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• CREW MEMBERS                • PICTURE GALLERY• INTRODUCTION                • DUTIES• LIFE SKETCH     OF AMELIA   • CONCL...
MEPHIN PHILIP       ARSHA SAI JLIJIN IYPE MAMMEN   MUHAMMED NIYASRAICY ANN MAMMENTINTU HARIDASJOBIN MATHEW
We proudly presents our team ‘The Flying Dutchman’. We consist of sevenexplememtary students of our school. We were assign...
Amelia Mary Earhart was a noted American aviation pioneer                            Author. Earhart was the first woman t...
Amelia Mary Earhart, daughter of German American Samuel                         "Edwin" Stanton Earhart (born March 28, 18...
Early InfluenceA spirit of adventure seemed to abide in the Earhart children with the pair setting off daily toexplore the...
EducationThe two sisters, Amelia and Muriel (she went by her middle name from her teens on),remained with their grandparen...
The Otis house, and all of its contents, was auctioned; Earhart was heartbroken and laterdescribed it as the end of her ch...
Early flying experiencesAt about that time, with a young woman friend, Earhart visited an air fair held inconjunction with...
Working at a variety of jobs, including photographer, truck driver, and stenographer at thelocal telephone company, she ma...
Boston                        Throughout this period, her grandmothers inheritance, which was                        now a...
When Earhart lived in Medford, she maintained her interest inaviation, becoming a member of the American AeronauticalSocie...
The project coordinators (including book publisher and publicist                             George P. Putnam) interviewed...
Celebrity image                                Trading on her physical resemblance to Lindbergh,whom                      ...
Competitive flyingAlthough Earhart had gained fame for her transatlantic flight, she endeavored to set an"untarnished" rec...
just for daredevils and supermen.“During this period, Earhart became involved with The Ninety-Nines, an organization of fe...
delivered to him on the day of the wedding, she wrote, "I want you to understand I shall nothold you to any midaevil code ...
1932 transatlantic solo flight                                                    Monument in Harbour Grace, Newfoundland ...
PLANNINGEarhart joined the faculty of Purdue University in 1935 as a visitingfaculty member to counsel women on careers an...
Through contacts in the Los Angeles aviation community, Fred Noonan was subsequentlychosen as a second navigator because t...
and during the takeoff run, Earhart ground-looped. The circumstances of the ground loopremain controversial. Some witnesse...
DEPARTURE FROM LAEOn July 2, 1937, midnight GMT, Earhart and Noonan took off from Lae in the heavilyloaded Electra. Their ...
Radio signalsDuring Earhart and Noonans approach to Howland Island the Itasca received strong andclear voice transmissions...
Search efforts                        Beginning approximately one hour after Earharts last recorded                       ...
of the search was based on erroneous assumptions and flawed information. Officialreporting of the search effort was influe...
EARHART’S 1937 WORLD FLIGHT
EARHART FROM FILMS
MEPHIN PHLIP        : Powerpoint Presentation creatorLIJIN IYPE MAMMEN   : COLLECTION OF DIGITAL DATARAICY ANN MAMMEN    :...
We are now concluding this presentation. We hope everyone had liked it.We have now seen the incredible life of Amelia Earh...
 en.wikipedia.org Images.google.com www.newworldencyclopedia.org www.ellenspace.net Ask Me Anything
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The Flying Dutchman

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The Flying Dutchman

  1. 1. • CREW MEMBERS • PICTURE GALLERY• INTRODUCTION • DUTIES• LIFE SKETCH OF AMELIA • CONCLUSIONEARHART • BIBLIOGRAPHY1. EARLY LIFE2. AVIATION CAREER AND MARRIAGE3. 1937 WORLD FLIGHT
  2. 2. MEPHIN PHILIP ARSHA SAI JLIJIN IYPE MAMMEN MUHAMMED NIYASRAICY ANN MAMMENTINTU HARIDASJOBIN MATHEW
  3. 3. We proudly presents our team ‘The Flying Dutchman’. We consist of sevenexplememtary students of our school. We were assigned to make a PowerPointpresentation about the life of Amelia Earhart.Amelia Earhart is the first woman to attempt to circumnavigate the globe by airway.But she was unable to reach the goal. She was met with a horrible death. She will alwaysBe in the heart of everyone an example of sheer determination and courage.So, to honor her, we have put together an awesome piece of presentation about her.We have included every detail of her life in this presentation. We have put our maximumEffort into this. We hope everyone is going to love this.So, SIT BACK AND ENJOY THIS PRESENTATION.
