GCSE Chemistry Revision


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GCSE Chemistry Revision

  1. 1. Chemistry Random Notes to Remember Probably not everything by a long way
  2. 2. Contents
  3. 3. <ul><li>General Equation </li></ul><ul><li>Acids and Bases in Fertilisers </li></ul>
  4. 4. General Equation
  5. 5. Acids and Bases in Fertilisers Fertiliser Name Acid and Base in the Fertiliser Ammonium Nitrate (NH₄NO₃) Acid = nitrogen (aka nitric acid) Base = ammonia Ammonium Sulphate (NH₄2SO₄) Acid = sulphur (aka sulphuric acid) Base = ammonia Ammonium Phosphate (NH₄3PO₄) Acid = phosphorus (aka phosphoric acid) Base = ammonia Potassium Nitrate (KNO₃) Acid = nitrogen (aka nitric acid) Base = ammonia
  6. 6. <ul><li>The Haber Process </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacture of Ammonia </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Haber Process
  8. 8. Manufacture of Ammonia <ul><li>Nitrogen </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen </li></ul><ul><li>Mixer </li></ul><ul><li>Compressor </li></ul><ul><li>Iron catalyst chamber </li></ul><ul><ul><li>450 °C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>200 atmospheres </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chiller </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ammonia (but not other gases) liquefies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-40 °C – -50 °C </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recycle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>72% recycled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrogen and nitrogen </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Final article </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ammonia out 28% </li></ul></ul>1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
  9. 9. <ul><li>Extraction of Drugs from Plants </li></ul><ul><li>The Process of Extraction from Plant Material </li></ul><ul><li>Batch or Continuous </li></ul>
  10. 10. Extraction of Drug <ul><li>Plants are crushed in the first stage to break through call walls </li></ul><ul><li>This should release the needed chemical </li></ul><ul><li>An organic solvent is used rather than water because the chemicals are not soluble in water </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Process of Extraction from Plant Material
  12. 12. Continuous or Batch <ul><li>Continuous </li></ul><ul><li>Batch </li></ul><ul><li>Ammonia is made as part of a continuous process </li></ul><ul><li>Most drugs are also made as part of a continuous process </li></ul><ul><li>This is normally after having it on batch while it is being tested and approved </li></ul><ul><li>Beer and alcohol are made in batch </li></ul><ul><li>Some drugs are also pat of the batch process because there may be a problem with the drug </li></ul><ul><li>This will then be put on continuous supply once approved </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>The Ingredients </li></ul><ul><li>Polar Bonds </li></ul><ul><li>Dry Cleaning </li></ul>
  14. 14. Ingredients... <ul><li>Enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>Optical Brighteners </li></ul><ul><li>It helps to remove food stains by breaking down fat and proteins </li></ul><ul><li>The fatty acids, glycerol, and amino acids are removed in the water </li></ul><ul><li>They work best at 40 °C as it is warm but not hot so they don’t denature </li></ul><ul><li>This is economical and environmentally friendly too </li></ul><ul><li>A chemical that increases the apparent whiteness of a fabric to make it appear whiter than it really is </li></ul><ul><li>It does this by reflecting ultra-violet light in the blue region of the spectrum </li></ul>
  15. 15. ...More Ingredients... <ul><li>Bleach </li></ul><ul><li>Water Softener </li></ul><ul><li>An ingredient to break down the natural colour constituents of a stain </li></ul><ul><li>The most common is sodium perborate (‘oxygen bleach’) </li></ul><ul><li>It is a powder made from borax and hydrogen peroxide and used in detergents like tetrahyrate (NaBO ₃4H₂O) </li></ul><ul><li>It creates an alkaline solution in water (hydrogen peroxide) which has a bleaching effect </li></ul><ul><li>A chemical (like sodium chloride) that treats the water by replacing calcium and magnesium ions and salts (aka ‘hardness’) </li></ul><ul><li>It then replacing them with sodium ions to make the water more efficient </li></ul>
  16. 16. ...And The Final Ingredient <ul><li>Detergent </li></ul><ul><li>The Detergent Molecule </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to emulsifiers </li></ul><ul><li>Synthetic cleaning or wetting agent that is a mixture of compounds to remove dirt and oil </li></ul>Hydrophilic head Hydrophobic tail Has a charge Has no charge
  17. 17. Polar Bonds <ul><li>A water molecule has a slight charge, aka polar, </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore they can only dissolve charged compounds, aka ionic compounds </li></ul>Attracts electrons very strongly Electrons δ + δ + δ -
  18. 18. Dry Cleaning <ul><li>Dry cleaning uses a solvent rather than water making it ‘organic.’ </li></ul><ul><li>This means it has no charge so breaks down compounds with no charge </li></ul><ul><li>You would dry clean because: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water doesn’t remove all stains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water destroys some fabrics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. Wool </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Chromatography </li></ul><ul><li>Sulphate Ions </li></ul><ul><li>Halide Ions </li></ul>
  20. 20. Chromatography
  21. 21. Test for Sulphate Ions <ul><li>Used in purifying water </li></ul><ul><li>Barium Chloride (BaCl ₂) is an ionic compound used to find sulphate </li></ul><ul><li>Barium Chloride + Magnesium Sulphate + Magnesium Chloride </li></ul><ul><li>If sulphate is present a white precipitate will form (insoluble in water) </li></ul>
  22. 22. Test for Halide Ions <ul><li>Used in purifying water </li></ul><ul><li>Silver Nitrate (AgNO ₃) is used to find halide ions </li></ul><ul><li>Add AgNO₃ to your water sample and if a precipitate forms, halide ions are present </li></ul>Halide Ion Colour of Precipitate Chloride (Cl ⁻) White (AgCl) Bromide (Br ⁻) Cream (AgBr) Iodide (I ⁻) Yellow (AgI)
  23. 23. <ul><li>The Carbon Atom </li></ul><ul><li>Allotrope </li></ul><ul><li>Diamond </li></ul><ul><li>Graphite </li></ul><ul><li>Buckminster Fullerene </li></ul><ul><li>Nanotubes </li></ul>
  24. 24. The Carbon Atom <ul><li>Atomic number 6 </li></ul><ul><li>Non-metal </li></ul><ul><li>Can conduct electricity </li></ul><ul><li>Singly covalently bonded </li></ul>C x x x x x x
  25. 25. Allotrope
  26. 26. Diamond <ul><li>Each C atom is joined to 4 other C atoms by covalent bonds in a tetrahedral structure </li></ul><ul><li>The strength of the bonds make diamond very hard and strong </li></ul>The Tetrahedral Structure
  27. 27. Graphite <ul><li>Each C atom has only 3 covalent bonds formed which makes it weaker than diamond </li></ul><ul><li>Graphite exists as sheets of carbon with the spare electron from each atom free to move between the sheets </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, there is a sea of electrons creating an electric current </li></ul>C C C C x x o x o x o Spare electron
  28. 28. Buckminster Fullerene <ul><li>Normally C-60 Fullerene </li></ul><ul><li>Used to make nanotubes </li></ul><ul><li>It is in a spherical shape originally </li></ul>
  29. 29. Nanotubes <ul><li>Hexagonally arranged carbon atoms to make tiny (microscopic) and very strong tubes </li></ul><ul><li>These are made from a series of fullerenes, as if stretched into tubes </li></ul><ul><li>Uses: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve catalysts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforcement in tennis rackets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semi-conductors in electrical circuits </li></ul></ul>