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Tenney--LinkedIn Globalization (July 2008)

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Tenney--LinkedIn Globalization (July 2008)

  1. 1. LinkedIn Globalization Opportunities and Challenges Page 1 LinkedIn Globalization Opportunities and Challenges Merle Tenney www.MerleTenney.com July 6, 2008 Topics (Hyperlinked) Pages 0 Introduction 2 1 International User Data 3 1.1 Cultural Customizations of Profile Data 3 1.2 Language Skills and Preferences 4 1.3 Employment Privileges and Preferences 5 2 International User Services 5 2.1 Extension of International Job Listings 5 2.2 Development of International LinkedIn for Groups 5 2.3 Enhanced Monolingual Search 6 2.4 International Geographical Designations 6 3 Multilingual User Interface 7 3.1 User Interface/User Assistance Internationalization and Localization 7 3.2 Culturally Conditioned Data Formats 7 3.3 User Language Switching 7 3.4 International Domain Names 8 3.4.1 ‘LinkedIn’ with Top Level/Second Level Domains 8 3.4.2 ‘LinkedIn’ ASCII-Based Translations with Top Level/Second Level Domains 9 3.4.3 ‘LinkedIn’ IDNA-Based Translations with Top Level/Second Level Domains 10 3.4.4 ‘LinkedIn’ IDNA-Based Transliterations with Top Level/Second Level Domains 11 4 Static Multilingual Content 11 4.1 Multilingual Profiles 11 4.2 Professional Language Services 12 4.2.1 Writing and Editing Services 12 4.2.2 Translation Services 12 4.3 Multilingual Ad Tie-Ins 12
  2. 2. LinkedIn Globalization Opportunities and Challenges Page 2 5 Dynamic Multilingual Content 12 5.1 Multilingual Questions and Answers 12 5.2 Cross-Language Search 13 5.3 Multilingual Keyword Glossary 13 5.4 Transliteration to Alphabetic Scripts 13 5.5 Machine Translation 14 0 Introduction A business networking site like LinkedIn is large and complex. And that is just to serve one major market, the United States, in one language, English. Though localized sites in a few key languages are coming, LinkedIn is not yet configured to meet the needs of other countries and languages. The adaptations required to bring a comparable level of service to the major world markets are complex, and far from obvious. This outline is a first draft of the changes needed to fully globalize LinkedIn. The globalization effort can be broken into a number of major steps, each comprising further substeps. These steps are presented here in a logical sequence from more basic measures to more advanced measures. The first major step is to enable user data for different markets. This step focuses on user data, not the user interface. It is sometimes referred to as “multilingualization”. At the most basic level, users need to be able to enter and view profile data in their native language. LinkedIn should also accommodate other cultural expectations, such as name and address handling. One key data point, which underlies other capabilities, is user language settings. Additionally, in the context of international employment, country-specific employment eligibility is also pertinent. A second step is to extend the suite of LinkedIn services to address the needs of a worldwide audience. Job listings today are exclusively targeted and LinkedIn for Groups are predominately targeted to American users. It is a straightforward, if not simple, product development exercise to extend this to a global market. The job and people search functions are currently tailored to American audiences as well. Adding morphological and semantic processing to search strings and extending geographical matches will make these functions much more useful internationally. The next step, site internationalization and localization, is probably the best understood task in taking a site like LinkedIn to a world market. The current LinkedIn globalization effort seems to be concentrated in this area. In addition to developing and serving multilingual versions of the site user interface, it includes the ability for users to switch between localized versions at will. Furthermore, default language displays are based on the users’ personal language preferences. Finally, sites can be tailored to the expectations of different language and country markets by having targeted international web landing sites, with appropriate content, services, and localiza- tions at each.
