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  1. 1. USA AND WW1
  2. 2. CONTENTS
  3. 3. THE USA IN 1917
  4. 4. THE SYSTEM <ul><li>1787 – the USA became independent of British Rule </li></ul><ul><li>Congress was split into two: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>House of Representatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Senate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>President who can clock laws passed by Congress </li></ul><ul><li>Supreme Court who can decide I laws passed are in agreement with the ‘Founding Fathers’ in 1787 </li></ul><ul><li>1863 – blacks freed from slavery after the Civil War but are not treated much, if any, better than before </li></ul><ul><li>Isolationist – America didn’t join alliances or get involved in foreign politics </li></ul>
  5. 5. THE POLITICAL PARTIES <ul><li>Republicans </li></ul><ul><li>More conservative </li></ul><ul><li>Representing business </li></ul><ul><li>Believed in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Rugged individualism’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Isolationism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Presidents include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wilson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Harding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coolidge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hoover </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Democrats </li></ul><ul><li>More liberal </li></ul><ul><li>Believe in using the Federal government to help </li></ul><ul><ul><li>State welfare, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But there are racist Democrats in the South </li></ul><ul><li>Presidents include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Roosevelt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kennedy </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. IMMIGRATION <ul><li>Millions came to the USA to make a new life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ The Land of Opportunity’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>They believed in ‘rugged individualism’ </li></ul><ul><li>They had a hatred and fear of government interference and of Socialism </li></ul><ul><li>WASPS were the earlier immigrants from north-west Europe </li></ul><ul><li>But from the 1880’s, poor immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe began to arrive </li></ul><ul><li>They were dark-skinned and Jews or Catholics </li></ul><ul><li>Like the blacks, they were discriminated and remained poor </li></ul>
  7. 7. WW1 AND THE USA
  8. 8. SOME KEY DATES <ul><li>1914 – WW1 began. The USA continued its policy of isolation </li></ul><ul><li>1916 – Woodrow Wilson was elected and promised to keep the US out of WW1 </li></ul><ul><li>1917 – the USA declared war on Germany and entered WW1 </li></ul><ul><li>1918 – WW1 ended </li></ul>
  9. 9. WHY DECLARE WAR? <ul><li>The USA traded with both sides in the war. When Germany declared a war-zone around Britain, they used U-boats. But in 1916, the Lusitania was sunk, losing 128 American lives </li></ul><ul><li>By 1917, the USA lent lots of money to Britain and France. The loans would be squashed if Germany won </li></ul><ul><li>People were more sympathetic towards Britain and France as they are democratic countries </li></ul><ul><li>By early 1917, Germany was desperate so re-commenced the U-boat. They figured that the US would join against them and wanted to defeat them before they did join </li></ul><ul><li>Germany invited Mexico to attack the USA if war broke out. The British intercepted the Zimmerman Telegram and passed it onto the USA. The US couldn’t stay out of the war any longer </li></ul>
  10. 10. THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES <ul><li>Jan. 1918, Wilson put forward his 14 Points for a better world. This included the League of Nations and rejected harsh treatment of Germany </li></ul><ul><li>He arrived in Europe in Dec. 1918 and was welcomed as a hero. He stayed until June 1919 and played a major part in the Treaty of Versailles </li></ul><ul><li>He didn’t get all he wanted but he did get the League of Nations </li></ul><ul><li>But the Senate decided not to accept the Treaty of Versailles and so didn’t join the League of Nations </li></ul>
  11. 11. THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS <ul><li>America didn’t join the League of Nations because: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many Americans came from Europe (over ½) and had memories of poverty, lack of freedom and exploitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Americans feared Communism, Anarchism and Socialism. There had been revolutions in Hungary and Germany after Russia’s in 1917. They didn’t want it to spread to the USA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>American policy of Isolation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>100,000 Americans were killed or wounded in the war. People feared America would become more involved in wars if they made further alliances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wilson had made himself unpopular by staying away for so long and even more so by not being ready to compromise on the deal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many Americans thought they didn’t need anyone else as their industry was ‘booming’ </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. IMPACT OF WAR
  13. 13. RESULTS OF WAR <ul><li>US trade increased as they had no European rivals during the war </li></ul><ul><li>The US industries did well supplying food and arms to Europe </li></ul><ul><li>The US took over Germany’s chemical industry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Making dyes, plastics, fertilisers, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The interest from European loans allowed investors to invest in US industry </li></ul><ul><li>In 1920, all women could vote and young, liberated women of the 1920’s, who smoked in public, wore short dresses, etc. were called ‘Flappers’ </li></ul><ul><li>People wanted to make money and have fun hence the 1920’s being called ‘The Jazz Age’ </li></ul><ul><li>Wilson was unpopular for his seriousness after the war </li></ul>
  14. 14. RESULTS OF ISOLATIONISM <ul><li>America never joined the League of Nations </li></ul><ul><li>The Forney-McCumber tariff was used to protect US industry by putting high duties on many imports </li></ul><ul><li>Restrictions on immigration. Before the US had an ‘open door’ policy but now restrictions were put on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Total number was restricted from 1921 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A quota system let in numbers of people according to their presence in the US population. This favoured WASPS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A literacy test was imposed in 1917 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The US turned its back on Europe for nearly 20years as the Republicans were in charge </li></ul>