  4. 4. Amelia Mary Earhart was a noted American aviation pioneer Author. Earhart was the first woman to receive the U.S Distinguished Flying Cross, awarded for becoming the first Aviatrix to fly solo across the Atlantic ocean. She set many other records, wrote best-selling books about her flying experiences and was instrumental in the formation of the Ninety Nines an organization for female pilots. Earhart joinedthe faculty of the Purdeue University aviation department in 1935 as a visiting faculty tocouncel woman on careers and help inspire others with her love for aviation. She was alsoa member of National Woman’s Party, and an early supporter of the Equal RightsAmendmend.During an attempt to make curcumnavigational flight around the globe in 1937 in aPurdue funded Lockheed Model 10 Electra, Earhart dissapeared over the center of thePacific ocean near Howland Island. Fascination with her life, career and dissapearencecontinues to this day.
  5. 5. Amelia Mary Earhart, daughter of German American Samuel "Edwin" Stanton Earhart (born March 28, 1867) and Amelia "Amy" Otis Earhart (1869–1962), Atchison, Kansas, in the home of her maternal grandfather, Alfred Gideon Otis (1827–1912), a former federal judge, president of the Atchison Savings Bank and a leading citizen in Atchison. Amelia was the second child of the marriage, after an infant stillborn in August 1896. Alfred Otis had not initially favored the marriage and was not satisfied with Edwinsprogress as a lawyer. Earhart was named, according to family custom, after her twograndmothers From an early age Earhart, nicknamed "Meeley" (sometimes "Millie") was theringleader while younger sister (two years her junior), Grace Muriel Earhart (1899–1998),nicknamed "Pidge," acted the dutiful follower. Both girls continued to answer to theirchildhood nicknames well into adulthood. Their upbringing was unconventional since AmyEarhart did not believe in molding her children into "nice little girls." Meanwhile theirmaternal grandmother disapproved of the "bloomers" worn by Amys children and althoughEarhart liked the freedom they provided, she was aware other girls in the neighborhood didnot wear them.
  6. 6. Early InfluenceA spirit of adventure seemed to abide in the Earhart children with the pair setting off daily toexplore their neighborhood. As a child, Earhart spent long hours playing with Pidge, climbingtrees, hunting rats with a rifle and "belly-slamming" her sled downhill. Although this love ofthe outdoors and "rough-and-tumble" play was common to many youngsters, somebiographers have characterized the young Earhart as a tomboy. The girls kept "worms, moths,katydids and a tree toad" in a growing collection gathered in their outings. In 1904, with thehelp of her uncle, she cobbled together a home-made ramp fashioned after a roller coastershe had seen on a trip to St. Louis and secured the ramp to the roof of the family toolshed.Earharts well-documented first flight ended dramatically. She emerged from the brokenwooden box that had served as a sled with a bruised lip, torn dress and a "sensation ofexhilaration." She exclaimed, "Oh, Pidge, its just like flying!“Although there had been some missteps in his career up to that point, in 1907 Edwin Earhartsjob as a claims officer for the Rock Island Railroad led to a transfer to Des Moines, Iowa. Thenext year, at the age of 10, Earhart saw her first aircraft at the Iowa State Fair in Des Moines.Her father tried to interest her and her sister in taking a flight. One look at the rickety old"flivver" was enough for Earhart, who promptly asked if they could go back to the merry-go-round. She later described the biplane as “a thing of rusty wire and wood and not at allinteresting.”