  3. 3. LinkedIn Globalization Opportunities and Challenges Page 3 The key differentiator of the Web 2.0 world is user-generated content, and LinkedIn is a good example of this. It is all about serving up profiles and recommendations, questions and answers, job postings and InMails—all user-generated content. All of this UGC can be created and grouped by language, to serve the intramural needs of different language communities. This is the first step, but if LinkedIn is to serve its global mission, then it must be adapted to mediate communications across national and linguistic borders, as well as within them. This is not yet the state of the art with Web 2.0 applications, but the enabling technologies are there, and there is no reason why LinkedIn cannot lead the way with this compelling functionality. This is globali- zation in its fullest sense. There are two ways this can be done. The first, based on static multilingual content, puts the onus on users, job posters, and advertisers to translate their content into the languages they care about. This has the advantage that the translations they produce are of high quality and they target the languages the contributors care most about. There are major limitations, though. These translations are slow and expensive to produce. For most users, translation is not practi- cal, and for those that do it, it is only done into a small fraction of the major world languages. Furthermore, if any of the user content changes, it needs to be retranslated to stay current. The second alternative, dynamic multilingual content, depends on the systematic use of machine translation. This is available today from web-based translation servers, but, with appropriate licensing and engineering efforts, it can be layered on top of the existing LinkedIn service. This is most appropriate for broad user content, such as profiles, recommendations, questions and answers and all forms of direct communication—invitations, introductions, and InMails. It can also be used to produce first drafts of static text elements such as job postings and profiles that warrant more professional translations in key languages. It is also the enabling technology for cross-language search—machine translation of keywords, search on translated keywords, and machine-translation of the matched content back to the user’s native language. A fully global LinkedIn, like Rome, won’t be built in a day, but having a good roadmap will certainly go a long way to prioritizing, resourcing, and executing. I hope this outline will serve that purpose. “The best way to predict the future is to invent it. Really smart people with reasonable funding can do just about anything that doesn't violate too many of Newton's Laws!” ~ Alan Kay 1 International User Data 1.1 Cultural Customizations of Profile Data ♦ Software cultures defined variously, but usually as combination of country (sometimes with state/province/canton as well) and language; essentially same as locales, but with more significance given to user preferences
  4. 4. LinkedIn Globalization Opportunities and Challenges Page 4 ♦ Country designation key to contact formats, but accommodations also allowed for certain personal preferences ♦ Contact formats for different LinkedIn users reflect their culture, including personal preferences ♦ Name elements (name component fields) have culturally defined input and display formats, ordering, capitalization, and sorting behaviors—Given Name Surname (First character of name considered for sorting purposes) ♦ English: James Earl (Jimmy) Carter, Mary Lou Retton, Daniel Day-Lewis, Helena Bonham Carter, Hillary Rodham Clinton, Vicente Fox, Eva Peron, Oscar De La Hoya, Dick Van Dyke, Ludwig van Beethoven, Jerry Chih-Yuan Yang, Chow Yun-Fat ♦ Spanish: Vicente Fox Quesada, Eva Duarte de Perón, Oscar de la Hoya ♦ Chinese (Han [not shown], transliterated Latin, or westernized names): Chow Yun-Fat, Zhang Ziyi, Chang Chen, Ang Lee, Michelle Yeoh, Yang Chih-Yuan Jerry ♦ Telephone formats ♦ Broken into country, city/area code, trunk fields ♦ Universal/standard formatting; optional local and personal formatting ♦ Dialing format from viewer’s primary calling area, current calling area; possible direct tie- ins to VoIP systems, including Skype