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The Power of Cognitive Interviewing... and what qualitative research can learn from Behavioural Economics - TNS


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at Qualitative360 North America 2014
1-3 April 2014, Toronto, Canada

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The Power of Cognitive Interviewing... and what qualitative research can learn from Behavioural Economics - TNS

  1. 1. APRIL 1-3, 2014 TORONTO
  2. 2. APRIL 1-3, 2014 TORONTO Organized by Workshop Sponsors Association & Media Partners
  3. 3. © TNS 2013 TNS Qualitative Qualitative 360° - Toronto, April 1-3, 2014 The power of cognitive interviewing …and what qualitative research can learn from Behavioural Economics Gina Henderson, Director Qualitative Research TNS North America
  4. 4. © TNS 2013 1 Intentions and behaviour 2
  5. 5. © TNS 2013 3 Intention Behaviour
  6. 6. © TNS 2013 Intentions and behavior 4 Qualitative research can reveal why such intentions do often not produce the behaviour that we might expect. But its ability to deliver the correct explanation depends on where we look for the answers.
  7. 7. © TNS 2013 Motivations and needs are only half the picture 5 Behavioural Economics reminds us that human nature needs to be understood more holistically.
  8. 8. © TNS 2013 2 What Behavioural Economics brings to the table of qualitative research 6
  9. 9. © TNS 2013 Behavioural Economics in a nutshell 7 Behavioural Economics have made popular the idea… …that people do not behave rationally, …that intuition and emotion play a big role in what people do, …that choices are often influenced heavily by contextual factors.
  10. 10. © TNS 2013 But didn't we always know this? 8 Yes and no.
  11. 11. © TNS 2013 Common ground 9 People don't say what they mean or mean what they say. Behaviour is driven by unconscious processes. Words are poor tools. Intuition and emotion are important.
  12. 12. © TNS 2013 Important Differences 10  What people do/what brands they use = outcome of enduring needs, preferences, beliefs Qualitative Research Behavioural Economics  Ideal solutions  Feelings, perceptions, attitudes  Automatic, unthinking behaviour, shaped heavily by  external factors: context  internal factors: rule of thumbs/ heuristics  Satisfying, not maximizing  Real choices/ what people really do
  13. 13. © TNS 2013 New perspectives on the 'unconscious' 11  Psychoanalytical view  Raw, untamed  Repressed emotional forces are driving behaviour  Contemporary cognitive psychology view  Unconscious is seen as a collection of mental processes that are acting in the background  'Adaptive Unconscious'  Evolving system  Capable of learning complex information better and faster  Ability to act intuitively Qualitative Research Behavioural Economics
  14. 14. © TNS 2013 Different entry points give us different perspectives 12  Using meaning & imagery as an entry point  Understanding needs  Identifying positioning opportunities  Developing and building brand identity Indirect (and direct) questioning Projective & enabling techniques  Using behaviour as an entry point  Unravelling habits  Shaping usage  Influencing choices at the point of purchase (Online) Diaries Ethnography/Observation Recollection Qualitative Research Behavioural Economics
  15. 15. © TNS 2013 3 The power of cognitive interviewing 13
  16. 16. © TNS 2013 Cognitive interviewing: the power of context 14 Cognitive interviewing was developed in the 1970s by memory researchers Ronald Fischer & Edward Geiselmann. It was adopted by the police to improve the quality and accuracy of eyewitness recall. It uses a collection of memory enhancing techniques for better recall of forgotten or low- involvement experiences.
  17. 17. © TNS 2013 How memory works 15 Cognitive interviewing is based on a set of theories about how memory works. Memory failure is a failure of retrieval. If we have the right codes to retrieve it, we will find it. Contextual factors can help bring back a memory… image… smell… taste… sound… emotion… physical location…
  18. 18. © TNS 2013 Recreating context 16 Don't ask why!
  19. 19. © TNS 2013  How was your drive to work? When did you arrive?  What did you notice about the building / reception? Where did you first sit down?  Describe the area. What was the atmosphere like?  What sounds or smells can you remember?  Who was there?  What where they doing there?  What did they say?  What did you have to do on your first day? Describe the tasks.  Who did you talk to? Sample questions to recreate context 17  How old were you?  What time of year was it?  Was it close to a holiday or festival? Weekday / weekend?  What else was happening in your life at that time? Anchoring in time Environment Activities 'Your first day in your current job'
  20. 20. © TNS 2013 An interviewer with particular qualities is required 18 Sample questions  Anchoring in time  Environment  Activities Creating a stream-of- consciousness 'flow'  Not interrupting – allowing the narrative to develop  Allowing some meandering – essential to develop flow  Being comfortable with an unstructured/spontaneous interview flow  Being comfortable with silence  Patience!
  21. 21. © TNS 2013 4 The Horlicks case study in a nutshell 19
  22. 22. © TNS 2013 The Horlicks case study Horlicks is a milk additive. Made of malted barley and wheat flour Horlicks is fortified with vitamins and minerals and needs to be prepared with either hot milk or hot water. 20
  23. 23. © TNS 2013 Habits  Tea and cigarettes in the morning  Long work hours = heavy beverage consumption at office, Soy milk, Green tea Heuristics  Drinks what‘s easily available  Avoid tedious preparation Physical environment  Beverages available at work – tea, coffee, soup but not Horlicks  Often no milk at home Diagnosing lapsed usage 21 Emotional and functional needs  Being mothered, comforted, cared for  Feeling healthy and nourished  Easing out of the stress of the work, into the warmth of home Social/ cultural norms  Horlicks widely accepted as an adult drink. Option to tea, coffee Relevant attitudes and beliefs  Investing in health  Avoiding excess sugar  Adult’s don’t need milk
  24. 24. © TNS 2013 5 Conclusions & food for thought 22
  25. 25. © TNS 2013 Qualitative research is not Behavioural Economics enemy – instead, it's its friend 23 A holistic perspective.
  26. 26. © TNS 2013 24 Thank you! Gina Henderson Director Qualitative Research TNS North America
  27. 27. APRIL 1-3, 2014 TORONTO Organized by Workshop Sponsors Association & Media Partners
  28. 28. APRIL 1-3, 2014 TORONTO