  7. 7. EducationThe two sisters, Amelia and Muriel (she went by her middle name from her teens on),remained with their grandparents in Atchison, while their parents moved into new, smallerquarters in Des Moines. During this period, Earhart received a form of home-schoolingtogether with her sister, from her mother and a governess. She later recounted that she was"exceedingly fond of reading" and spent countless hours in the large family library. In 1909,when the family was finally reunited in Des Moines, the Earhart children were enrolled inpublic school for the first time with Amelia Earhart entering the seventh grade at the age of12 years.Family fortunesWhile the familys finances seemingly improved with the acquisition of a new house andeven the hiring of two servants, it soon became apparent Edwin was an alcoholic. Five yearslater (in 1914), he was forced to retire and although he attempted to rehabilitate himselfthrough treatment, he was never reinstated at the Rock Island Railroad. At about this time,Earharts grandmother Amelia Otis died suddenly, leaving a substantial estate that placedher daughters share in trust, fearing that Edwins drinking would drain the funds.
  8. 8. The Otis house, and all of its contents, was auctioned; Earhart was heartbroken and laterdescribed it as the end of her childhood.In 1915, after a long search, Earharts father found work as a clerk at the Great NorthernRailway in St. Paul, Minnesota, where Earhart entered Central High School as a junior. Edwinapplied for a transfer to Springfield, Missouri, in 1915 but the current claims officerreconsidered his retirement and demanded his job back, leaving the elder Earhart withnowhere to go. Facing another calamitous move, Amy Earhart took her children to Chicagowhere they lived with friends. Earhart made an unusual condition in the choice of her nextschooling; she canvassed nearby high schools in Chicago to find the best science program.She rejected the high school nearest her home when she complained that the chemistry labwas "just like a kitchen sink." She eventually was enrolled in Hyde Park High School but spenta miserable semester where a yearbook caption captured the essence of her unhappiness,"A.E. – the girl in brown who walks alone’’. Earhart graduated from Hyde Park High School in 1916.Throughout her troubled childhood, she had continued to aspire to a future career; she kept a scrapbook of newspaper clippings about successful women in predominantly male-oriented fields, including film direction and production, law, advertising, management and mechanical engineering. She began junior college at Ogontz School in Rydal, Pennsylvania but did not complete her program.
  9. 9. Early flying experiencesAt about that time, with a young woman friend, Earhart visited an air fair held inconjunction with the Canadian National Exposition in Toronto. One of the highlights of theday was a flying exhibition put on by a World War I "ace." The pilot overhead spottedEarhart and her friend, who were watching from an isolated clearing and dived at them. "Iam sure he said to himself, Watch me make them scamper," she said. Earhart stood herground as the aircraft came close. "I did not understand it at the time," she said, "but Ibelieve that little red airplane said something to me as it swished by.“By 1919 Earhart prepared to enter Smith College but changed her mind and enrolled atColumbia University signing up for a course in medical studies among other programs. Shequit a year later to be with her parents who had reunited in California. In Long Beach, on December 28, 1920, Earhart and her father visited an airfield where Frank Hawks (who later gained fame as an air racer) gave her a ride that would forever change Earharts life. "By the time I had got two or three hundred feet off the ground," she said, "I knew I had to fly." After that 10-minute flight (that cost her father $10), she immediately became determined to learn to fly.