and Jaxtr ♦ Address formats (possible future use for personal addresses, company addresses) 1.2 Language Skills and Preferences ♦ User-selectable list of languages; primary language selection required, retroactive default English (for existing user base), new user default based on browser and operating system preferences ♦ Degree of language mastery ♦ Native speaker (including bilinguals) ♦ Fluent speaker ♦ Intermediate speaker ♦ Basic speaker ♦ Second language degrees and certifications ♦ English: PET, FCE, CAE, CPE, IELTS; TOEFL, TOEIC ♦ French: DELF, DALF ♦ Spanish: DELE—Inicial, Intermedio, Superior ♦ German: Goethe Institut CEF, GDS
  5. 5. LinkedIn Globalization Opportunities and Challenges Page 5 ♦ Russian: TBOU, TRKI-1, TRKI-2 ♦ User interface language preference; content language preferences 1.3 Employment Privileges and Preferences ♦ User-selectable list of countries and trade alliances with working privileges (e.g., EU, EFTA); no primary country selection required, default for existing and new users “Unspecified” ♦ Employment privileges, options customizable by country or trade alliance ♦ Unspecified ♦ Citizen, unlimited right to work ♦ Citizen, limited right to work (e.g., underage) ♦ Alien, unlimited right to work (e.g., Green Card) ♦ Alien, limited right to work (e.g., H1B visa) ♦ Alien, seeking work privileges (e.g., visa sponsor) ♦ Country/alliance employment preferences ♦ Other demographic designations common outside of USA; possible demographics include: gender, age (or date of birth), race, and handicap; downside of introducing sensitive demographics not to be disregarded, even if personal data are optional 2 International User Services 2.1 Extension of International Job Listings ♦ Extension of LinkedIn Exclusives to international listings ♦ Additional countries and languages ♦ Job listings and job search by Postal Codes outside of USA ♦ Local currency conversions and payment systems for international users placing job listings ♦ Use of Simply Hired, if available, in additional countries and languages ♦ Use of other best-of-breed job aggregators in major countries and languages ♦ Job searches based on user country and language preferences 2.2 Development of International LinkedIn for Groups ♦ Critical factor in international growth of LinkedIn
  6. 6. LinkedIn Globalization Opportunities and Challenges Page 6 ♦ Alumni organizations for leading universities ♦ Professional and trade organizations ♦ Professional accreditations ♦ Conference and tradeshow organizers ♦ Nonprofit organizations 2.3 Enhanced Monolingual Search ♦ Daily job alerts for new jobs matching user search criteria ♦ Daily job alerts for new jobs whose requirements generally match user profile ♦ Morphological (inflections, derivations) and semantic (synonyms) search ♦ Keyword, title, and company similar term matches ♦ Based on synonyms, related terms for text fields ♦ Based on taxonomies for People Search/Industry, Job Search/Job Function, Job Search/Industry, Service Providers/Categories, Answers Search/Categories lists 2.4 International Geographical Designations ♦ Postal code search for people and jobs outside of USA ♦ Radius settings, in miles or kilometers, for location-based people and job searches ♦ Hierarchical geographical areas ♦ Neighborhoods, boroughs (Soho, Pacific Heights, Bronx, Kowloon) ♦ Cities, municipal areas (Perth, Budapest, Greater Manchester Area) ♦ Counties, departments (Marin County, County Cork, Bas-Rhin) ♦ States, provinces, cantons, prefectures (Utah, Sonora, Ontario, Provence, Vaud, Tokyo-to) ♦ Countries, principalities, country groups (Thailand, Monaco, Benelux, Baltic States) ♦ Continents, global regions (Africa, Latin America, Middle East, Southeast Asia, Oceania) ♦ Nonpolitical geographical areas ♦ Multi-city areas (Silicon Valley, South Bay, San Francisco Bay Area, Northern California) ♦ Multi-state areas (Gulf States, New England, Rocky Mountain States) ♦ Cross-border areas (Tyrol, Greater Macedonia, Basque Country) ♦ Alternate geographical referencing schemes
