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Global burden of meningitis,
understanding modelled estimates
and the Meningitis Progress Tracker
C. Wright
Meningitis Research Foundation, Bristol, UK
Modelling Initiatives
GBD 2017 WHO GHE
MCEE
WHO-MCEE syndromic
model
MCEE/JHU pathogen-
specific model
Years 1990-2017 2000-2016 2000-2017 2000-2015
Age range All ages All ages Under 5s 1-59 months
Relevant
disease
categories
Meningitis
Neonatal sepsis and other
neonatal infections
Meningitis
Neonatal
sepsis and
infections
Meningitis/Encephalitis
Sepsis and other infectious
conditions of the newborn
Meningitis/Encephalitis
Parameters
Cases
Incidence rate
Prevalence
Deaths
Mortality rate
DALYs
Deaths
Mortality rate
DALYs
Deaths
Mortality rate
Cases
Incidence rate
Deaths
Mortality rate
Aetiology
Neisseria meningitidis
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Haemophilus influenzae type b
Other
No
breakdown by
aetiology
No breakdown by
aetiology
Streptococcus
pneumoniae
Haemophilus influenzae
type b
Sources agree that child deaths due to
meningitis are declining and progress has been
slower than for many other infectious diseases
0
50,000
100,000
150,000
200,000
250,000
300,000
350,000
Meningitis/encephalitisdeathsinchildrenaged
1-59months
Year
IHME MCEE
Cause of
death
IHME (GBD
2017)
MCEE
(2000-2017)
Meningitis/
encephalitis
41% 62%
Measles 83% 81%
Tetanus 82% 82%
Diarrhoeal
diseases
55% 63%
HIV/AIDS 68% 68%
Estimated reduction in under 5 mortality
by cause and model 2000-2017
Under 5 meningitis mortality estimates vary
between models and differences are greater
in the neonatal period
97% of under 5 meningitis deaths are
estimated to occur in countries with no or low
quality national death registration systems
Global meningitis mortality rates
Source of data: GBD 2017
Source of quality of death registration data: WHO, World Health Statistics 2018
Difficult to distinguish between meningitis as
a cause of death and other diseases using
verbal autopsy
0
20
40
60
80
100
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Proportionofchildrenaged1-59
monthswhoarenotimmunised
withPCVvaccine(%)
Cases/100,000
Spn meningitis incidence
0
20
40
60
80
100
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
Proportionofchildrenaged1-59
monthswhoarenotimmunised
withPCVvaccine(%)
Deaths/100,000
Spn meningitis mortality
0
20
40
60
80
100
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Proportionofchildrenaged1-59
monthswhoarenotimmunised
withHibvaccine(%)
Cases/100,000
Hib meningitis incidence
0
20
40
60
80
100
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16 Proportionofchildrenaged1-59
monthswhoarenotimmunised
withHibvaccine(%)
Deaths/100,000
Hib meningitis mortality
The incidence and mortality of Hib and
pneumococcal meningitis differ according to
model
IHME MCEE/JHU % Unimmunised
Calculated case fatality ratios from IHME
estimates differ from published data for
pneumococcal and Hib meningitis
Country
Nm
meningitis
Spn
meningitis
Hib
meningitis
Source
United
States 3.8% 9.4% 0%
Thigpen et
al. (2011)
African
Meningitis
Belt (Niger)
7.4% 49.9% 30.5%
Boisier et
al. 2007
Bangladesh
10% 22% 24%
Gurley et
al. (2009)
*Global
- 44% 19%
Wahl et al.
(2018)
6%
3%
17%
23%
44%
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
35%
40%
45%
50%
Hib Spn Nm
CFR, 1-59 months, aetiology-specific
meningitis
IHME JHUMCEE
IHME (GBD2017)
MCEE
Country specific meningitis deaths
(VR, VA data)
Aetiology proportions (derived from VR data
and scientific literature
Dismod
Country-specific, pathogen specific meningitis
deaths
Country specific bacterial
meningitis cases
Aetiology proportions (derived from scientific
literature and surveillance with cause splits)
Dismod
Country-specific, pathogen specific
meningitis cases
Country-specific, all cause meningitis
deaths (MCEE)
Aetiology proportions
(derived from a meta-
analysis of meningitis
case aetiology distribution
and relative pathogen
specific CFR
Country-specific,
pathogen specific
meningitis deaths
Country-specific,
pathogen specific
meningitis CFR estimates
(adjusted for access to
care)
Country-specific,
pathogen specific
meningitis cases
IHME are the only group to model incidence
independently from mortality
Trends from modelled estimates differ from enhanced
surveillance data in Nigeria
MCEE estimated deaths in 1-59
months vs enhanced surveillance
data
0
10,000
20,000
30,000
40,000
50,000
60,000
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Deaths(MCEE)andcases(enhanced
surveillance)
MCEE 1-59 month deaths
Suspected meningitis cases
IHME estimated deaths and cases
in all ages vs enhanced surveillance
data
0
50,000
100,000
150,000
200,000
250,000
300,000
350,000
0
10,000
20,000
30,000
40,000
50,000
60,000
Cases(IHME)
Deaths(IHME)andCases(surveillance)
Meningitis deaths - IHME
Suspected meningitis cases
Meningitis cases - IHME
Source of enhanced surveillance data: Trotter et al (2017)
Tracking progress to 2030
Next steps were agreed in a data meeting held in November 2018:
• Models will be updated
• IHME to consider PCV effects and CFR estimates in the next
GBD model
• MCEE/JHU to ascertain how pathogen-specific burden
estimates, including meningococcal burden estimates, could be
updated
• Targets for 2030 should be set based on percent reduction (i.e.