  10. 10. Working at a variety of jobs, including photographer, truck driver, and stenographer at thelocal telephone company, she managed to save $1,000 for flying lessons. Earhart had herfirst lessons, beginning on January 3, 1921, at Kinner Field near Long Beach, but to reach theairfield Earhart took a bus to the end of the line, then walked four miles (6 km). Earhartsmother also provided part of the $1,000 "stake" against her "better judgement." Her teacherwas Anita "Neta" Snook, a pioneer female aviator who used a surplus Curtiss JN-4 "Canuck"for training. Earhart arrived with her father and a singular request, "I want to fly. Will youteach me?“Earharts commitment to flying required her to accept the frequently hard work andrudimentary conditions that accompanied early aviation training. She chose a leather jacket,but aware that other aviators would be judging her, she slept in it for three nights to give thejacket a "worn" look. To complete her image transformation, she also cropped her hair shortin the style of other female flyers. Six months later, Earhart purchased a secondhand brightyellow Kinner Airster biplane which she nicknamed "The Canary." On October 22, 1922,Earhart flew the Airster to an altitude of 14,000 feet (4,300 m), setting a world record forfemale pilots. On May 15, 1923, Earhart became the 16th woman to be issued a pilotslicense by the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI).
  11. 11. Boston Throughout this period, her grandmothers inheritance, which was now administered by her mother, was constantly depleted until it finally ran out following a disastrous investment in a failed gypsum mine. Consequently, with no immediate prospects for recouping her investment in flying, Earhart sold the "Canary" as well as a second Kinner and bought a yellow Kissel "Speedster" two-passenger automobile, which she named the "Yellow Peril." Simultaneously,Earhart experienced an exacerbation of her old sinus problem as her pain worsened and inearly 1924, she was hospitalized for another sinus operation, which was again unsuccessful.After trying her hand at a number of unusual ventures including setting up a photographycompany, Earhart set out in a new direction. Following her parents divorce in 1924, shedrove her mother in the "Yellow Peril" on a transcontinental trip from California with stopsthroughout the West and even a jaunt up to Calgary, Alberta. The meandering toureventually brought the pair to Boston, Massachusetts where Earhart underwent anothersinus procedure, this operation being more successful. After recuperation, she returned forseveral months to Columbia University but was forced to abandon her studies and anyfurther plans for enrolling at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology because her mothercould no longer afford the tuition fees and associated costs. Soon after, she foundemployment first as a teacher, then as a social worker in 1925 at Denison House, living inMedford, Massachusetts.
  12. 12. When Earhart lived in Medford, she maintained her interest inaviation, becoming a member of the American AeronauticalSocietys Boston chapter and was eventually elected its vicepresident. She flew out of Dennison Airport in Quincy,Massachusetts and helped finance its operation by investing asmall sum of money. Earhart also flew the first official flight out ofDennison Airport in 1927. As well as acting as a salesrepresentative for Kinner airplanes in the Boston area, Earhartwrote local newspaper columns promoting flying and as her localcelebrity grew, she laid out the plans for an organization devotedto female flyers.1928 transatlantic flightAfter Charles Lindberghs solo flight across the Atlantic in 1927,Amy Phipps Guest, (1873–1959), expressed interest in being thefirst woman to fly (or be flown) across the Atlantic Ocean. Afterdeciding the trip was too perilous for her to undertake, sheoffered to sponsor the project, suggesting they find "another girlwith the right image." While at work one afternoon in April 1928,Earhart got a phone call from Capt. Hilton H. Railey, who askedher, "Would you like to fly the Atlantic?
  13. 13. The project coordinators (including book publisher and publicist George P. Putnam) interviewed Earhart and asked her to accompany pilot Wilmer Stultz and copilot/mechanic Louis Gordon on the flight, nominally as a passenger, but with the added duty of keeping the flight log. The team departed Trepassey Harbor, Newfoundland in a Fokker F.VIIb/3m on June 17, 1928, landing at Burry Port , Wales, United Kingdom, exactly 20 hours and 40 minutes later. Since most of the flight was on"instruments" and Earhart had no training for this type of flying, she did not pilot the aircraft.When interviewed after landing, she said, "Stultz did all the flying—had to. I was justbaggage, like a sack of potatoes." She added, "...maybe someday Ill try it alone.“While in England, Earhart is reported as receiving a rousing welcome on June 19, 1928, whenlanding at Woolston in Southampton, England. She flew the Avro Avian 594 Avian III, SN:R3/AV/101 owned by Lady Mary Heath and later purchased the aircraft and had it shippedback to the United States (where it was assigned “unlicensed aircraft identification mark”7083).When the Stultz, Gordon and Earhart flight crew returned to the United States, they weregreeted with a ticker-tape parade in New York followed by a reception with President CalvinCoolidge at the White House.