  7. 7. LinkedIn Globalization Opportunities and Challenges Page 7 ♦ Postal codes vs. phone area/city codes vs. city names vs. street addresses vs. GPS coordinates vs. cell tower triangulation ♦ Intelligent co-location and overlap resolution, so a job listing in Hartford, Connecticut, will be a match for a job candidate seeking work in New England 3 Multilingual User Interface 3.1 User Interface/User Assistance Internationalization and Localization ♦ Presume encoding for current LinkedIn UI/UA and user content is some form of Unicode; if not, transition current Latin encoding to UTF-8 ♦ General world-readiness code review, including pseudo localization ♦ Localizations for major European languages, major Asian languages, and other popular LinkedIn user languages ♦ FIGS+BP: French, Italian, German, Spanish, plus Brazilian Portuguese ♦ CCJK: Simplified Chinese, Traditional Chinese, Japanese, and Korean ♦ Also BrE: British English dialect for UI/UA 3.2 CulturallyConditioned Data Formats ♦ Number formats (network sizes) ♦ Thousands separators ♦ Date formats (profile position dates; job posting dates; dated inbox items—messages, introductions, invitations, Q&A, etc.) ♦ Long date formats (June 23, 2007; 23 de junio de 2007) ♦ Short date formats (12/25/06; 25-12-06) ♦ Month-year date formats (March 2005; März 2005) 3.3 User Language Switching ♦ On-the-fly UI/UA language switching based on the user’s preferred user interface language ♦ On-the-fly multilingual content language presentation based on content selection preferences—content taken either from parallel multilingual user content or dynamic machine translation (MT) of user content, described below ♦ Place localization language selection popup on every page ♦ World map language selection icon instead of or in addition to “Language” or equivalent in current UI language
  8. 8. LinkedIn Globalization Opportunities and Challenges Page 8 ♦ In constant page position, for example, next to Account & Settings link ♦ User’s languages of competency (from language preferences) duplicated in special group at top of language list ♦ Languages listed in native word form and native script, sorted by native forms (Deutsch, not German; Español, not Spanish; 日本語, not Japanese; etc.); script groups separated, with languages written in alphabetic scripts preceding languages written in ideographic scripts 3.4 International Domain Names There are several patterns for international LinkedIn domain names. In addition to the main www.LinkedIn.com domain, different language and country markets will have primary domains targeted to each market. There may be secondary domains for these markets, based on the patterns outlined below, but they will be automatically cross-linked to the primary domains. There are four patterns for international domain names outlined below. The LinkedIn.xx.yy domains (3.4.1) are essential and should be secured immediately. The ASCII ‘LinkedIn’ translation LinkedInTranslation.xx.yy domains (3.4.2) are not critical, but they should be considered with a view to preempt competitors in the different language markets. With the advent of IDNA it is possible to use the full repertoire of Unicode characters in domain names. This gives rise to two more patterns of domain names that use native characters. Domain names of the form ĹīŋĸèđïņŦŗæñŝłĩτęŕåţĭøń.xx.yy (3.4.4), where they exist, are very important and should be registered as soon as possible. Non-ASCII domain names based on ‘LinkedIn’ translations (3.4.3), of the form ĹīŋĸèđïņŦŗæñŝłåţĭøń.xx.yy, are less important. 3.4.1 ‘LinkedIn’ with Top Level/Second Level Domains ♦ ‘LinkedIn’ worldwide brand, and LinkedIn.com worldwide home page, ultimately with subsites for languages and countries—recommended language-first path implementation ♦ LinkedIn.com/en/*, also LinkedIn.com/en/us/*, LinkedIn.com/en/uk/, LinkedIn.com/en/ie/, LinkedIn.com/en/ca/, LinkedIn.com/en/au/, LinkedIn.com/en/nz/, LinkedIn.com/en/in/, etc. * May be covered by main LinkedIn.com site, i.e., en and us default language and country ♦ LinkedIn.com/fr/, also LinkedIn.com/fr/fr/, LinkedIn.com/fr/ca/, LinkedIn.com/fr/be/, LinkedIn.com/fr/ch/, etc. ♦ LinkedIn.com/it/, also LinkedIn.com/it/it/, LinkedIn.com/it/ch/, etc. ♦ LinkedIn.com/de/, also LinkedIn.com/de/de/, LinkedIn.com/de/at/, LinkedIn.com/de/ch/, etc. ♦ LinkedIn.com/es/, also LinkedIn.com/es/es/, LinkedIn.com/es/mx/, LinkedIn.com/es/ar/, LinkedIn.com/es/co/, LinkedIn.com/es/ve/, LinkedIn.com/es/pe/, LinkedIn.com/es/us/, etc.
