[Type text]Page 1
College of pharmacy
Insulin
Prepared by
*karmand salih
*Miran mustafa
*Niga taymoor
*Frishta Ahmad
*Niga...
[Type text]Page 2
Introduction
Insulinis apeptid hormon, produced by beta cell of the pancreas , and is
central to regulat...
[Type text]Page 3
Insulin stops the use of fat as an energy source by inhibiting the release
of glucagon With the exceptio...
[Type text]Page 4
Hypoglycemia
is an abnormally diminished content of glucose in the blood, The term
literally means "low ...
[Type text]Page 5
Discussion
In this experiment we wont to know the effect of insulin on a mouse
which was fasted for 24 h...
[Type text]Page 6
The result was not good this is may be because of :
*mouse may not be fasted
*Site of administration
*pa...
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Insulin

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Insulin

  1. 1. [Type text]Page 1 College of pharmacy Insulin Prepared by *karmand salih *Miran mustafa *Niga taymoor *Frishta Ahmad *Nigar muhammad *Hawar Ezzat
  2. 2. [Type text]Page 2 Introduction Insulinis apeptid hormon, produced by beta cell of the pancreas , and is central to regulating carbohydrate and fat metabolism in the body. Insulin causes cells in the liver, skeletal muscle, and fat tissue to absorb glucose from the blood. In the liver and skeletal muscles, glucose is stored as glycogen, and in fat cells (adipocytes) it is stored as triglycerides. Insulin is produced in the pancreas and released when any of several stimuli are detected,, These stimuli include ingested protein and glucose in the blood produced from digested food.,Insulin initiates a signal transduction, which has the effect of increasing glucose uptake and storage. Finally, insulin is degraded, terminating the response. insulin is provided within the body in a constant proportion to remove excess glucose from the blood, which otherwise would be toxic. When blood glucose levels fall below a certain level, the body begins to use stored sugar as an energy source through glycogenolysis, which breaks down the glycogen stored in the liver and muscles into glucose, which can then be utilized as an energy source. As a central metabolic control mechanism, Diabetes mellitus, or simply diabetes, is a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar, either because the pancreas does not produce enough insulin, or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced, This high blood sugar produces the classical symptoms of polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia (increased thirst) and polyphagia (increased hunger) Type 1 DM results from the body's failure to produce insulin, and currently requires the person to inject insulin or wear an insulin pump. This form was previously referred to as "insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (IDDM) or "juvenile diabetes". Type 2 DMresults from insulin resistancea condition in which cells fail to use insulin properly, sometimes combined with an absolute insulin deficiency. This form was previously referred to as non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or "adult-onset diabetes The third main form, gestational diabetes occurs when pregnant women without a previous diagnosis of diabetes develop a high blood glucose level. It may precede development of type 2 DM.
  3. 3. [Type text]Page 3 Insulin stops the use of fat as an energy source by inhibiting the release of glucagon With the exception of the metabolic disorder diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome.. Biosynthesis of Insulin Insulin is synthesized in significant quantities only in beta cells in the pancreas. The insulin mRNA is translated as a single chain precursor called preproinsulin, and removal of its signal peptide during insertion into the endoplasmic reticulum generates proinsulin. Proinsulin consists of three domains: an amino-terminal B chain, a carboxy-terminal A chain and a connecting peptide in the middle known as the C peptide. Within the endoplasmic reticulum, proinsulin is exposed to several specific endopeptidases which excise the C peptide, thereby generating the mature form of insulin. Insulin and free C peptide are packaged in the Golgi into secretory granules which accumulate in the cytoplasm. When the beta cell is appropriately stimulated, insulin is secreted from the cell by exocytosis and diffuses into islet capillary blood. C peptide is also secreted into blood, but has no known biological activity.
  4. 4. [Type text]Page 4 Hypoglycemia is an abnormally diminished content of glucose in the blood, The term literally means "low sugar blood".,It can produce a variety of symptomsand effects but the principal problems arise from an inadequate supply of glucose to the brain,, resulting in impairment of function (neuroglycopenia)., Effects can range from mild dysphoria to more serious issues such as seizures, unconsciousness, and (rarely) permanent brain damage or death The most common forms of hypoglycemia occur as a complication of treatment of diabetes mellitus with insulin or oral medications. Hypoglycemia is treated by restoring the blood glucose level to normal by the ingestion or administration of dextrose or carbohydrate foods. In more severe circumstances, it is treated by injection or infusion of glucagon.,Recurrent hypoglycemia may be prevented by reversing or removing the underlying cause, by increasing the frequency of meals, with medications like diazoxide, octreotide, or glucocorticoids, or by surgical removal of much of the pancreas. Oral Hypoglycemic Agent: Oral hypoglycemic drugs are used only in the treatment of type 2 diabetes which is a disorder involving resistance to secreted insulin. Type 1 diabetes involves a lack of insulin and requires insulin for treatment.Oral hypoglycemic agents include 1-Biguanides 2-Prandial glucose regulator: Example(Repaglinide) 3-SulfonylureasType : a-first generationExample: (Chlorpropamide,Tolbutamide) b-Second generationExample : (Gliclazide,Glibenclamide,Glipizide) c-Third generation Example : ( Glimepiride) 4--α- glucosidase inhibitors Example : (Acarbose) 5-Thiazolidinediones Example : (Rosiglitazone,Pioglitazone)
  5. 5. [Type text]Page 5 Discussion In this experiment we wont to know the effect of insulin on a mouse which was fasted for 24 hrs & the effect of Glucagon ,Also to know the effect of glucose on a mouse which was take adequat nutrent . When we inject the 6 IU of insulin by i.p in to the mouse which was fasted for 24 hrs the sing and symtom of hypoglycemia was apear such as hunger ,tachycardia ,tremor,convulsion, Hypoglycemia occurs when your blood sugar (glucose) level falls too lowbecause the mouse was fasted so the level of glucose was decreased And insulin it self decrease the glucose, Insulin inhibits breakdown of triglycerides in adipose tissue and gluconeogenesis in the liver. Insulin acts on target cell via membrane-bound tetrameric receptorwith tyrosine kinase activity When we observe the symptom of convulsion we inject the glucagon to increase the blood glucose and return the mouse to normal the mechanism of action of glucagon is Glucagon binds to the glucagon receptor, a G protein-coupled receptor, located in the plasma membrane. The conformation change in the receptor activates G proteins, a heterotrimeric protein with α, β, and γ subunits. When the G protein interacts with the receptor, it undergoes a conformational change that results in the replacement of the GDP molecule that was bound to the α subunit with a GTP molecule. This substitution results in the releasing of the α subunit from the β and γ subunits. The alpha subunit specifically activates the next enzyme in the cascade, adenylate cyclase. Adenylate cyclase manufactures cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP or cAMP), which activates protein kinase A (cAMP-dependent protein kinase). This enzyme, in turn, activates phosphorylase kinase,which, in turn, phosphorylates glycogen phosphorylase, converting into the active form called phosphorylase A. Phosphorylase A is the enzyme responsible for the release of glucose-1-phosphate from glycogen polymers When we inject glucose to the mouse which was taked adequat nutrent the sing of hyperglycemia was apear such as tachycardia
  6. 6. [Type text]Page 6 The result was not good this is may be because of : *mouse may not be fasted *Site of administration *packaging of drug

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