  14. 14. Celebrity image Trading on her physical resemblance to Lindbergh,whom the press had dubbed "Lucky Lindy," some newspapers and magazines began referring to Earhart as "Lady Lindy."The United Press was more grandiloquent; to them, Earhart was the reigning "Queen of the Air." Immediately after her return to the United States, she undertook an exhausting lecture tour (1928–1929). Meanwhile, Putnam had undertaken to heavily promote her in a campaign including publishing a book she authored, a series of new lecture tours and using pictures of her in mass marketEARHART WITH PRESIDENT HOOVER endorsements for products including luggage, Lucky Strike cigarettes (this caused image problems for her, withMcCalls magazine retracting an offer) and womens clothing and sportswear. The moneythat she made with "Lucky Strike" had been earmarked for a $1,500 donation toCommander Richard Byrds imminent South Pole expedition.
  15. 15. Competitive flyingAlthough Earhart had gained fame for her transatlantic flight, she endeavored to set an"untarnished" record of her own. Shortly after her return, piloting Avian 7083, she set offon her first long solo flight which occurred just as her name was coming into the nationalspotlight. By making the trip in August 1928, Earhart became the first woman to fly soloacross the North American continent and back. Gradually her piloting skills andprofessionalism grew, as acknowledged by experienced professional pilots who flew withher. General Leigh Wade flew with Earhart in 1929: "She was a born flier, with a delicatetouch on the stick." In 1930, Earhart became an official of the National Aeronautic Association where she actively promoted the establishment of separate womens records and was instrumental in the Federation Aéronautique Internationale (FAI) accepting a similar international standard. In 1931, flying a Pitcairn PCA-2 autogyro, she set a world altitude record of 18,415 feet (5,613 m) in a borrowed company machine. While to a reader today it might seem that Earhart was engaged in flying "stunts," she was, with other female flyers, crucial to making the American public "air minded" and convincing them that "aviation was no longer
  16. 16. just for daredevils and supermen.“During this period, Earhart became involved with The Ninety-Nines, an organization of female pilots providing moral supportand advancing the cause of women in aviation. She had called ameeting of female pilots in 1929 following the Womens Air Derby.She suggested the name based on the number of the chartermembers; she later became the organizations first president in1930. Earhart was a vigorous advocate for female pilots and whenthe 1934 Bendix Trophy Race banned women, she openly refusedto fly screen actress Mary Pickford to Cleveland to open the races.MarriageFor a while Earhart was engaged to Samuel Chapman, a chemicalengineer from Boston, breaking off her engagement on November23, 1928. During the same period, Earhart and Putnam had spenta great deal of time together, leading to intimacy. George P.Putnam, who was known as GP, was divorced in 1929 and soughtout Earhart, proposing to her six times before she finallyagreed.After substantial hesitation on her part, they married onFebruary 7, 1931, in Putnams mothers house in Noank,Connecticut. Earhart referred to her marriage as a "partnership"with "dual control." In a letter written to Putnam and hand
  17. 17. delivered to him on the day of the wedding, she wrote, "I want you to understand I shall nothold you to any midaevil code of faithfulness to me nor shall I consider myself bound to yousimilarly."Earharts ideas on marriage were liberal for the time as she believed in equal responsibilitiesfor both "breadwinners" and pointedly kept her own name rather than being referred to asMrs. Putnam. When The New York Times, per the rules of its stylebook, insisted on referringto her as Mrs. Putnam, she laughed it off. GP also learned quite soon that he would be called"Mr. Earhart." There was no honeymoon for the newlyweds as Earhart was involved in a nine-day cross-country tour promoting autogyros and the tour sponsor, Beech-Nut chewing gum.Although Earhart and Putnam had no children, he had two sons by his previous marriage toDorothy Binney (1888–1982),a chemical heiress whose fathers company, Binney & Smith,invented Crayola crayons:the explorer and writer David Binney Putnam (1913–1992) andGeorge Palmer Putnam, Jr. (born 1921).Earhart was especially fond of David who frequentlyvisited his father at their family home in Rye, New York. George had contracted polio shortlyafter his parents separation and was unable to visit as often.
