Carboxylic Acids

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Carboxylic acid revision for chemistry

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Carboxylic Acids

  1. 1. Carboxylic Acid Reactions
  2. 2. Contents <ul><li>Carboxylic Acids </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Properties </li></ul><ul><li>Preparation of Carboxylic Acids </li></ul><ul><li>Reactions of Carboxylic Acids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>…With metals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>…With bases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>…With carbonates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>…With Alkalis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… Esterification </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Summary </li></ul>
  3. 3. Carboxylic Acids <ul><li>The functional group is –COOH or </li></ul><ul><li>They are named by taking the ‘e’ from the stem of the alkane and adding ‘–oic acid’ for the suffix </li></ul><ul><li>They are found throughout nature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Citrus fruits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rhubarb leaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sting of ants </li></ul></ul>Back to Contents
  4. 4. Physical Properties <ul><li>Very soluble in solvents </li></ul><ul><li>Soluble in water due to hydrogen bonding </li></ul><ul><li>As mass increases, solubility decreases </li></ul><ul><li>Boiling point increases as size increases due to more van der Waals </li></ul>Back to Contents
  5. 5. Preparation of Carboxylic Acids <ul><li>There are several ways to prepare carboxylic acids, the following list corresponds to the equations below </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oxidation of aldehydes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrolysis of esters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrolysis of acyl chlorides </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrolysis of nitriles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrolysis of amids </li></ul></ul></ul>Back to Contents
  6. 6. Reactions of Carboxylic Acids… <ul><li>They are weak monobasic acids </li></ul><ul><li>Take part in the typical acid reactions </li></ul><ul><li>Salts formed are known as caboxylates </li></ul><ul><li>The carboxylate contains a carboxylate ion </li></ul>Back to Contents
  7. 7. …With Metals <ul><li>Produces a salt and hydrogen </li></ul>… With Bases <ul><li>Produces salt and water </li></ul>Back to Contents
  8. 8. …With Carbonates <ul><li>Produces a salt, carbon dioxide and water </li></ul>Back to Contents … With Alkalis <ul><li>Produces a salt (equation 1) </li></ul><ul><li>The acid can be freed from the salt by reacting with a stronger aid (equation 2) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Esterification <ul><li>Reagents: Alcohol + acid catalyst (conc. H ₂ SO ₄ ) </li></ul><ul><li>Conditions: Reflux </li></ul><ul><li>Equation: </li></ul><ul><li>Concentrated is used because it is a dehydrating agent that will help remove the water </li></ul><ul><li>This will increase the yield of ester </li></ul>Back to Contents
  10. 10. Summary Back to Contents Alcohol Ester + Water Weak Acid Proton donor Carbonate Salt + Water +CO ₂ Metal Salt + H ₂ Base Salt + Water Carboxylic Acid

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