Plan To what extent were the 1920s and 1930s the most important period of progress for organised labour in the USA from 18...
1920s and 30s <ul><li>1920’s </li></ul><ul><li>1930’s </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in unskilled workers </li></ul><ul><li>Ma...
The Flint Strike 1937 <ul><li>“ quantum leap for economic democracy” </li></ul><ul><li>GM workers had irregular work </li>...
Technology – 1960s and 70s <ul><li>AFL-CIO (1955) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Made unions more powerful and undivided </li></ul>...
World Wars <ul><li>WWI - Fed govt recognised unions and negotiated with them through the National War Labour Board </li></...
Pullman and Homestead Strikes <ul><li>The Homestead Strike (1892): A Turning Point? </li></ul><ul><li>Most serious industr...
Air Strike <ul><li>Negative turning point, but v significant </li></ul><ul><li>showed Reagan’s hostility  towards TUs – AF...
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To what extent were the 1920s and 1930s the most important period of progress for organised labour in the USA from 1865-1992?

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To what extent were the 1920s and 1930s the most important period of progress for organised labour in the USA from 1865-1992?

  1. 1. Plan To what extent were the 1920s and 1930s the most important period of progress for organised labour in the USA from 1865-1992?
  2. 2. 1920s and 30s <ul><li>1920’s </li></ul><ul><li>1930’s </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in unskilled workers </li></ul><ul><li>Mass production, credit, increased demand </li></ul><ul><li>Formation of giant corporations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Welfare capitalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yellow dog contacts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rise in wages, fall in unemployment </li></ul><ul><li>Divided leadership </li></ul><ul><li>BSCP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only legitimate union for porters in the Pullman Company </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No real advancement </li></ul><ul><li>Some change </li></ul><ul><li>Greater conflict </li></ul><ul><li>National Industry Recovery Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blue eagle symbol </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wagner Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>National legislation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constitutional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right to join union </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spies banned </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expansion of union membership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Labor Relations Board </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reinstate unfairly dismissed workers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fair Labor Standards Act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Min weekly wage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prohibited employment of children under 16 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. The Flint Strike 1937 <ul><li>“ quantum leap for economic democracy” </li></ul><ul><li>GM workers had irregular work </li></ul><ul><li>Welfare capitalism – GM </li></ul><ul><li>Workers staged a sit-in but it seemed radical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communist support unwelcomed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Violence occurred </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emergency Women’s Brigade </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unions worked with for the first time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nationwide recognition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Steel industry followed (surprise) </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Technology – 1960s and 70s <ul><li>AFL-CIO (1955) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Made unions more powerful and undivided </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bargain successfully </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wages rose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Won growing list of benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increasing need for skilled workers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wages rose significantly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Welfare scheme from employers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unskilled protective of jobs and unwilling to strike </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Divided culturally and ethnically </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fall in wages and a rise in unemployment </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in foreign competition </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction in the demand for home produced goods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduction in productivity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Affirmative Action and Occupational Safety and Health Act (1970) </li></ul><ul><li>Decline in need and thus membership </li></ul><ul><li>Unions still existed </li></ul>
  5. 5. World Wars <ul><li>WWI - Fed govt recognised unions and negotiated with them through the National War Labour Board </li></ul><ul><li>WWI - In return for workers’ cooperation and not striking, NWLB guaranteed rights of workers to join unions and to collective bargaining </li></ul><ul><li>WWI - Employers agreed to implement 8 hour working day </li></ul><ul><li>WWII – control of industry taken away from employers – tipped control in favour of workers </li></ul><ul><li>1943 – President given power to seize control of any factory threatening to strike </li></ul><ul><li>1943 – became illegal to instigate strike and unions required to give at least 30 days notice of strikes </li></ul><ul><li>More employment opportunities for women, the disabled and African Americans </li></ul><ul><li>FDR issued an executive order banning discrimination when it came to employment in Federal Government </li></ul><ul><li>After the war old tensions between employers and workers reappeared </li></ul><ul><li>Divisions between skilled and unskilled workers and gender and racial divisions remained as barriers which prevented workers from working together in solidarity as one united movement for their rights </li></ul>
  6. 6. Pullman and Homestead Strikes <ul><li>The Homestead Strike (1892): A Turning Point? </li></ul><ul><li>Most serious industrial dispute in American labour history </li></ul><ul><li>Relationships between workers and managers worsened </li></ul><ul><li>It was organised and purposeful - set standard for future industrial disputes to be settled by strike action </li></ul><ul><li>Workers in other Carnegie plants also went on strike in support of those at the Homestead plant </li></ul><ul><li>Men divided themselves into units along military lines </li></ul><ul><li>Managers fired at workers, killing two and wounding 11 – crowd responded by killing 2 and wounding 12 </li></ul><ul><li>Strike broke AA as a force </li></ul><ul><li>1900 – not a single steel plant in Pennsylvania was still unionised </li></ul><ul><li>strike had an adverse effect on getting rights for workers – impact wasn’t restricted to steel </li></ul><ul><li>Employers in other industries became nervous of accepting unionisation of workers </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>The Pullman Strike (1894): A Turning Point? </li></ul><ul><li>passenger trains began to pull mail cars </li></ul><ul><li>Federal govt and federal troops got involved in strike action to break it – was first time federal govt had gotten involved </li></ul><ul><li>leaders of strike weren’t given their jobs back after strike ended – showed employers couldn’t be trusted to hold up their end of a deal </li></ul><ul><li>shows lengths to which employers were willing to go to ensure workers weren’t granted rights </li></ul><ul><li>showed how employers refused to recognise rights of workers’ right to bargain collectively </li></ul><ul><li>shows how far federal govt was willing to go to suppress workers gaining rights </li></ul><ul><li>Supreme Court legalised use of injunctions – gave employers a powerful weapon to use against workers </li></ul><ul><li>aggressive conservative authorities and employers united to thwart attempt to build a working class movement </li></ul><ul><li>employers continued to use injunctions against workers until 1932 </li></ul><ul><li>federal govt superseded authority of state govts </li></ul>
  7. 7. Air Strike <ul><li>Negative turning point, but v significant </li></ul><ul><li>showed Reagan’s hostility towards TUs – AFL-CIO called him a “union buster” </li></ul><ul><li>employers changed tactics in dealing with industrial disputes – deployed scab labour for first time </li></ul><ul><li>other workers showed no signs of solidarity – air traffic controllers were already quite well-paid </li></ul><ul><li>lack of public support for strike </li></ul><ul><li>caused dramatic fall in TU membership and no of strikes </li></ul><ul><li>workers broke 1955 law saying government workers cannot go on strike </li></ul><ul><li>employers gained upper hand over TUs </li></ul><ul><li>response of fed govt and FAA meant a redefinition in US labour relations </li></ul><ul><li>other unions were angry with PATCO for bringing all unions into disrepute </li></ul><ul><li>all striking workers were fired and replaced with other workers, leaders of strike sent to prison for breaking injunctions, and PATCO was destroyed </li></ul>

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