  18. 18. 1932 transatlantic solo flight Monument in Harbour Grace, Newfoundland and Labrador At the age of 34, on the morning of May 20, 1932, Earhart set off from Harbour Grace, Newfoundland with the latest copy of a local newspaper (the dated copy was intended to confirm the date of the flight). She intended to fly to Paris in her single engine Lockheed Vega 5B to emulate Charles Lockheed Vega 5b flown by Amelia Earhart as seen on display at the National Air and Space Museum Lindberghs solo flight. After a flight lasting 14hours, 56 minutes during which she contended with strong northerly winds, icy conditionsand mechanical problems, Earhart landed in a pasture at Culmore, north of Derry, NorthernIreland. The landing was witnessed by Cecil King and T. Sawyer. When a farm hand asked,"Have you flown far?" Earhart replied, "From America."The site now is the home of a smallmuseum, the Amelia Earhart Centre.As the first woman to fly solo nonstop across the Atlantic, Earhart received the DistinguishedFlying Cross from Congress, the Cross of Knight of the Legion of Honor from the FrenchGovernment and the Gold Medal of the National Geographic Society from President HerbertHoover. As her fame grew, she developed friendships with many people in high offices, mostnotably Eleanor Roosevelt, the First Lady from 1933–1945. Roosevelt shared many ofEarharts interests and passions, especially womens causes.
  19. 19. PLANNINGEarhart joined the faculty of Purdue University in 1935 as a visitingfaculty member to counsel women on careers and as a technicaladvisor to the Department of Aeronautics. Early in 1936, Earhartstarted to plan a round-the-world flight. Not the first to circle theglobe, it would be the longest at 29,000 miles (47,000 km),following a grueling equatorial route. With financing fromPurdue, in July 1936, a Lockheed Electra 10E was built at LockheedAircraft Company to her specifications which included extensivemodifications to the fuselage to incorporate a large fueltank.Earhart dubbed the twin engine monoplane airliner her"flying laboratory" and hangared it at Mantzs United Air Serviceslocated just across the airfield from Lockheeds Burbank plant inwhich it had been built.Although the Electra was publicized as a "flying laboratory," littleuseful science was planned and the flight was arranged aroundEarharts intention to circumnavigate the globe along withgathering raw material and public attention for her next book. Herfirst choice as navigator was Captain Harry Manning, who hadbeen the captain of the President Roosevelt, the ship that hadbrought Earhart back from Europe in 1928.
