© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Students withStudents with
Communication DisordersCommunication Disorders
Chapter 7...
© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students
What is the History ofWhat is the Histo...
© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students
What is Communication?What is Communica...
© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students
What are the Four Speech Systems?What a...
© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students
What are Five Components ofWhat are Fiv...
© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students
What is the IDEA 04 Definition?What is ...
© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students
What is the ASHA Definition ofWhat is t...
© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students
What is the Prevalence ofWhat is the Pr...
© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students
What is aWhat is a
Secondary Language D...
© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students
What are the Causes ofWhat are the Caus...
© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students
What are Possible Characteristics ofWha...
© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students
What are Possible Characteristics ofWha...
© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students
What are Possible Characteristics ofWha...
© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students
How are Students with LanguageHow are S...
© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students
How are Students with SpeechHow are Stu...
© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students
How Should English LanguageHow Should E...
© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students
What Do I Teach Students withWhat Do I ...
© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students
How Do I Teach Students withHow Do I Te...
© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students
What Are Considerations for theWhat Are...
© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students
What Types of InstructionalWhat Types o...
© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students
What are Some Considerations for theWha...
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Ch 07

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Ch 07

  1. 1. © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Students withStudents with Communication DisordersCommunication Disorders Chapter 7Chapter 7
  2. 2. © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students What is the History ofWhat is the History of Communication Disorders?Communication Disorders?  Speech CorrectionistsSpeech Correctionists  Speech TherapistsSpeech Therapists  Speech/Language PathologistsSpeech/Language Pathologists
  3. 3. © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students What is Communication?What is Communication?  CommunicationCommunication is the process by which oneis the process by which one individual expresses ideas, feelings, opinions,individual expresses ideas, feelings, opinions, or messages to others and receives andor messages to others and receives and understands ideas, feelings, opinions, orunderstands ideas, feelings, opinions, or messages from others.messages from others.  LanguageLanguage is a rule-governed system ofis a rule-governed system of arbitrary symbols that stand for meaning.arbitrary symbols that stand for meaning.  SpeechSpeech is the physical production of thatis the physical production of that system.system.
  4. 4. © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students What are the Four Speech Systems?What are the Four Speech Systems?  Respiration -Respiration - the breathing that supports speechthe breathing that supports speech  Voicing -Voicing - the sound powered by the vocalthe sound powered by the vocal folds/chordsfolds/chords  Resonance -Resonance - the means by which sound isthe means by which sound is changed as it travels through the cavities of thechanged as it travels through the cavities of the neck and headneck and head  Articulation -Articulation - the formation of speech sounds bythe formation of speech sounds by the lips, tongue, and other structuresthe lips, tongue, and other structures
  5. 5. © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students What are Five Components ofWhat are Five Components of Spoken Language?Spoken Language?  PhonologyPhonology deals with the system of speech sounds and thedeals with the system of speech sounds and the rules governing their use; the smallest significant unit of soundrules governing their use; the smallest significant unit of sound is ais a phoneme.phoneme.  MorphologyMorphology involves the rules governing the use of theinvolves the rules governing the use of the smallest significant unit of meaning, thesmallest significant unit of meaning, the morpheme.morpheme.  SyntaxSyntax refers to the rules of word function and word order.refers to the rules of word function and word order.  SemanticsSemantics is a system of rules governing the meaning of wordsis a system of rules governing the meaning of words and word combinations.and word combinations.  PragmaticsPragmatics is the use of language.is the use of language.
  6. 6. © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students What is the IDEA 04 Definition?What is the IDEA 04 Definition?  A speech or language impairmentA speech or language impairment is ais a communication disorder, such as stuttering,communication disorder, such as stuttering, impaired articulation, a language impairment,impaired articulation, a language impairment, or a voice impairment, which adversely affectsor a voice impairment, which adversely affects a child’s educational performance.a child’s educational performance.
  7. 7. © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students What is the ASHA Definition ofWhat is the ASHA Definition of Communication Disorders?Communication Disorders?  AA speech disorderspeech disorder is an impairment of theis an impairment of the articulation of speech sound, fluency, or voice.articulation of speech sound, fluency, or voice.  AA language disorderlanguage disorder is an impairment or theis an impairment or the deviant development of comprehension and/ordeviant development of comprehension and/or use of a spoken, written, and/or other symboluse of a spoken, written, and/or other symbol system. It may involve 1) the form ofsystem. It may involve 1) the form of language, 2) the content of language, and/or 3)language, 2) the content of language, and/or 3) the function of language in communication inthe function of language in communication in any combination.any combination.
