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Communist Russia - Stalin


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Communist Russia - Stalin

  1. 1. Stalin
  2. 2. <ul><li>The USSR in 1924 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A Communist State </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A Communist Economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A Communist Society </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Power Struggle 1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Split in the Politburo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personality Clashes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lenin’s Testament </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stalin’s Power </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Power Struggle 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stalin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The reading of Lenin’s Testament </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arguments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attacking the Left and the Right </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Assassination of Trotsky </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Collective and Kulaks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peasants and Collectivisation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liquidation of Kulaks and the Famine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Key Words </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The 5-Year Plans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st 5-year plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The plan in action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The results </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Workers and their Work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New work practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Stakhanov Movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Slave Labour and the Labour Camps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slave labour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Labour camps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Kolyma camps </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Purges, Show Trials and Terror </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Murder of Kirov </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Great Purge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Show trials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Great Terror </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Life Under Stalin’s Rule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Cult of Stalin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Culture and censorship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Family Life </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Communism, A Communist State, A Communist Economy and A Communist Society </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>The ideas were based on Karl Marx’s writings </li></ul><ul><li>Everything was to be equal – those who had things should share with those who do not </li></ul><ul><li>Socialism would eventually take over the capitalist countries because workers would get fed up of being exploited </li></ul><ul><li>The idea was that people would work together for the good of everyone </li></ul><ul><li>The government would share the profits and everyone would receive the benefits e.g. Better housing, medical care and education </li></ul><ul><li>The government would eventually fade away once everyone learns to work for each other – this is then known as Communism </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Lenin took over Russia in the revolution in November 1917 </li></ul><ul><li>Russia became the USSR and it became a one-party state </li></ul><ul><li>After 1921, groups within the party were banned – 750,000 people were purged </li></ul><ul><li>There are now 6 republics in the USSR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each have their own government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Main government for national matters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Much like in the USA with the state and federal laws </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Local councils called Soviets </li></ul><ul><li>Soviet had Congress of Soviets which acted as the country’s parliament </li></ul><ul><li>There was then a Central Committee chosen by the Congress </li></ul><ul><li>This then had a small Council of People’s Commissars – the Sovnarkom </li></ul><ul><li>There was a parallel Communist Party – the officials were members of the Soviet so the Party controlled national and local governments </li></ul>
  6. 8. <ul><li>Right vs. Left and Stalin vs. Trotsky </li></ul>
  7. 9. <ul><li>The Left Opposition was: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Against the NEP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to protect USSR from West </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Force people to work </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Rightists were: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Continue NEP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less industrial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peasants and townspeople made prosperous </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stalin had many jobs including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Party’s Orgburo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General Secretary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Member of the Politburo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Head of the Control Commission </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trotsky was seen to be arrogant, rude, vain and full of himself – making him unpopular although Lenin thought he’d be a good successor </li></ul><ul><li>Stalin on the other hand was liked but the members of the Politburo but not my Lenin </li></ul><ul><li>Lenin’s testament told them of his fears of Stalin but Zinoviev came to his rescue </li></ul>K T Z B T R Katie’s Better