  20. 20. Through contacts in the Los Angeles aviation community, Fred Noonan was subsequentlychosen as a second navigator because there were significant additional factors which had to bedealt with while using celestial navigation for aircraft.He had vast experience in both marine(he was a licensed ships captain) and flight navigation. Noonan had recently left Pan Am,where he established most of the companys China Clipper seaplane routes across the Pacific.Noonan had also been responsible for training Pan Americans navigators for the routebetween San Francisco andManila.The original plans were for Noonan to navigate from Hawaiito Howland Island, a particularly difficult portion of the flight; then Manning would continuewith Earhart to Australia and she would proceed on her own for the remainder of the project. FIRST ATTEMPT On St. Patricks Day, March 17, 1937, Earhart and her crew flew the first leg from Oakland, California toHonolulu, Hawaii. In addition to Earhart and Noonan, Harry Manning and Mantz (who was acting as Earharts technical advisor) were on board. Due to lubrication and galling problems with the propellerhubs variable pitch mechanisms, the aircraft needed servicing in Hawaii. Ultimately, theElectra ended up at the United States Navys Luke Field on Ford Island in Pearl Harbor. Theflight resumed three days later from Luke Field with Earhart, Noonan and Manning on board
  21. 21. and during the takeoff run, Earhart ground-looped. The circumstances of the ground loopremain controversial. Some witnesses at Luke Field including the Associated Press journalist onthe scene said they saw a tire blow.Earhart thought either the Electras right tire had blownand/or the right landing gear had collapsed. Some sources, including Mantz, cited pilot error.With the aircraft severely damaged, the flight was called off and the aircraft was shipped bysea to the Lockheed facility in Burbank, California for repairs. SECOND ATTEMPTWhile the Electra was being repaired Earhart and Putnam secured additional funds andprepared for a second attempt. This time flying west to east, the second attempt began withan unpublicized flight from Oakland to Miami, Florida, and after arriving there Earhart publiclyannounced her plans to circumnavigate the globe. The flights opposite direction was partlythe result of changes in global wind and weather patterns along the planned route since theearlier attempt. Fred Noonan was Earharts only crew member for the second flight. Theydeparted Miami on June 1 and after numerous stops in South America, Africa, the Indiansubcontinent and Southeast Asia, arrived at Lae, New Guinea, on June 29, 1937. At this stageabout 22,000 miles (35,000 km) of the journey had been completed. The remaining 7,000miles (11,000 km) would all be over the Pacific.
  22. 22. DEPARTURE FROM LAEOn July 2, 1937, midnight GMT, Earhart and Noonan took off from Lae in the heavilyloaded Electra. Their intended destination was Howland Island, a flat sliver of land 6,500 ft(2,000 m) long and 1,600 ft (500 m) wide, 10 ft (3 m) high and 2,556 miles (4,113 km)away. Their last known position report was near the Nukumanu Islands, about 800 miles(1,300 km) into the flight. The cutter Itasca was on station at Howland, assigned tocommunicate with Earharts Lockheed Electra 10E and guide them to the island once theyarrived in the vicinity.FINAL APPROACH ON HOWLAND ISLANDThrough a series of misunderstandings or errors (the details of which are stillcontroversial), the final approach to Howland Island using radio navigation was notsuccessful. Fred Noonan had earlier written about problems affecting the accuracy ofradio direction finding in navigation.Some sources have noted Earharts apparent lack ofunderstanding of her Bendix direction-finding loop antenna, which at the time was verynew technology. Another cited cause of possible confusion was that the USCGcutter Itasca and Earhart planned their communication schedule using time systems set ahalf hour apart (with Earhart using Greenwich Civil Time (GCT) and the Itasca under aNaval time zone designation system).
  23. 23. Radio signalsDuring Earhart and Noonans approach to Howland Island the Itasca received strong andclear voice transmissions from Earhart identifying as KHAQQ but she apparently was unableto hear voice transmissions from the ship. At 7:42 am Earhart radioed "We must be on you,but cannot see you—but gas is running low. Have been unable to reach you by radio. We areflying at 1,000 feet." Her 7:58 am transmission said she couldnt hear the Itasca and askedthem to send voice signals so she could try to take a radio bearing (this transmission wasreported by the Itasca as the loudest possible signal, indicating Earhart and Noonan were inthe immediate area). They couldnt send voice at the frequency she asked for, so Morse codesignals were sent instead. Earhart acknowledged receiving these but said she was unable todetermine their direction.In her last known transmission at 8:43 am Earhart broadcast "We are on the line 157 337. Wewill repeat this message. We will repeat this on 6210 kilocycles. Wait." However, a fewmoments later she was back on the same frequency (3105 kHz) with a transmission whichwas logged as a "questionable": "We are running on line north and south."Earhartstransmissions seemed to indicate she and Noonan believed they had reached Howlandscharted position, which was incorrect by about five nautical miles (10 km). The Itasca usedher oil-fired boilers to generate smoke for a period of time but the fliers apparently did notsee it. The many scattered clouds in the area around Howland Island have also been cited asa problem: their dark shadows on the ocean surface may have been almost indistinguishablefrom the islands subdued and very flat profile.
