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Appreciative inquiry

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“Appreciative Inquiry is the cooperative search for the best in people, their organizations, and the world around them. It involves systematic discover of what gives a system ‘life’ when it is most effective and capable in economic, ecological, and human terms.” Cooperrider, D.L. & Whitney, D
It is a methodology aimed at the development of the organization based on the assumption that inquiry into and dialogue about strengths, successes, values, hopes and dreams is in itself transformational.
The process used to generate the power of Appreciative Inquiry is the 4-D Cycle:
Discovery - Dream - Design - Destiny
Discovery: The Discovery phase is a diligent and extensive search to understand the "best of what is" and "the best of what has been."
Dream: The Dream phase is an energizing exploration of "what might be:"
Design: The Design phase involves making choices about "what should be" within an organization or system.
Destiny: The Destiny phase initiates a series of inspired actions that support ongoing learning and innovation - or "what will be."

School leaders and teachers are searching for a purpose and a sense of identity. We want more than just pay; we want a ‘sense of mission’. When you believe in a professional way of doing your job you have to be able to transmit this to all the people involved in teaching/learning process.
The Appreciative Inquiry methodology helps to create our identity and to transmit our values and beliefs. Educational institutions need to be knowledge rich, adaptable and permanently changing. We need to be able to design curricula according to our student’s individual needs.

