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CALCIUM CARBONATE GCSE SCIENCE

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This is a revision section for GCSE chemistry science.

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CALCIUM CARBONATE GCSE SCIENCE

  1. 1. CALCIUMCALCIUMCARBONATECARBONATEA guide for GCSE studentsA guide for GCSE students
  2. 2. CALCIUM CARBONATECALCIUM CARBONATEINTRODUCTIONThis Powerpoint show is one of several produced to help studentsunderstand selected GCSE Chemistry topics. It is based on the requirementsof the AQA specification but is suitable for other examination boards.Individual students may use the material at home for revision purposes andit can also prove useful for classroom teaching with an interactive whiteboard.Accompanying notes on this, and the full range of AS and A2 Chemistrytopics, are available from the KNOCKHARDY SCIENCE WEBSITE at...www.knockhardy.org.uk/gcse.htmAll diagrams and animations in this Powerpoint are original andcreated by Jonathan Hopton. Permission must be obtained for theiruse in any commercial work.All diagrams and animations in this Powerpoint are original andcreated by Jonathan Hopton. Permission must be obtained for theiruse in any commercial work.
  3. 3. LIMESTONELIMESTONELimestone is made of calcium carbonate CaCO3Origin Formed in the sea millions of years agofrom the remains of shellsFound in places like the Peak District of DerbyshireExtraction Quarried in large amountse.g. 150 million tonnes each year in the UKIT IS AN IMPORTANT RAW MATERIALUse building material and road chippingsneutralising excess acid in lakes and soilmaking cement and concreteadded to breadadded to toothpaste
  4. 4. LIMESTONE PRODUCTS ARE VERY USEFULLIMESTONE PRODUCTS ARE VERY USEFULGLASSCONCRETECEMENT / MORTAR…… especially in building housesespecially in building houses
  5. 5. CARBONATESCARBONATESFormulae All carbonates contain the CO3 unitThe compounds are ionic; the formula is found bybalancing the charges of the ionsCarbonate ions have a 2- charge CO32-CALCIUM CARBONATECaCO3SODIUM CARBONATENa2CO3
  6. 6. CARBONATESCARBONATESFormulae All carbonates contain the CO3 unitThe compounds are ionic; the formula is found bybalancing the charges of the ionsCarbonate ions have a 2- charge CO32-CALCIUM CARBONATECaCO3SODIUM CARBONATENa2CO3
  7. 7. CARBONATESCARBONATESFormulae All carbonates contain the CO3 unitChemicalformulasodium carbonate Na2CO3calcium carbonate CaCO3magnesium carbonate MgCO3
  8. 8. CARBONATESCARBONATESFormulae All carbonates contain the CO3 unitChemicalformulasodium carbonate Na2CO3calcium carbonate CaCO3magnesium carbonate MgCO3
  9. 9. PROCESSING LIMESTONEPROCESSING LIMESTONERoasting Heating limestone very strongly makes it break upThe process is known as THERMAL DECOMPOSITIONcalcium carbonate —> calcium oxide + carbon dioxideCaCO3 —> CaO + CO2Calcium oxide is also known as QUICKLIME
  10. 10. ACTION OF HEAT ON METAL CARBONATESACTION OF HEAT ON METAL CARBONATESMETHODPlace a small amount of one of thesolid carbonates in a dry test tube.Place about 2cm3of lime water inanother test tube. Heat the solid,gently at first, then more strongly.Test any gas with the limewater.Appearance CO2 producedCalcium carbonateCaCO3Copper carbonateCuCO3Magnesium carbonateMgCO3Zinc carbonateZnCO3Residue Conclusionmetalcarbonatelime waterCO2
