF, IRTF, IANA, ICANN, W3C
  10. 10. but that was a history.... the internet continues to keep being shaped... socially, politically, culturally, economically... still, the initial socio-technical characteristics embedded in its design carries weight in its development....