  8. 10. <ul><li>What it said: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Of Stalin had unlimited authority as Secretary but found him too rude and is intolerable as Secretary General, not as loyal as expected, less polite, less considerate and less capricious. He suggested removing him of his post </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Of Trotsky it said he was distinguished has an outstanding ability, but shows excessive self-assurance, excessive preoccupation with purely administrative work </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What happened after it was read: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In May 1924 the testament was read out to great embarrassment of Stalin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, Zinoviev told the Central Committee of the Communist Party that Stalin had worked in harmony with himself and Kamenev (both of whom were plotting against Trotsky) since Lenin’s death </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After the speech, the Committee decided to keep Stalin at his post and also never publish the testament to save him from further embarrassment </li></ul></ul>
  9. 11. <ul><li>TROTSKY </li></ul><ul><li>Trotsky wanted Permanent Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>He didn’t think that Communism would survive in the USSR alone so he wanted to spread it </li></ul><ul><li>He was scared that the West would try to destroy the Communism in the USSR </li></ul><ul><li>Trotsky resigned in 1925 from his post of Commissar for War </li></ul><ul><li>STALIN </li></ul><ul><li>Stalin on the other hand wanted Socialism in One Country </li></ul><ul><li>He thought that the USSR came first and everyone else second </li></ul><ul><li>He argued the Comintern, short for Communist International, which helped revolutions in other countries had all failed in 1919 </li></ul>
  10. 12. <ul><li>1924 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trotsky made unpopular and voted down at every meeting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trotsky is booed at meetings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1925 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kamenev is dismissed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trotsky resigns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zinoviev is dismissed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1927 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trotsky is expelled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zinoviev is expelled </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1928 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trotsky is deported </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1929 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bukharin resigns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tomsky resigns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rykov resigns </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1940 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trotsky is assassinated </li></ul></ul>K T Z B T R 1. Joins 2. Attacks 3. Leaves 4. Attacks
  11. 13. <ul><li>Problems of the peasants, Collectivisation, liquidation of the Kulaks, and famine </li></ul>
  12. 14. <ul><li>About 100million Soviets were peasants </li></ul><ul><li>9/10 owned one horse </li></ul><ul><li>8/10 had farms of less than 5hectares </li></ul><ul><li>Used old fashioned tools and methods </li></ul><ul><li>About half reaped grain by hand, using sickles or scythes </li></ul><ul><li>About 1/3 ploughed with wooden ploughs </li></ul><ul><li>The only way to get money for industry was to tax peasants </li></ul><ul><li>NEP led to increase in food but not all the extra went to the workers in the towns </li></ul><ul><li>This was because the government was buying the grain for too little and peasants kept a little more for themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Stalin said in 1928 the USSR was 2million tonnes short on food </li></ul><ul><li>Stalin took emergency actions but it was not enough so he introduced collectivisation </li></ul>
  13. 15. <ul><li>People were to work together and put their land, animals and equipment together in kolkhoz (a collective farm) </li></ul><ul><li>There would be no profits, the government would buy the grain at a fixed price and the peasants would get wages </li></ul><ul><li>A kolkhoz consisted of 50-100 families working on an average of 450hectares of land </li></ul><ul><li>They were more efficient than before and had Machine Tractor Stations to help with ploughing and harvesting </li></ul><ul><li>There was one to every 40 farms </li></ul>
  14. 16. <ul><li>In 1929 there was 5million people living in kulak families </li></ul><ul><li>One family owned two or three horses, several cows, and had a large-median farm </li></ul><ul><li>They employed peasants at busiest times of the years </li></ul><ul><li>They were most likely to oppose the new plan as they had the most to lose </li></ul><ul><li>In December 1929 Stalin wanted to liquidate them </li></ul><ul><li>There was 3 categories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Actively hostile who the OGPU, political police, deported </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wealthiest kulaks were also deported </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Least harmful kulaks were allowed to stay but given the worst land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They land was given to the local kolkhoz </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1.5million people were deported </li></ul><ul><li>There was no arrangements and they were left to die </li></ul><ul><li>¼ of them died of starvation, disease, ill-treatment or/and the cold </li></ul>
  15. 17. <ul><li>By February 1930 the government said that half the peasants joined collective farms </li></ul><ul><li>Many peasants hated collectivisation </li></ul><ul><li>These peasants would kill their animals, destroy their crops, equipment and buildings </li></ul><ul><li>This lead to the fall in food production and then led to famine </li></ul><ul><li>Over the next 3 years 5-6million people died of starvation </li></ul>
  16. 18. <ul><li>The Plan, The Motives, The Results </li></ul>
  17. 19. <ul><li>In December 1917 the Vesenkha was set up which then set up the Gosplan in 1921 to help increase industrial output </li></ul>