  11. 11. ACTION OF HEAT ON METAL CARBONATESACTION OF HEAT ON METAL CARBONATESWHITESOLIDAppearance CO2 producedCalciumcarbonateCaCO3CoppercarbonateCuCO3MagnesiumcarbonateMgCO3Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) also decomposes on heating but it requires more heatthan an ordinary bunsen burner can supply.ZinccarbonateZnCO3WHITESOLIDCalcium oxideformed (needs verystrong heating)BLACKSOLIDCopper oxideformedWHITESOLIDMagnesium oxideformedYELLOW SOLIDWHICH TURNSWHITE WHEN COOLGREENSOLID WHITESOLIDWHITESOLID Residue ConclusionZinc oxideformed
  12. 12. THERMAL DECOMPOSITION OF CARBONATESTHERMAL DECOMPOSITION OF CARBONATESAll metal carbonates decompose when heated to form carbon dioxide and ametal oxide. The process is known as THERMAL DECOMPOSITIONcalcium carbonate —> calcium oxide + carbon dioxidecopper carbonate —> copper oxide + carbon dioxidemagnesium carbonate —> magnesium oxide + carbon dioxidesodium carbonate * —> sodium oxide + carbon dioxidezinc carbonate —> zinc oxide + carbon dioxide* THE THERMAL DECOMPOSITION OF GROUP I METAL CARBONATES(SUCH AS SODIUM CARBONATE) REQUIRES A TREMENDOUS AMOUNT OF ENERGY– A BUNSEN BURNER IS NOT HOT ENOUGH+
  13. 13. THERMAL DECOMPOSITION OF CARBONATESTHERMAL DECOMPOSITION OF CARBONATESCaCO3 —> CaO + CO2CuCO3 —> CuO + CO2MgCO3 —> MgO + CO2Na2CO3 —> Na2O + CO2ZnCO3 —> ZnO + CO2+++++Write out the chemical equations
  14. 14. THERMAL DECOMPOSITION OF CARBONATESTHERMAL DECOMPOSITION OF CARBONATESAll metal carbonates decompose when heated to form carbon dioxide and ametal oxide. The process is known as THERMAL DECOMPOSITIONcalcium carbonate —> calcium oxide + carbon dioxidecopper carbonate —> copper oxide + carbon dioxidemagnesium carbonate —> magnesium oxide + carbon dioxidesodium carbonate * —> sodium oxide + carbon dioxidezinc carbonate —> zinc oxide + carbon dioxide* THE THERMAL DECOMPOSITION OF GROUP I METAL CARBONATES(SUCH AS SODIUM CARBONATE) REQUIRES A TREMENDOUS AMOUNT OF ENERGY– A BUNSEN BURNER IS NOT HOT ENOUGH
  15. 15. THERMAL DECOMPOSITION OF CARBONATESTHERMAL DECOMPOSITION OF CARBONATESCaCO3 —> CaO + CO2CuCO3 —> CuO + CO2MgCO3 —> MgO + CO2Na2CO3 —> Na2O + CO2ZnCO3 —> ZnO + CO2+++++
  16. 16. QUICKLIMEQUICKLIMECalcium oxide CaOReacts with water to form SLAKED LIME (CALCIUM HYDROXIDE)calcium oxide + water ——> calcium hydroxide + HEATCaO + H2O ——> Ca(OH)2Use added to soil to make it less acidicadded to lakes which have been polluted by acid rain
  17. 17. SLAKED LIME & LIME WATERSLAKED LIME & LIME WATERLime water is a solution of calcium hydroxide in waterit is an alkaliit is used to test for the gas carbon dioxide(limewater goes ‘cloudy’ if CO2 is present)calcium hydroxide + carbon dioxide ——> calcium carbonate + waterCa(OH)2 + CO2 ——> CaCO3 + H2O
  18. 18. LIMESTONE CYCLELIMESTONE CYCLEAQUEOUSCALCIUMHYDROXIDE(lime water)SOLID CALCIUM HYDROXIDE (slaked lime)CALCIUM CARBONATE (limestone)CALCIUMOXIDE(quicklime)HEATHEATHEATHEAT
  19. 19. CEMENT, CONCRETE & GLASSCEMENT, CONCRETE & GLASSAll three rely on limestone for their manufactureCEMENT powdered claypowdered limestonemix and roast them in a rotary kiln
  20. 20. CEMENT, CONCRETE & GLASSCEMENT, CONCRETE & GLASSAll three rely on limestone for their manufactureMORTAR cementsandwatermortar is a ‘thin’ form of concrete used for bricklaying
  21. 21. CEMENT, CONCRETE & GLASSCEMENT, CONCRETE & GLASSAll three rely on limestone for their manufactureCONCRETE cement - bonds aggregate togethersandpowdered rock or chippingswater - makes it easier to work with- causes a chemical reaction to harden the cementallow the mixture to dry slowly (set)you get a very hard solidit is much stronger than simple cement