  8. 8. © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students What is the Prevalence ofWhat is the Prevalence of Communication Disorders?Communication Disorders?  2.3% of students aged 6-17 received services for speech2.3% of students aged 6-17 received services for speech and language impairments in 2005 (OSEP, 2006).and language impairments in 2005 (OSEP, 2006).  Almost 22% of all children who received services forAlmost 22% of all children who received services for disabilities under IDEA in the 2002 school year receiveddisabilities under IDEA in the 2002 school year received services for speech disorders (ASHA, 2007).services for speech disorders (ASHA, 2007).  About half of students receiving services under IDEAAbout half of students receiving services under IDEA have a communication disorder as a secondary disability.have a communication disorder as a secondary disability.  If both primary and secondary disabilities wereIf both primary and secondary disabilities were considered, communication disorders would be the largestconsidered, communication disorders would be the largest IDEA category.IDEA category.
  9. 9. © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students What is aWhat is a Secondary Language Disorder?Secondary Language Disorder?  Some children may have difficultySome children may have difficulty learninglearning andand usingusing spoken languagespoken language as a result ofas a result of another disability, such as an intellectualanother disability, such as an intellectual disability, an emotional or behavioral disorder,disability, an emotional or behavioral disorder, a learning disability, or an autism spectruma learning disability, or an autism spectrum disorder.disorder.
  10. 10. © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students What are the Causes ofWhat are the Causes of Communication Disorders?Communication Disorders?  Language DisordersLanguage Disorders  Functional and nonorganicFunctional and nonorganic  BiologicalBiological  Environmental factors can increase risk.Environmental factors can increase risk.  Speech DisordersSpeech Disorders  Structural malformations in or around the mouthStructural malformations in or around the mouth  Functional causesFunctional causes  Interacting organic and functionalInteracting organic and functional  Neurological damage and psychological factorsNeurological damage and psychological factors
  11. 11. © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students What are Possible Characteristics ofWhat are Possible Characteristics of Students with Language Disorders?Students with Language Disorders? (continued to the next slide)(continued to the next slide)  Primary Language DisorderPrimary Language Disorder  Problems with one or several components of languageProblems with one or several components of language  Phonological disorder –Phonological disorder – using phonological processes, rulesusing phonological processes, rules that simplify adult speech forms, beyond the normal period ofthat simplify adult speech forms, beyond the normal period of using these processesusing these processes  Morphological disorderMorphological disorder –– omission or misuse of specificomission or misuse of specific morphemes beyond the normal age to do somorphemes beyond the normal age to do so  Semantic Disorder –Semantic Disorder – difficulties indifficulties in vocabulary, retrieving avocabulary, retrieving a word when it is needed, or multiple meanings and figurativeword when it is needed, or multiple meanings and figurative languagelanguage  Pragmatics disorder –Pragmatics disorder – significant difficulties fitting into socialsignificant difficulties fitting into social settings due to difficulties in language usesettings due to difficulties in language use
  12. 12. © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students What are Possible Characteristics ofWhat are Possible Characteristics of Students with Language Disorders?Students with Language Disorders? (continued)(continued)  Secondary Language Disorder - generallySecondary Language Disorder - generally influenced by cognitive abilities or by theinfluenced by cognitive abilities or by the underlying syndromeunderlying syndrome
  13. 13. © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students What are Possible Characteristics ofWhat are Possible Characteristics of Students with Speech Disorders?Students with Speech Disorders?  Characteristics of speech disorders relate to theCharacteristics of speech disorders relate to the areas of voice, articulation of speech sounds,areas of voice, articulation of speech sounds, and/or fluency.and/or fluency.  AA voice disordervoice disorder is the atypical production ofis the atypical production of voice quality, pitch, and/or loudness.voice quality, pitch, and/or loudness.  AnAn articulation disorderarticulation disorder is the atypicalis the atypical production of speech sounds.production of speech sounds.  AA fluency disorderfluency disorder is the atypical flow of verbalis the atypical flow of verbal expression, characterized by impaired rate andexpression, characterized by impaired rate and rhythm, such as stuttering.rhythm, such as stuttering.