slope), rather than absolute numbers of cases/deaths prevented.
• All sources of modelled estimates to be tracked in parallel
Meningitis Progress Tracker
https://www.meningitis.org/meningitis/meningitis-progress-tracker
Prevention
https://www.meningitis.org/meningitis/meningitis-progress-tracker
Outcomes
Enhanced access to improved
vaccines and effective
strategies for prevention and
epidemic control
Outputs
Achieve high and equitable
vaccine coverage, introduce
new vaccines, improve
prevention and epidemic
control
Diagnosis and Treatment
https://www.meningitis.org/meningitis/meningitis-progress-tracker
Outcomes
Improved tools and
access to diagnosis and
treatment
Outputs
Ensure availability of
diagnostic tools, trained
health workers, prompt
quality-assured treatment
Surveillance
https://www.meningitis.org/meningitis/meningitis-progress-tracker
Outcomes
Improved monitoring
of meningitis
epidemiology through
disease surveillance
Outputs
Ensure surveillance
of meningitis and
sequelae at all levels
Support and after care
https://www.meningitis.org/meningitis/meningitis-progress-tracker
Outcomes
Improved access to
support and care for
people and families
affected by meningitis
Outputs
Ensure management of
sequelae and care for
people affected by
meningitis
Advocacy
https://www.meningitis.org/meningitis/meningitis-progress-tracker
Outcomes
Higher awareness
through advocacy and
engagement
Outputs
Ensure meningitis has a
high global priority with
awareness of meningitis
and disability at all levels
Acknowledgements
• James Stuart, WHO
• Caroline Trotter, University of Cambridge
• Peter Phillips, Keytree
• Natacha Blake, Linda Glennie, Jason Parker, Rob Dawson, Vinny Smith, Meningitis
Research Foundation
• Li Liu, Yue Chu and Brian Wahl, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health
• Nick Kassabaum, Hmwe Kyu and Han Yong Wunrow, IHME
• Colin Mathers, WHO

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Claire Wright @ MRF's Meningitis and Septicaemia 2019

  • 1. Global burden of meningitis, understanding modelled estimates and the Meningitis Progress Tracker C. Wright Meningitis Research Foundation, Bristol, UK
  • 2. Modelling Initiatives GBD 2017 WHO GHE MCEE WHO-MCEE syndromic model MCEE/JHU pathogen- specific model Years 1990-2017 2000-2016 2000-2017 2000-2015 Age range All ages All ages Under 5s 1-59 months Relevant disease categories Meningitis Neonatal sepsis and other neonatal infections Meningitis Neonatal sepsis and infections Meningitis/Encephalitis Sepsis and other infectious conditions of the newborn Meningitis/Encephalitis Parameters Cases Incidence rate Prevalence Deaths Mortality rate DALYs Deaths Mortality rate DALYs Deaths Mortality rate Cases Incidence rate Deaths Mortality rate Aetiology Neisseria meningitidis Streptococcus pneumoniae Haemophilus influenzae type b Other No breakdown by aetiology No breakdown by aetiology Streptococcus pneumoniae Haemophilus influenzae type b
  • 3. Sources agree that child deaths due to meningitis are declining and progress has been slower than for many other infectious diseases 0 50,000 100,000 150,000 200,000 250,000 300,000 350,000 Meningitis/encephalitisdeathsinchildrenaged 1-59months Year IHME MCEE Cause of death IHME (GBD 2017) MCEE (2000-2017) Meningitis/ encephalitis 41% 62% Measles 83% 81% Tetanus 82% 82% Diarrhoeal diseases 55% 63% HIV/AIDS 68% 68% Estimated reduction in under 5 mortality by cause and model 2000-2017
  • 4. Under 5 meningitis mortality estimates vary between models and differences are greater in the neonatal period
  • 5. 97% of under 5 meningitis deaths are estimated to occur in countries with no or low quality national death registration systems Global meningitis mortality rates Source of data: GBD 2017 Source of quality of death registration data: WHO, World Health Statistics 2018
  • 6. Difficult to distinguish between meningitis as a cause of death and other diseases using verbal autopsy
  • 7. 0 20 40 60 80 100 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Proportionofchildrenaged1-59 monthswhoarenotimmunised withPCVvaccine(%) Cases/100,000 Spn meningitis incidence 0 20 40 60 80 100 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Proportionofchildrenaged1-59 monthswhoarenotimmunised withPCVvaccine(%) Deaths/100,000 Spn meningitis mortality 0 20 40 60 80 100 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Proportionofchildrenaged1-59 monthswhoarenotimmunised withHibvaccine(%) Cases/100,000 Hib meningitis incidence 0 20 40 60 80 100 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Proportionofchildrenaged1-59 monthswhoarenotimmunised withHibvaccine(%) Deaths/100,000 Hib meningitis mortality The incidence and mortality of Hib and pneumococcal meningitis differ according to model IHME MCEE/JHU % Unimmunised