  24. 24. Search efforts Beginning approximately one hour after Earharts last recorded message, the USCG Itasca undertook an ultimately unsuccessful search north and west of Howland Island based on initial assumptions about transmissions from the aircraft. The United States Navy soon joined the search and over a period of about three days sent availableAMELIA WITH FRED NOONAN resources to the search area in the vicinity of Howland Island. Theinitial search by the Itasca involved running up the 157/337 line of position to the NNWfrom Howland Island. The Itasca then searched the area to the immediate NE of theisland, corresponding to the area, yet wider than the area searched to the NW. Based onbearings of several supposed Earhart radio transmissions, some of the search efforts weredirected to a specific position 281 degrees NW of Howland Island without finding land orevidence of the flyers. Four days after Earharts last verified radio transmission, on July 6,1937, the captain of the battleship Colorado received orders from the Commandant,Fourteenth Naval District to take over all naval and coast guard units to coordinate searchefforts.The official search efforts lasted until July 19, 1937. At $4 million, the air and sea search bythe Navy and Coast Guard was the most costly and intensive in U.S. history up to that timebut search and rescue techniques during the era were rudimentary and some
  25. 25. of the search was based on erroneous assumptions and flawed information. Officialreporting of the search effort was influenced by individuals wary about how their roles inlooking for an American hero might be reported by the press. Despite an unprecedentedsearch by the United States Navy and Coast Guard no physical evidence of Earhart,Noonan or the Electra 10E was found.A NEWS CLIPPING FROM INDIAN EXPRESSABOUT AMELIA EARHARTANSWERS TO EARHARTS DISAPPEARENCE SOUGHTIN HAWALIHonolulu: a $2.2 million expedition is hoping to finally solve one of Amercan’s mostenduring mysteries-what happened to famed aviator Amelia Earhart when she wentmissing over the south pacific 75 years agoA group of scientists , historians and salvagers are trekking from Honolulu to are remoteisland in the pacific nation of Kiribati starting Tuesday in hopes of finding wreckage ofEarhart’s Lockheed Electra plane.Their working theory is that Earhart and her navigator Fred Noonan landed on a reffnear the Kiribati atoll of Nikumaroro , then survived for a short time .Earhart and Noonan went missing on July 2,1937 during her bid to become the firstwoman to circumnavigate the globe
  26. 26. EARHART’S 1937 WORLD FLIGHT
  27. 27. EARHART FROM FILMS
  28. 28. MEPHIN PHLIP : Powerpoint Presentation creatorLIJIN IYPE MAMMEN : COLLECTION OF DIGITAL DATARAICY ANN MAMMEN : COLLECTING INFORMATIONJOBIN MATHEW : COLLECTING INFORMATIONTINTU HARIDAS : ORGANisingARSHA SAI J : Presentation presenterMUHAMMED NIYAS : nil
  29. 29. We are now concluding this presentation. We hope everyone had liked it.We have now seen the incredible life of Amelia Earhart throughout our journey.We like to thank thank everyone who had supported us cheered for us.We would also like to thank Ms. Meera for solving our every doubts. We wouldalso likeTo thank the CBSE for giving us this wonderful opportunity.THANK YOU, ALL!! By Team, The Flying Dutchman
  30. 30.  en.wikipedia.org Images.google.com www.newworldencyclopedia.org www.ellenspace.net Ask Me Anything

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