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Appreciative inquiry

  1. 1. Team working September 4, 2011 mercedesviola@4d.edu.uy
  2. 2. “It could be argued that all leadership isappreciative leadership. It‟s the capacityto see the most creative and improbablyopportunities. It‟s the capacity to see with an appreciative eye the true and the good, the better and the possible.” David Cooperrider
  3. 3. AgendaWhat Appreciative Inquiry isThe power of questionsIts basic principlesThe 4D cycle
  4. 4. What’s Appreciative Inquiry?a philosophy of knowinga methodology for managing changean approach to leadershipa tool for human developmentIt is the study and exploration of what gives lifeto human systems when they are at their best.It is an organization development methodologybased on the assumption that inquiry into anddialogue about strengths, successes, values,hopes and dreams is in itself transformational.
  5. 5. 8 Assumptions of AI In every human situation something works What we focus on becomes our reality Reality is created in the moment and there are multiple realities The language we use shapes our reality The act of asking questions influences the outcome in some way People have more confidence going into the future (unknown) when they carry forward parts of the present (known) If we carry parts of the past into the future, they should be what are best about the past It is important to value differences
  6. 6. Peter Drucker“The task of leadership is to create analignment of strengths, makingour weaknesses irrelevant”.
  7. 7. A beautifully timed, perfectly worded question can remove barriers, unlock hidden information and surface potentially life-changing insights.it‟s simple and inoffensive in its toneit has a purposeit is influencing without being controlling to gather information to help someone remember something more clearlyto understand someone‟s value to help someone think to help someone appreciate about a situation another person‟s value positively Characteristics of a great question
  8. 8. Controlling Neutral Did you feel frustrated? Why did you act in such a hostile manner? How did you feel about that? What might you do to help the situation? What is it about it that you cannot deal with? What caused you to do that?
  9. 9. Powerful questions – potential benefits they refocus thoughts – from problem to solution they can help someone feel more powerful and constructive about a situation they tap into creativity and create options they can make a problem feel more like a challenge or an opportunity they create forward movement – out of the problem state and into solutionor action I‟m really struggling with this job, and my boss doesn‟t support me – he doesn‟t even know what I do!! Why can‟t my boss help How can I get my boss to know more me? about what I‟m doing? How can I make sure my boss understands more about what I’m doing, and encourage him to give me more support?
  10. 10. 5 principles of Appreciative Inquiry  Constructionist Principle
  11. 11. 5 principles of Appreciative Inquiry  Principle of Simultaneity These become the stories out of which the future is conceived, discussed, and constructed.
  12. 12. 5 principles of Appreciative Inquiry Human An organization‟s organizations are story is constantly an open book being co-authored. Poetic Principle The organization‟s past, present and future are endless sources of learning, inspiration, and interpretation
  13. 13. 5 principles of Appreciative Inquiry  Anticipatory Principle Collective imagination and discourse about the future are the most important resource for generating constructive organizational change or improvement
  14. 14. 5 principles of Appreciative Inquiry  Positive Principle When we feel good we can think more strategically, absorb information quicker, we are more creative, we reach decisions faster, we recover more quickly from setbacks, and even our health improves
  15. 15. How it works Organizations move in the direction of what they study. It focuses the attention on an organization‟s most positive potential - its positive core. The positive core is the essential nature of the organization at its best – people‟s collective wisdom about the organization‟s tangible and intangible strengths, capabilities, resources, potentials and assets. The Appreciative Inquiry 4-D cycle unleashes the energy of the positive core for transformation and sustainable success.
  16. 16. The 4D Cycle Discovery “What gives life?” (The best of what is) Appreciating Destiny Dream“How to empower, learn, Affirmative “What might be?” and adjust/improvise?” Topic Choice (What is the world calling for) Sustaining Envisioning Results Design “What should be--the ideal?” Co-constructing
  17. 17. DISCOVERYIt is an extensive search to understand the "best of what is"and "what has been."It begins with the collaborative act of crafting appreciativeinterview questions and constructing an appreciativeinterview guide.These questions are written as affirmative probes into anorganization‟s positive core, in the topic areas selected.They are written to generate stories, to enrich the imagesand inner dialogue within the organization, and to bring thepositive core more fully into focus.
  18. 18. Listening Skills – a good listener explores your thoughtsseeks to understand you and feelingscares focuses goes beyond what is begins to notice what is actually said „unsaid‟
  19. 19. Listen, talk, think, listen, Totally present to the person speaking Levels of Listening think, talk and so on Feel as though you are experiencing „being‟ the other personThe person may or may notbe aware of the way you arelistening to them Nod, make „listening noises‟ such as „hmm‟ or „yes‟ Listener entirely focused on Focus on what the other the other person. person is sayingPretend Seek toto listen understand A natural activity Listener mostly quiet and calm for most people The balance between talking, listening More effort to listen and and internally processing information varies from person to person process information
  20. 20. DISCOVERY A complete interview guide includes: A formal introduction to explain the project and the purpose of the interview. The questions:  Opening questions  Questions on the affirmative topic or topics selected  Concluding questions – generally about futureA summary report sheet
  21. 21. Remember:We seek, fundamentally, to build from our past and present capacities:achievements, assets, unexplored potentials, innovations, strengths,elevated thoughts, opportunities, benchmarks, high point moments,lived values, traditions, strategic competencies, stories, expressionsof wisdom, insights into the deeper corporate spirit or soul-- andvisions of valued and possible futures.
  22. 22. When interviewing, please: Maintain a caring a affirmative spiritHere are some possible questions to use to probe further: Tell me more. Why was that important to you? How did that affect you? What was your contribution? How did the peer teachers/institute/team support you? How has it changed you?Let the interviewee tell his/her story.Take notes and listen for great quotes and stories.Be genuinely curious about their experiences, thoughts, and feelings.Some people will take longer to think about their answers.Allow time for silence.The questions should be used as guidelines.
  23. 23. PEOPLE – COOPERATION - TEAM SPIRIT The foundation of any great organization lies in the strengths of its people.The experiences and diverse backgrounds are assets that any organization has. It is important to foster personal growth through teamwork, two-way respect, communication and creativity. A cooperative team spirit is essential. Important initiatives usually depend on the support and good will of others within work groups and/or between groups. Cooperation requires trust, open channels ofcommunication, responsiveness to other‟s needs, and interpersonal competence
  24. 24. PEOPLE – COOPERATION – TEAM SPIRITCan you think of a time when there was an extraordinary display of cooperationamong diverse individuals or groups?What made such cooperation possible? (Explore: planning methods used,communication systems or process, leadership qualities, skills, teamdevelopment techniques and others).Give an example of the most effective team or committee you have been part of.What are the factors/ skills that made it effective?Describe the most memorable event that illustrates your contribution to thesuccess of a team or organization. What strengths did you bring to thatsuccess?Interview Summary SheetWhat was the most appreciative quotable quote that came out of this interview?What was the most compelling story that came out of this interview? Whatdetails and examples did the interviewee shared?Overall, what was your sense of what was most important to your colleague?
  25. 25. Quotes, stories, concepts ‟
  26. 26. DREAM Discovery Affirmative Destiny Topic Dream Design think out of challenge the the box status quo create excitement create synergy Dream working “What might be?” relationships(What is the world calling for) Envisioning Results
  27. 27. Discovery DESIGN Affirmative Destiny Topic Dream The Whole System Design Design approach “Organizational transformation is much more than the critical mass of personal transformation. It requires macro level changes in the very fabric of organizing, the social architecture.” Diane Whitney The Requests, Offers Design“What should be--the ideal?” and Commitments Co-constructing approach
  28. 28. We will be working on two Approaches to the Design PhaseI. The Framework Approach We will be working on the strategic design on the following topics: Talent development and retention Alliances and Partnerships Organizational Structure We will be working on the operational design on the following topics: Business Processes Policies Communication Technology II. The Requests, Offers and Commitments Approach. Each participant is given the opportunity to publicly state a simple commitment, make an offer or articulate a request. Simple Commitments describes actions that can be easily taken, typically within one to two weeks and are within the existing authority and resources available to the person making the commitment. Offers may be made in response to a request for collaboration. Offers can come in any shape or form - specific is better. Requests are the other side of offers - but focused on what one person or group needs from another person or group.
  29. 29.  How should we work together? What roles do everyone long to play? What are the leadership roles and functions, preferredbehavior? How can we best support each other? What should be our relationship to the community? What are the practices for improvement, for bringing out thebest in people, and for creating meaningful work? What should the spirit in the group be like? What support does the group need? Who else should be invited? Team Working
  30. 30. Discovery DESTINY Affirmative Destiny Topic Dream focuses specifically on personal and Design organizational commitments and paths forward look for ways to improve and expand the AI process ongoing learning and innovation the processes, structures, Destiny and relationships from the design phase are put into“How to empower, learn, action. and adjust/improvise?” Sustaining
  31. 31.  Appreciative Inquiry Handbook – David L. Cooperride, DianaWhitney, Jacqueline Stavros (2003) Lakeshore PublishersWhat Great Managers Do – Marcus Buckingham (2005) HarvardBusiness ReviewAppreciative Inquiry: A Positive Approach to Building CooperativeCapacity – Frank Barret & Ronald Fry (2005) Tao Institute No+Pálidas: Cuatro Actitudes para el Éxito. Enrique Baliño conCarlos Pacheco (2011) Xn PublishingAppreciative Inquiry: Change at the Speed of Imagination -Magruder Watkins,Bernard J. Mohr (2001) Jossey-Bass/PfeifferEl cambio del Comportamiento en el trabajo – Santiago Lazzati(2008) Granica REFERENCES

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