  14. 14. © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students How are Students with LanguageHow are Students with Language Disorders Identified?Disorders Identified?  Speech-language pathologists (SLP) rely on standardized,Speech-language pathologists (SLP) rely on standardized, norm-referenced tests, informal measures, and thenorm-referenced tests, informal measures, and the perceptions and concerns of those who are significant inperceptions and concerns of those who are significant in the child’s life.the child’s life.  A family historyA family history  Tests of expressive and receptive language skillsTests of expressive and receptive language skills  Observational checklists and teacher reportsObservational checklists and teacher reports  Interviews with the student, as appropriateInterviews with the student, as appropriate  Language sample, which is an analysis made of elicitedLanguage sample, which is an analysis made of elicited conversational speechconversational speech
  15. 15. © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students How are Students with SpeechHow are Students with Speech Disorders Identified?Disorders Identified?  Articulation testArticulation test –– the evaluation of child’s ability to produce speechthe evaluation of child’s ability to produce speech sounds in isolation, words, sentences, and spontaneous speechsounds in isolation, words, sentences, and spontaneous speech  Auditory discrimination assessmentAuditory discrimination assessment –– the ability to tell thethe ability to tell the difference in different soundsdifference in different sounds  Fluency evaluationFluency evaluation  Voice evaluationVoice evaluation  Hearing testHearing test  Case historyCase history  Samples of the child’s workSamples of the child’s work  Checklists or scales completed by parents and/or those who workChecklists or scales completed by parents and/or those who work with the child in the educational settingwith the child in the educational setting
  16. 16. © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students How Should English LanguageHow Should English Language Learners be Identified?Learners be Identified?  First, determine whether the child should be assessed in theFirst, determine whether the child should be assessed in the native language.native language.  Determine whether presenting problems are also evident in theDetermine whether presenting problems are also evident in the home and community.home and community.  Assess bothAssess both basic interpersonal communication skillsbasic interpersonal communication skills (BICS) and(BICS) and cognitive academic language proficiencycognitive academic language proficiency (CALP) in both the first language and the second language.(CALP) in both the first language and the second language.  BICS are basic conversational abilities that LEP students may masterBICS are basic conversational abilities that LEP students may master quite easily.quite easily.  CALP entails more complex, abstract language use related to problemCALP entails more complex, abstract language use related to problem solving, evaluating, and inferring.solving, evaluating, and inferring.
  17. 17. © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students What Do I Teach Students withWhat Do I Teach Students with Communication Disorders?Communication Disorders?  Enhance speech and language skillsEnhance speech and language skills  Enhance communication skillsEnhance communication skills  Teach functional skills for languageTeach functional skills for language  Use language intervention materialsUse language intervention materials  Supplement with computer softwareSupplement with computer software  Collaboration effortsCollaboration efforts
  18. 18. © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students How Do I Teach Students withHow Do I Teach Students with Communication Disorders?Communication Disorders?  Teach skills as they wouldTeach skills as they would naturally occur in conversation.naturally occur in conversation.  Use effective teaching strategiesUse effective teaching strategies including:including:  direct instruction,direct instruction,  reciprocal teaching,reciprocal teaching,  cognitive and metacognitivecognitive and metacognitive strategies, andstrategies, and  graphic organizergraphic organizer  ModelingModeling  ExpansionExpansion  Self-TalkSelf-Talk  Parallel-talkParallel-talk  Cloze ProceduresCloze Procedures
  19. 19. © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students What Are Considerations for theWhat Are Considerations for the Instructional Environment?Instructional Environment?  Provide spaceProvide space  Clearly define areasClearly define areas  Vary materialsVary materials  Present authentic settingsPresent authentic settings  Encourage interaction and communicationEncourage interaction and communication  Plan for heterogeneous groupingsPlan for heterogeneous groupings  Implement community instructionImplement community instruction
  20. 20. © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students What Types of InstructionalWhat Types of Instructional Technology Can Be Used?Technology Can Be Used?  Augmentative and alternative communicationAugmentative and alternative communication  Picture or word boardsPicture or word boards  Voice output communicationVoice output communication
  21. 21. © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students What are Some Considerations for theWhat are Some Considerations for the General Education Teacher?General Education Teacher?  Most students with speech/language disordersMost students with speech/language disorders are served in general education classrooms.are served in general education classrooms.  Collaboration with other professionals is key.Collaboration with other professionals is key.  Involve families.Involve families.  Encourage peer interaction.Encourage peer interaction.  Model correct speech.Model correct speech.  Provide a motivating environment.Provide a motivating environment.

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