Women's Health


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Women's Health

  1. 1. Nutrition for Women  (Pre and Post Menopause) Created by: City of St. Louis Department of Health  Health Promotion, Education & Marketing,  Nutrition Services Katie Niekamp & Marissa Robinson, Saint Louis University Dietetic Interns
  2. 2. Goals: Address the most common concerns  women have for staying healthy during  menopause Educate women on how nutrition and  physical activity can address these  concerns Encourage women to lead a healthy  lifestyle
  3. 3. Women voice their concern . . . Two most frequently expressed  concerns of women: Weight gain 1. 2.  Bone health and osteoporosis
  4. 4. #1. Weight Gain
  5. 5. Menopause and Weight Gain Hormones play a critical role in weight  gain during and after menopause Estrogen:  – the female sex hormone is stored in fat.  During menopause, production decreases and  the body looks for estrogen in fat stores. The  body also stores more fat during this time to  compensate for declining estrogen  production. 
  6. 6. More Hormones Progesterone  – This hormone also decreases during  menopause, which results in water retention and  bloating. Androgen  –This hormone increases, and is responsible for  storing fat in the mid‐section Testosterone – ‐ This hormone decreases, which causes a  decrease in muscle mass resulting in lower  resting energy expenditure
  7. 7. Menopause DOES NOT have to equal  weight gain!
  8. 8. Weight Maintenance / Loss Nutrition: Choose low fat foods at meals and snacks Eat less saturated and trans fat, as well as  cholesterol ‐there are 9 calories per gram of fat,  therefore a food that has 10 grams of  fat in it has 90 calories.   ‐Carbohydrates and protein only have 4  calories per gram
  9. 9. Weight Maintenance / Loss Choose healthy fats Unsaturated – mono / poly – Olive oil, canola oil, avocados, nuts No more than 30% of total daily  calories  Try and eat foods that have less than 30% of  their calories from fat per serving to help keep  your total daily fat calories below 30% Look for baked, broiled, steamed, or grilled  meats on menus to try and cut fat Read labels!!!
  10. 10. Weight Maintenance / Loss Eat LOTS of fruits and veggies Strive for at least 7‐9 servings per day! – Choose all colors! – Fill half your plate with veggies and fruit  at all meals – Serving size = ½ cup – Fruits and veggies are filled with fiber  and antioxidants – Fiber helps get you fuller faster and keeps you fuller longer
  11. 11. Weight Maintenance / Loss Eat more whole grains Look at labels!  – Ingredient listings must say WHOLE  GRAIN in order for it to be a whole  grain. “WHEAT” DOES NOT = WHOLE  GRAIN! – Whole grains have lots of fiber which  make you feel fuller – Studies show that regular  consumption of fiber can result in a  lower BMI and waist circumference,  as well as aid in weight maintenance – Make half your grains whole grains
  12. 12. Weight Maintenance / Loss Reduce salty and salt cured foods Sausages, smoked fish and ham, bacon,  bologna and deli meats Canned foods – choose low or reduced sodium Use herbs and spices to flavor foods Avoid processed sugary drinks Regular soda, kool‐aid, non‐diet flavored  waters and sports drinks – Empty calories, excess calories – High intakes of salt and sugar can make  you retain water and feel bloated.
  13. 13. Other benefits of nutrition Studies show that women who eat a balance nutritional diet high in whole grains, fruit and vegetables, and low in fat have lower cholesterol levels and decreased risks for diabetes, heart disease and cancer.
  14. 14. Weight Maintenance / Loss Physical Activity: Increases the amount of calories your body  uses – Calories in = Calories out for weight maintenance Increases resting energy expenditure even  after the exercise is done Increases heart rate which makes body  more efficient at using calories Lowers blood pressure after workout is  done. – Continual workouts over a period of several days  will have longer and greater effects
  15. 15. Other Benefits of exercise  Sedentary women: suffer more from chronic back pain,  stiffness, insomnia, GI irregularity, poor  circulation, muscle weakness, shortness  of breath, and depression Active women who regularly walk, jog, swim,  bike, etc have less of these problems and  achieve higher HDL levels
  16. 16. Other Benefits Studies show women who perform aerobic  activity or strength training reduced their risks  for mortality from cardiovascular disease and  cancer. Mood:   Exercise has a positive effect on mood through  the release of  hormones called endorphins.  – quot;feel goodquot; hormones involved in the body's  positive response to stress.  – The mood‐heightening effect can last for  several hours
  17. 17. #2. Bone Health & Osteoporosis
  18. 18. Bone Health / Osteoporosis Normal bone / Osteoporosis
  19. 19. Bone Health / Osteoporosis Nutrition: Calcium: 1000mg per day for pre‐menopausal 1500mg per day for post‐menopausal Eat at least 3‐4 high calcium foods per day: milk, yogurt, cheese, dairy products, oysters, sardines,  salmon with bones, and dark green leafy vegetables like  spinach and broccoli. Supplements: calcium carbonate is more easily  absorbed in the body Tums, Caltrate
  20. 20. Bone Health / Osteoporosis Vitamin D: aids in Calcium absorption, bone  formation Sun, milk RDA = 400 mg per day
  21. 21. Bone Health / Osteoporosis Bones: quot;use it or lose itquot; rule – They diminish in size and strength  with disuse. – Weight‐bearing exercise (walking,  running) will help increase bone  mass.  – Exercise stimulates the cells  responsible for generating new bone  to work overtime.  – Bone tissue lost from lack of use can  be rebuilt with weight‐bearing  activity. – In postmenopausal women,  moderate exercise preserves bone  mass in the spine, helping reduce the  risk of fractures. 
  23. 23. What to Eat in Your 30’s Watch Snacking!!! Eat a healthy snack like an apple before lunch to help cut calorie consumption during meals Be mindful of the food your kids are eating High calorie snacks are tempting, be cautious of amounts if you share snacks with your children often
  24. 24. Eating in Your 40s Your metabolism has slowed by about 4% at this time!!! -Cut 4% of your usual intake Example – usual intake of 2000 kcals reduced to 1920 calories Make smart substitutions and save calories – drink water instead of soda
  25. 25. 40s continued Eat breakfast – eating breakfast helps curb hunger until lunch and results in less high calorie snacking and fewer calories at lunch Recognize true hunger cues Ask yourself if you are truly hungry before reaching for food Thirst is often confused with hunger – try drinking a glass of water before snacking If you find you are bored or lonely, seek other activities instead of snacking
  26. 26. Eating in Your 50s Metabolism drops again, so cut another 75 calories to maintain weight Try soy – using soy milk or other soy products like tofu is beneficial for weight loss Eat regularly – eating at about the same time every day helps your insulin and blood sugars stay regulated
  27. 27. Summary – for all ages! Eat Healthy! Start your day with a good breakfast Whole grains, low fat dairy, fruit Include healthy snacks  Low fat dairy, fruit, veggies, lean proteins, healthy  fats Remember balance and variety Read nutrition labels Eat from all food groups Moderation!
  28. 28. Summary – for all ages! Get Moving! Fit in 30‐60 minutes of activity in your  daily routine Walk, bike, jog, swim, dance,  housework, stairs Any movement is activity, so just get  up and do something to work up a  sweat and get your heart pumping!
  29. 29. Questions
  30. 30. References www.womenshealth.gov www.womenshealth.about.com www.epigee.org/menopause/weight_ gain.html www.eatright.org www.health.com/health/article/0,2341 4,1717643,00.html