  22. 22. CEMENT, CONCRETE & GLASSCEMENT, CONCRETE & GLASSAll three rely on limestone for their manufactureCONCRETE cement - bonds aggregate togethersandpowdered rock or chippingswater - makes it easier to work with- causes a chemical reaction to harden the cementYou choose the correct mixture for the job you are doingfoundations, driveways cement (1) large chippings (4½)paths cement (1) small chippings (3½)filling cracks, holes cement (1) coarse sand (3)you must not add too much water otherwise it takes ages to drydon’t let it set too quickly otherwise it cracksavoid laying concrete when it is frosty - it disintegratesFor plastering walls GYPSUM is used; it is a form of calcium sulphate
  23. 23. CEMENT, CONCRETE & GLASSCEMENT, CONCRETE & GLASSAll three rely on limestone for their manufactureGLASS made by heating a mixture of…limestone - calcium carbonatesand - silicasoda - sodium carbonate+ small amounts of other chemicals can be added to make special glass
  24. 24. REACTION OF ACIDS WITH CARBONATESREACTION OF ACIDS WITH CARBONATESAll carbonates react with acids to form a salt, carbon dioxide and water.It is an example of a NEUTRALISATION REACTIONCARBONATE + ACID —> A SALT + CARBON DIOXIDE + WATEREveryday examplesBad - acid rain attacks limestone rocks in the countryside- monuments and statues are attackedGood - carbonates can neutralise excess acid in the stomach
  25. 25. REACTION OF ACIDS WITH CARBONATESREACTION OF ACIDS WITH CARBONATESAll carbonates react with acids to form a salt, carbon dioxide and water.It is an example of a NEUTRALISATION REACTIONCARBONATE + ACID —> A SALT + CARBON DIOXIDE + WATERTHE SALT THAT IS FORMED DEPENDS ON…THE METAL CARBONATE AND THE ACID USED
  26. 26. REACTION OF ACIDS WITH CARBONATESREACTION OF ACIDS WITH CARBONATESAll carbonates react with acids to form a salt, carbon dioxide and water.It is an example of a NEUTRALISATION REACTIONCARBONATE + ACID —> A SALT + CARBON DIOXIDE + WATERTHE SALT THAT IS FORMED DEPENDS ON…THE METAL CARBONATE AND THE ACID USEDHYDROCHLORIC ACID produces CHLORIDESNITRIC ACID produces NITRATESSULPHURIC ACID produces SULPHATES
  27. 27. REACTION OF ACIDS WITH CARBONATESREACTION OF ACIDS WITH CARBONATESAll carbonates react with acids to form a salt, carbon dioxide and water.It is an example of a NEUTRALISATION REACTIONCARBONATE + ACID —> A SALT + CARBON DIOXIDE + WATERcalcium + hydrochloric —> calcium + carbon + watercarbonate acid chloride dioxidesodium + sulphuric —> sodium + carbon + watercarbonate acid sulphate dioxidecopper + nitric —> copper + carbon + watercarbonate acid nitrate dioxideHYDROCHLORIC ACID produces CHLORIDESNITRIC ACID produces NITRATESSULPHURIC ACID produces SULPHATES
  28. 28. REACTION OF ACIDS WITH CARBONATESREACTION OF ACIDS WITH CARBONATESAll carbonates react with acids to form a salt, carbon dioxide and water.It is an example of a NEUTRALISATION REACTIONCARBONATE + ACID —> A SALT + CARBON DIOXIDE + WATERcalcium + hydrochloric —> calcium + carbon + watercarbonate acid chloride dioxidesodium + sulphuric —> sodium + carbon + watercarbonate acid sulphate dioxidecopper + nitric —> copper + carbon + watercarbonate acid nitrate dioxideHYDROCHLORIC ACID produces CHLORIDESNITRIC ACID produces NITRATESSULPHURIC ACID produces SULPHATES
  29. 29. REACTION OF ACIDS WITH CARBONATESREACTION OF ACIDS WITH CARBONATESAll carbonates react with acids to form a salt, carbon dioxide and water.It is an example of a NEUTRALISATION REACTIONCARBONATE + ACID —> A SALT + CARBON DIOXIDE + WATERcalcium + hydrochloric —> calcium + carbon + watercarbonate acid chloride dioxidesodium + sulphuric —> sodium + carbon + watercarbonate acid sulphate dioxidecopper + nitric —> copper + carbon + watercarbonate acid nitrate dioxideHYDROCHLORIC ACID produces CHLORIDESNITRIC ACID produces NITRATESSULPHURIC ACID produces SULPHATES