  • 8. Calculated case fatality ratios from IHME estimates differ from published data for pneumococcal and Hib meningitis Country Nm meningitis Spn meningitis Hib meningitis Source United States 3.8% 9.4% 0% Thigpen et al. (2011) African Meningitis Belt (Niger) 7.4% 49.9% 30.5% Boisier et al. 2007 Bangladesh 10% 22% 24% Gurley et al. (2009) *Global - 44% 19% Wahl et al. (2018) 6% 3% 17% 23% 44% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 50% Hib Spn Nm CFR, 1-59 months, aetiology-specific meningitis IHME JHUMCEE
  • 9. IHME (GBD2017) MCEE Country specific meningitis deaths (VR, VA data) Aetiology proportions (derived from VR data and scientific literature Dismod Country-specific, pathogen specific meningitis deaths Country specific bacterial meningitis cases Aetiology proportions (derived from scientific literature and surveillance with cause splits) Dismod Country-specific, pathogen specific meningitis cases Country-specific, all cause meningitis deaths (MCEE) Aetiology proportions (derived from a meta- analysis of meningitis case aetiology distribution and relative pathogen specific CFR Country-specific, pathogen specific meningitis deaths Country-specific, pathogen specific meningitis CFR estimates (adjusted for access to care) Country-specific, pathogen specific meningitis cases IHME are the only group to model incidence independently from mortality
  • 10. Trends from modelled estimates differ from enhanced surveillance data in Nigeria MCEE estimated deaths in 1-59 months vs enhanced surveillance data 0 10,000 20,000 30,000 40,000 50,000 60,000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Deaths(MCEE)andcases(enhanced surveillance) MCEE 1-59 month deaths Suspected meningitis cases IHME estimated deaths and cases in all ages vs enhanced surveillance data 0 50,000 100,000 150,000 200,000 250,000 300,000 350,000 0 10,000 20,000 30,000 40,000 50,000 60,000 Cases(IHME) Deaths(IHME)andCases(surveillance) Meningitis deaths - IHME Suspected meningitis cases Meningitis cases - IHME Source of enhanced surveillance data: Trotter et al (2017)
  • 11. Tracking progress to 2030 Next steps were agreed in a data meeting held in November 2018: • Models will be updated • IHME to consider PCV effects and CFR estimates in the next GBD model • MCEE/JHU to ascertain how pathogen-specific burden estimates, including meningococcal burden estimates, could be updated • Targets for 2030 should be set based on percent reduction (i.e. slope), rather than absolute numbers of cases/deaths prevented. • All sources of modelled estimates to be tracked in parallel
  • 13. Prevention https://www.meningitis.org/meningitis/meningitis-progress-tracker Outcomes Enhanced access to improved vaccines and effective strategies for prevention and epidemic control Outputs Achieve high and equitable vaccine coverage, introduce new vaccines, improve prevention and epidemic control
  • 14. Diagnosis and Treatment https://www.meningitis.org/meningitis/meningitis-progress-tracker Outcomes Improved tools and access to diagnosis and treatment Outputs Ensure availability of diagnostic tools, trained health workers, prompt quality-assured treatment
  • 15. Surveillance https://www.meningitis.org/meningitis/meningitis-progress-tracker Outcomes Improved monitoring of meningitis epidemiology through disease surveillance Outputs Ensure surveillance of meningitis and sequelae at all levels
  • 16. Support and after care https://www.meningitis.org/meningitis/meningitis-progress-tracker Outcomes Improved access to support and care for people and families affected by meningitis Outputs Ensure management of sequelae and care for people affected by meningitis
  • 17. Advocacy https://www.meningitis.org/meningitis/meningitis-progress-tracker Outcomes Higher awareness through advocacy and engagement Outputs Ensure meningitis has a high global priority with awareness of meningitis and disability at all levels
  • 18. Acknowledgements • James Stuart, WHO • Caroline Trotter, University of Cambridge • Peter Phillips, Keytree • Natacha Blake, Linda Glennie, Jason Parker, Rob Dawson, Vinny Smith, Meningitis Research Foundation • Li Liu, Yue Chu and Brian Wahl, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health • Nick Kassabaum, Hmwe Kyu and Han Yong Wunrow, IHME • Colin Mathers, WHO