  9. 9. LinkedIn Globalization Opportunities and Challenges Page 9 ♦ Alternative implementation of LinkedIn.com worldwide home page and subsites for languages and countries, illustrated below with Switzerland and French—not recommended ♦ Country host name prefix: ch.LinkedIn.com, also ch.LinkedIn.com/de/, ch.LinkedIn.com/fr/, ch.LinkedIn.com/it/ ♦ Language host name prefix: fr.LinkedIn.com, also fr.LinkedIn.com/fr/, fr.LinkedIn.com/ca/, fr.LinkedIn.com/be/, fr.LinkedIn.com/ch/, etc. ♦ Country-first path structure: LinkedIn.com/ch/, also LinkedIn.com/ch/de/, LinkedIn.com/ch/fr/, LinkedIn.com/ch/it/—my second choice for implementation Nevertheless: ♦ LinkedIn.xx.yy for xx second level domains, as appropriate, and for yy country top level domains valuable LinkedIn Web properties ♦ Redirected to appropriate LinkedIn subsite for country and country languages ♦ LinkedIn.xx.yy websites registered today Color Code Indicating LinkedIn International Domain Name Status: Red: Someone else has the domain—Is this a cause for legal action? (LinkedIn.co.uk and LinkedIn.ca, in particular, clearly trading on LinkedIn brand.) Turquoise: No one is using the domain currently, though it may be registered—Go get it if it is not already registered to LinkedIn! Black: LinkedIn has the domain already—Congratulations on the foresight! (Alas, no domains found in this category.) ♦ Note: Conventions for identifying commercial domains differ under different country code top level domains. For the ccTLD yy, some use LinkedIn.com.yy (LinkedIn.com.mx); some use LinkedIn.co.yy (LinkedIn.co.jp); and some just use LinkedIn.yy (LinkedIn.it). ♦ LinkedIn.us, LinkedIn.co.uk, LinkedIn.ie, LinkedIn.ca, LinkedIn.com.au, LinkedIn.co.nz, LinkedIn.co.in, etc. ♦ LinkedIn.fr, etc. ♦ LinkedIn.it, etc. ♦ LinkedIn.de, LinkedIn.at, LinkedIn.co.at, LinkedIn.ch, etc. ♦ LinkedIn.es, LinkedIn.com.mx, LinkedIn.com.ar, LinkedIn.com.co, LinkedIn.com.ve, LinkedIn.com.pe, etc. 3.4.2 ‘LinkedIn’ ASCII-Based Translations with Top Level/Second Level Domains ♦ LinkedInTranslation.xx.yy, for translations of ‘LinkedIn’, for xx second level domains, as appropriate, and for yy country top level domains, valuable LinkedIn Web properties ♦ Redirected to appropriate LinkedIn subsite for country and language
  10. 10. LinkedIn Globalization Opportunities and Challenges Page 10 ♦ Domains reserved for possible local LinkedIn use in the future ♦ Valuable domains kept out of hands of competitors in international markets ♦ Consider case of lost Microsoft microsoft.co.in domain in India, as described by one user ♦ Surprisingly, nearly all LinkedInTranslation.xx.yy domains are still available! ♦ Register domains for best translation equivalents of ‘LinkedIn’ that can be expressed entirely in ASCII characters, plus all really good alternate translations—at least one per language, in combination with all countries where language is important ♦ Base ASCII-based ‘LinkedIn’ translations on both singular and plural forms in the unmarked gender (usu. masculine) in the nominative case (specific morphological forms TBD on language-by-language basis) ♦ Relie, Relies—closest ASCII equivalents of Relié, Reliés (French) ♦ Collegato, Collegati (Italian) ♦ Verbundenen (German) ♦ Ligado, Ligados (Spanish) ♦ LinkedInTranslation.com and LinkedInTranslation.xx.yy domains for all useful combinations of languages and countries ♦ Relie.com, Relies.com, also Relie.fr, Relies.fr, Relie.ca, Relies.ca, Relie.be, Relies.be, Relie.ch, Relies.ch, etc. ♦ Collegato.com, Collegati.com, also Collegato.it, Collegati.it, Collegato.ch, Collegati.ch, etc. ♦ Verbundenen.com, also Verbundenen.de, Verbundenen.at, Verbundenen.co.at, Verbundenen.ch, etc. ♦ Ligado.com, Ligados.com, also Ligado.es, Ligados.es, Ligado.com.mx, Ligados.com.mx, Ligado.com.ar, Ligados.com.ar, Ligado.com.co, Ligados.com.co, Ligado.com.ve, Ligados.com.ve, Ligado.com.pe, Ligados.com.pe, etc. 3.4.3 ‘LinkedIn’ IDNA-BasedTranslations with Top Level/Second Level Domains ♦ ĹīŋĸèđïņŦŗæñŝłåţĭøń.xx.yy, for non-ASCII Latin translations and non-Latin translations of ‘LinkedIn’, for xx second level domains, as appropriate, and for yy country top level domains, valuable LinkedIn Web properties ♦ Register domains for best translation equivalents of ‘LinkedIn’ that cannot be expressed entirely in ASCII characters, plus all really good alternate translations—at least one per language, in combination with all countries where language is important ♦ Base IDNA-based ‘LinkedIn’ translations on same morphological forms as ASCII-based ‘LinkedIn’ translations ♦ Relié, Reliés (French)
  11. 11. LinkedIn Globalization Opportunities and Challenges Page 11 ♦ 関係ある (Japanese, kankei aru) ♦ ‫بط‬ ‫مرت‬ (Arabic, moortabet) ♦ ĹīŋĸèđïņŦŗæñŝłåţĭøń.com and ĹīŋĸèđïņŦŗæñŝłåţĭøń.xx.yy domains for all useful combinations of languages and countries ♦ Relié.com, Reliés.com, also Relié.fr, Reliés.fr, Relié.ca, Reliés.ca, Relié.be, Reliés.be, Relié.ch, Reliés.ch, etc. ♦ 関係ある.com, also 関係ある.co.jp ♦ ‫بط‬ ‫.مرت‬com, also ‫بط‬ ‫.مرت‬com.eg, ‫بط‬ ‫.مرت‬dz, ‫بط‬ ‫.مرت‬com.sa, etc. ♦ Presumably, all IDNA-based ĹīŋĸèđïņŦŗæñŝłåţĭøń.com and ĹīŋĸèđïņŦŗæñŝłåţĭøń.xx.yy domains are still available! 3.4.4 ‘LinkedIn’ IDNA-BasedTransliterations with Top Level/Second Level Domains ♦ ĹīŋĸèđïņŦŗæñŝłĩτęŕåţĭøń.xx.yy, for local non-Latin transliterations of ‘LinkedIn’, for xx second level domains, as appropriate, and for yy country top level domains, valuable LinkedIn Web properties ♦ Base IDNA-based ‘LinkedIn’ transliterations based on standard transliteration scheme for going from English into local language ♦ リンクトイン (Japanese, rinkuto in) ♦ ‫ن‬ ‫كدئ‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ل‬ translation (Arabic) ♦ ĹīŋĸèđïņŦŗæñŝłĩťęŕåţĭøń.com and ĹīŋĸèđïņŦŗæñŝłĩτęŕåţĭøń.xx.yy domains for all useful combinations of languages and countries ♦ リンクトイン.com, also リンクトイン.co.jp ♦ ‫ن‬ ‫كدئ‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ي‬ ‫.ل‬com, also ‫ن‬ ‫كدئ‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ي‬ ‫.ل‬com.eg, ‫ن‬ ‫كدئ‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ي‬ ‫.ل‬dz, ‫ن‬ ‫كدئ‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ي‬ ‫.ل‬com.sa, etc. ♦ Presumably, all IDNA-based ĹīŋĸèđïņŦŗæñŝłĩťęŕåţĭøń.com and ĹīŋĸèđïņŦŗæñŝłĩτęŕåţĭøń.xx.yy domains are still available 4 Static Multilingual Content 4.1 Multilingual Profiles ♦ All users have at least one profile, in language of their choice ♦ Users may have profiles in more than one language, up to system limit (3? 5?) ♦ Machine translation, described below, available to produce rough profile translations in English and other languages
