The female reproductive anatomy includes parts inside and outside the body. The main external structures of the female reproductive anatomy include: <ul><ul><li>Labia majora </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Labia minora </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mons Pubis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vestibule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clitoris </li></ul></ul>
The internal reproductive organs in the female include: <ul><ul><li>Vagina : The vagina is a canal that joins the cervix (the lower part of uterus) to the outside of the body. It also is known as the birth canal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cervix : The cervix projects into the upper portion of the vagina. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uterus (womb): The uterus is a hollow, pear-shaped organ that is the home to a developing fetus. The uterus is divided into two parts: the cervix, which is the lower part that opens into the vagina, and the main body of the uterus, called the corpus. The corpus can easily expand to hold a developing baby. A channel through the cervix allows sperm to enter and menstrual blood to exit. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ovaries : The ovaries are small, oval-shaped glands that are located on either side of the uterus. The ovaries produce eggs and hormones. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fallopian tubes : These are narrow tubes that are attached to the upper part of the uterus and serve as tunnels for the ova (egg cells) to travel from the ovaries to the uterus. Conception, the fertilization of an egg by a sperm, normally occurs in the fallopian tubes. The fertilized egg then moves to the uterus, where it implants into the lining of the uterine wall. </li></ul></ul>
One type of disease that effects the female reproductive system is Human Papillomavirus (HPV) HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection in both males and females. There are more than 40 HPV types that can affect the genital area as well as the throat and mouth. Most people who become infected with the virus don’t even know they have it because they show no signs or symptoms.
Most people with HPV do not develop symptoms or health problems from it. In 90% of cases, the body’s immune system clears HPV naturally within two years. <ul><ul><li>But sometimes, certain types of HPV can cause genital warts in males and females. Rarely, these types can also cause warts in the throat - a condition called recurrent respiratory papillomatosis or RRP. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other HPV types can cause cervical cancer. These types can also cause other, less common but serious cancers, including cancers of the vulva, vagina, penis, anus, and head and neck (tongue, tonsils and throat). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The types of HPV that can cause genital warts are not the same as the types that can cause cancer. There is no way to know which people who get HPV will go on to develop cancer or other health problems. </li></ul></ul>
Genital warts <ul><ul><li>Genital warts usually appear as a small bump or groups of bumps in the genital area. They can be small or large, raised or flat, or shaped like a cauliflower. Health care providers can diagnose warts by looking at the genital area during an office visit. Warts can appear within weeks or months after sexual contact with an infected partner—even if the infected partner has no signs of genital warts. If left untreated, genital warts might go away, remain unchanged, or increase in size or number. They will not turn into cancer. </li></ul></ul>
Cervical cancer <ul><ul><li>Cervical cancer usually does not have symptoms until it is quite advanced. For this reason, it is important for women to get regular screening for cervical cancer . Screening tests can find early signs of disease so that problems can be treated early, before they ever turn into cancer. </li></ul></ul>
What causes the HPV virus???? HPV is caused by genital contact. The most common way to contract HPV is through having multiple sex partners, having sex at an early age and having a partner with multiple sex partners, most often during vaginal or anal sex. Condoms provide most protection, however, they cannot prevent infection completely because it does not cover all areas of the genital region.
How is the HPV virus cured and/or controlled??? <ul><ul><li>Unfortunately, there is no known cure for HPV. While the types of HPV that can result in genital warts and cervical cancer are able to be managed by prescription medication, topical serums, and natural immune boosting supplements, none of these options can cure the HPV virus. </li></ul></ul>
HPV Vaccinations <ul><ul><li>There are a number of ways to control HPV. The use of condoms regularly and properly, a mutually faithful relationship and the HPV vaccines Gardasil and Cervarix. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gardasil prevents infection of four of the major strains of HPV – 2 strains caused 70% of cervical cancer and 2 strains that cause 90% of genital wart cases. Gardasil is given in 3 doses over a 6 month period to females 9 to 26 years of age. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cervarix is used more broadly in several countries outside the U.S., this vaccine only protects against the HPV strains that cause 70% of cervical cancer. </li></ul></ul>
The only sure way to prevent HPV is to abstain from all sexual activity. For those who are sexually active, condoms may lower the chances of getting HPV, if used all the time and the right way. Condoms may also lower the risk of developing HPV-related diseases (genital warts and cervical cancer). But HPV can infect areas that are not covered by a condom—so condoms may not fully protect against HPV. Sexually active adults can also lower their risk of HPV by being in a mutually faithful relationship with someone who has had no or few sex partners, or by limiting their number of sex partners. The fewer partners a person has had – the less likely he or she is to have HPV. But even persons with only one lifetime sex partner can get HPV, if their partner has had previous partners. SUMMARY