Fukushima Cognitron


Published on

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Fukushima Cognitron

  1. 1. Fukushima, K Cognitrón
  2. 2. The Cognitron - First  Multilayered Network (1975
  3. 3. <ul><li>In 1975, inspired by the  self-organization ability of the brain, Kunihiko Fukushima from Japan introduced the  Cognitron network as an extension of the original perceptron. Like the Original Perceptron  the Cognitron is a pattern regularity detector  meaning it is able to learn patterns  without some mechanism (a teacher) to indicate the success or non-success of a pattern  match. Unlike the original Perceptron the Cognitron is better able to handle (but not  perfectly) the pattern subset problem in which one pattern is completely contained within  the other. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>It does this by using a special inhibitory input to the convergent subcircuit  node which tends to counteract the effects of larger patterns. Also unlike the original  Perceptron the Cognitron can discriminate to some degree between analog patterns although  binary patterns are usually presented to the first layer. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>A basic unit (section) of the  Cognitron having two convergent subcircuits is shown in figure 16. It has four input lines  labeled A through D. Notice lines B and C are common to both convergent subcircuits. It  learns by increasing the weights on the the active convergent subcircuit lines of the  subcircuit selected by the gate comparitor as having the greatest output. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Like the  original perceptron, the best match is simply strengthened. The rule for adjusting each  positive line weight in a selected convergent subcircuit is: </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitory Weight Increment =  (Proportionality Constant) * (Positive Line Value) / (Number of Subcircuit Inputs). </li></ul><ul><li>In the Cognitron the weights can  increase without limit but this is balanced by increasing the weights on the inhibitory  inputs at the same time. The rule for adjusting the weight  is: </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Inhibitory Weight Increment =  (Pattern Generality Constant) * [(Sum of all positive inputs into the subcircuit node) /  (Total Pattern Value)] </li></ul><ul><li>The Pattern Generality Constant  in the original paper was 1/2 and it is needed to help define the dynamic equilibrium of  the network between the positive and negative line values feeding into the subcircuit  node. This dynamic equilibrium in turn defines the degree of pattern discrimination versus  pattern generality. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Dynamic equilibrium effects are  best seen in the example shown in figure 16 which represents a Cognitron section at a  particular moment in time in which the positive weights have a value of 1 and the top  inhibitory weight has a value of 0.75 while the bottom subcircuit has an inhibitory weight  value of 0.6. These weights allow a subset pattern discrimination (such as 1,1,1 verses  0,1,1). Yet this discrimination is only possible if the bottom inhibitory weight has a  value between 0.75 and 0.45. Any weight value outside that range forces the two patterns  to be classified as belonging to the same general class. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>The choice of the Pattern  Generality Constant is what ever works for no analytical derivation as to its value for  any degree of generalization has yet been devised. Also one would think that it would be a  prime candidate to be adaptively determined itself but no method has yet been devised for  that either. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>With such a narrow range for  subset pattern discrimination the number of input lines of a convergent subcircuit needs  to be rather small in order to preserve resolution. The percentage difference  between  patterns having 20 and 21 binary values is not as great as the difference  between patterns having 3 and 4 binary values. Consequently, Fukushima divided the  Cognitron into repeatable sections and to connect the sections he was forced to use  several layers. This use of multiple layers was to inspire other multilayered yet quite  different networks in the future (such as the hybrid network below). </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>In order to combat the ever  increasing line values due to ever increasing weight values Fukushima did not use simple  summation and subtraction operations for the convergent subcircuit node. Instead he  combined the positive and subtractive nodal inputs with a formula which slows the growth  of the output value. The exact equation is (e - h)/(1 + h) where e is the exitory or  additive input and h is the inhibitory or subtractive input. Also the gate comparitor  circuit, like all those found in all pre-multivalued logic neural networks, is based upon  lateral inhibition. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>The many layers and sections of  the Cognitron allowed it to be modified so that it could respond in the same way (having  the same final output) to the same object moved around in a visual field. This  modification was called the Neocognitron by Fukushima who published it in 1980. All that  was done was to add another set of summation nodes (effectively acting as logical OR  operations) after a layer's gate comparitor which summed all the outputs from all the  convergent subcircuits in the same location of each section. (see figure 17). </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>If a feature  pattern was moved it would be in the same location in some new section has it had been in  its old previously learned section. Consequently it would activate the same OR-like  summation node as before to effect position independence which is limited only by the  degree of overlap between sections (if the sections do not overlap very much then the  pattern would have a low probability of being in its exact relative location in the new  section). </li></ul>
  14. 14.                                    
  15. 15. Bibliografia <ul><li>Fukushima, K (1975) Cognitron: A Self-organizing Multilayered  Neural Network, Biological Cybernetics, 20:121-136 </li></ul><ul><li>Fukushima, K (1980) Neocognitron: A Self-organizing Neural  Network Model for a Mechanism of Pattern Recognition Unaffected by Shift in Position, Biological  Cybernetics 36, 193-202 </li></ul>
  16. 16. Prof. Shun-ichi Amari <ul><li>Laboratory For Mathematical Neuroscience Brain Science Institute The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN) Hirosawa, 2-1, Wako-shi, Saitama, 351-0198, Japan Phone: +81-48-467-9669 (dial-in) Fax: +81-48-462-4687 E-mail: amari @ brain . riken . go . jp </li></ul>