  30. 30. REACTION OF ACIDS WITH CARBONATESREACTION OF ACIDS WITH CARBONATESAll carbonates react with acids to form a salt, carbon dioxide and water.It is an example of a NEUTRALISATION REACTIONCARBONATE + ACID —> A SALT + CARBON DIOXIDE + WATERcalcium + hydrochloric —> calcium + carbon + watercarbonate acid chloride dioxidesodium + sulphuric —> sodium + carbon + watercarbonate acid sulphate dioxidecopper + nitric —> copper + carbon + watercarbonate acid nitrate dioxideHYDROCHLORIC ACID produces CHLORIDESNITRIC ACID produces NITRATESSULPHURIC ACID produces SULPHATES
  31. 31. REACTION OF ACIDS WITH CARBONATESREACTION OF ACIDS WITH CARBONATESAll carbonates react with acids to form a salt, carbon dioxide and water.It is an example of a NEUTRALISATION REACTIONCARBONATE + ACID —> A SALT + CARBON DIOXIDE + WATERcalcium + hydrochloric —> calcium + carbon + watercarbonate acid chloride dioxidesodium + sulphuric —> sodium + carbon + watercarbonate acid sulphate dioxidecopper + nitric —> copper + carbon + watercarbonate acid nitrate dioxideHYDROCHLORIC ACID produces CHLORIDESNITRIC ACID produces NITRATESSULPHURIC ACID produces SULPHATES
  32. 32. REACTION OF ACIDS WITH CARBONATESREACTION OF ACIDS WITH CARBONATESmagnesium + nitric —> magnesium + carbon + watercarbonate acid nitrate dioxidezinc + hydrochloric —> zinc + carbon + watercarbonate acid chloride dioxidesodium + nitric —> sodium + carbon + watercarbonate acid nitrate dioxidezinc + sulphuric —> zinc + carbon + watercarbonate acid sulphate dioxidecopper + sulphuric —> copper + carbon + watercarbonate acid sulphate dioxidepotassium + hydrochloric —> potassium + carbon + watercarbonate acid chloride dioxide
  33. 33. REACTION OF ACIDS WITH CARBONATESREACTION OF ACIDS WITH CARBONATESmagnesium + nitric —> magnesium + carbon + watercarbonate acid nitrate dioxidezinc + hydrochloric —> zinc + carbon + watercarbonate acid chloride dioxidesodium + nitric —> sodium + carbon + watercarbonate acid nitrate dioxidezinc + sulphuric —> zinc + carbon + watercarbonate acid sulphate dioxidecopper + sulphuric —> copper + carbon + watercarbonate acid sulphate dioxidepotassium + hydrochloric —> potassium + carbon + watercarbonate acid chloride dioxide
  34. 34. AQA C1.2.1AQA C1.2.1 Calcium carbonate - summaryCalcium carbonate - summarya) Limestone, mainly composed of the compound calcium carbonate (CaCO3), isquarried and can be used as a building material.b) Calcium carbonate can be decomposed by heating (thermal decomposition) tomake calcium oxide and carbon dioxide.c) The carbonates of magnesium, copper, zinc, calcium and sodium decompose onheating in a similar way to give carbon dioxide and the metal oxide.Not all carbonates of metals in Group 1 of the periodic table decompose at thetemperatures reached by a Bunsen burner.d) Calcium oxide reacts with water to produce calcium hydroxide, which is an alkalithat can be used in the neutralisation of acids.e) A solution of calcium hydroxide in water (limewater) reacts with carbon dioxideto produce calcium carbonate. Limewater is used as a test for carbon dioxide.Carbon dioxide turns limewater cloudy.f) Carbonates (eg Mg, Cu, Zn, Ca, Na) react with acids to produce carbon dioxide, asalt and water. Limestone is damaged by acid rain.g) Limestone is heated with clay to make cement. Cement is mixed with sand tomake mortar and with sand and aggregate to make concrete.
  35. 35. CALCIUMCALCIUMCARBONATECARBONATETHE ENDTHE ENDThanks for watching!Thanks for watching! 

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