  12. 12. LinkedIn Globalization Opportunities and Challenges Page 12 ♦ All users encouraged to have a profile in English, which will be basis for MT-based translations and cross-language searches ♦ Professional editing and translation services, described below, available to help produce multilingual profiles 4.2 Professional Language Services 4.2.1 Writing and Editing Services ♦ Writing and editing services offered as part of LinkedIn Services ♦ Offered by freelancers and agencies ♦ Primary use with user profiles; secondary use with job postings, ads, etc. 4.2.2 Translation Services ♦ Translation services work very much like editing services ♦ Translations—by amateurs and professionals—may be based on machine translation drafts ♦ Primary use with English or other second language versions of user profiles; secondary use with job postings, ads, questions and answers, etc. 4.3 Multilingual Ad Tie-ins ♦ Based on country and language domains and current localization language ♦ Based, secondarily, on user language preferences ♦ Based on profile text, job listing text, and search queries, as before, but including languages other than English 5 Dynamic Multilingual Content 5.1 Multilingual Questions and Answers ♦ All questions and answers tagged by language ♦ Multilingual answers allowed ♦ Machine translation, described below, available to produce rough question and answer translations ♦ Content language preferences used to filter questions and answers shown to users, both originals and machine-translated versions
  13. 13. LinkedIn Globalization Opportunities and Challenges Page 13 5.2 Cross-Language Search ♦ Term lookup based on LinkedIn multilingual keyword glossary, described below ♦ Search terms translated to English and other languages for lookup ♦ Presentation of search results based on third-party machine translation system, described below ♦ Machine translation system produces rough translations of profiles, recommendations, inbox items, questions and answers, and job listings in user’s primary language 5.3 Multilingual Keyword Glossary ♦ Multilingual glossary of keywords in supported languages ♦ LinkedIn glossaries based on glossaries produced by Microsoft, Apple, Google, and Facebook ♦ English term selection ♦ Job titles, job skills, university names, academic degrees, interests, cities/countries, common search terms, common profile words/phrases ♦ Based on LinkedIn query logs ♦ Based on LinkedIn user profiles ♦ Based on LinkedIn job listings ♦ Based on LinkedIn questions and answers ♦ Sources of translation equivalents ♦ Collaborative effort between LinkedIn linguists, external terminologists (contracted or merely designated from LinkedIn user community), and general multilingual user community ♦ Government and industry term banks ♦ Corporate glossaries ♦ Community glossaries (e.g., Microsoft and Apple community glossaries), augmented by Google and Facebook glossaries and extended to LinkedIn terms and translations provided by LinkedIn users 5.4 Transliterationto Alphabetic Scripts ♦ Used for personal names, company names, and other proper nouns, not general text ♦ From other alphabetic scripts to Latin script, with English bias ♦ From ideographic scripts to Latin script, with English bias
  14. 14. LinkedIn Globalization Opportunities and Challenges Page 14 ♦ From alphabetic scripts to Asian alphabets, with appropriate language biases ♦ From Asian scripts to other scripts, with appropriate language biases 5.5 Machine Translation ♦ Third-party sources: Systran, ProMT, Language Weaver (USC statistical MT research spin- off), Asia Online, Google, and Microsoft Research ♦ May be customizable, e.g., to incorporate translation equivalents taken from our multilingual keyword glossary ♦ Used for translating user profiles, recommendations, inbox items, questions and answers, and job listings

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