Electric Power PlantsTeresa Mendiola Romero nº28 Julio Caro Silva nº13 3º A
INDEX1 - Conventional electric power plants 1.1 - Nuclear power plant 1.2 - Fossil fuel thermal power plant 1.3 - Hydroelectric power plant2 - Non-conventional electric power plant 2.1 - Wind power plants & wind farms 2.2 - Solar power plants 2.3 - Geothermal power plants 2.4 - Biomass thermal power plants 2.5 - Ocean power plants3 – Environmental impact
1 - CONVENTIONAL ELECTRIC POWER PLANTS1.1 – NUCLEAR POWER PLANTSNuclear energy is produced by nuclear fission. When radioactive minerals (uranium) break down, large amounts of heat are produced. This heat is then used to generate high pressure steam, which moves turbines and generates electricity. Nuclear energy is very important in the US and France. However, Spain has closed several nuclear power plants.
1 – CONVENTIONAL ELECTRIC POWER PLANTS1.2 – FOSSIL FUEL THERMAL POWER PLANTBurning fuels produces heat which then converts water into high pressure steam. The steam turns turbines which are connected to electric generators. The generatos produces electricity. Thermal power stations usually burn coal, but others use fuel oil, wood, urban waste or natural gases, which causes the least pollution.
1 – CONVENTIONAL ELECTRIC POWER PLANTS1.3 - HYDROELECTRIC POWER PLANTSHydroelectric energy uses the force of the water to produce electricity. First, reservoirs collect rainwater. When the water flows through the turbine, they produce electricity.Hydroelectric energy is the most widely-used renewable energy. Canada, the US, Brazil and China are the major producers.
2 – NON-CONVENTIONAL ELECTRIC POWER PLANTS2.1 – WIND POWER PLANTS AND WIND FARMSThese power plants use the kinetic energy of the wind to move the blades of a rotor at the top of a tower; this is referred to as the wind turbine.Wind farms are a clean form of generating electricity. But they can only be installed in places with appropriate wind conditions.
2 – NON-CONVENTIONAL ELECTRIC POWER PLANTS2.2 – SOLAR POWER PLANTS 2.2.1 – PHOTO-THERMAL ENERGYThe heat generated by solar radiation produces steam that is used to move the rotor in the generator. To do this, they use special mirrors, called heliostats, that reflect sunlight and and concentrate it at one point.
2 – NON-CONVENTIONAL ELECTRIC POWER PLANTS2.2 – SOLAR POWER PLANTS 2.2.2 – PHOTOVOLTAIC ENERGYSolar radiation is transformed directly into electricity by panels of photovoltaic cells. These power plants consist of large areas of photovoltaic panels.There are also isolated power plants that are very small in size which are used to supply electricity to homes in rural areas.
2 – NON-CONVENTIONAL ELECTRIC POWER PLANTS2.3 - GEOTHERMAL POWER PLANTSThese plants use the heat found at deep levels in the earth. This heat may reach the surface in the form of steam, gases or hot water.Geothermal energy may be used directly (from hot water and heating) and indirectly (the heat generates steam, which produces electricity)
2 – NON-CONVENTIONAL ELECTRIC POWER PLANTS2.4 - BIOMASS THERMAL POWER PLANTSBiomass consists of all organic compounds that are produced through natural processes, for example, forestry and agricultural waste.Biomass is subjected to different physical and chemical processes in order to produce fuel such as charcoal, alcohol or biogas.This type of fuel is burnt at biomass power plants. The steam that is generated moves the turbine.
2 – NON-CONVENTIONAL ELECTRIC POWER PLANTS2.5 – OCEAN POWER PLANTSThese power plants use the energy from the seas and oceans. The concept is to use three types of energy from the sea:● The mechanical energy from tides and waves.● The energy from the oceans thermal gradient.● These power plants are still in the experimental phase and their level of
3 – ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTExtraction of natural resources: The exploitation of fossil fuels and nuclear power means the depletion of resources, which makes it necessary to find new ones.Fuel transport: Oil pipelines can suffer accidents caused by nature or human error, which result in uncontrolled spills.
3 – ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT● Electricity generation:● - Large hydroelectric power plants require water reservoirs covering large areas, which profoundly change the natural cycle of the rivers.● - Conventional thermal power plants can cause numerous problems and environmental hazards.*● - Nuclear thermal power plants are accompanied by the risk of nuclear accidents and the problem of nuclear waste.
*CONVENTIONAL THERMAL POWER PLANTS●● Air pollution – suspended particles, CO, heavy metal molecules and so on.● They emit large amounts of CO2, which increases the greenhouse effect.● They emit sulfure dioxide and nitrogen oxide that causes acid rain.
4 – WIND TURBINES & FRESH WATER PRODUCTIONWind turbines have long produced renewable energy but a French engineering firm has discovered another eco-purpose for the wind turbines. Eole Water has modified the traditional wind turbine design to create an appliance that can manufacture drinking water from humid air.We think this is a great advantage for producing water easily in places where it is difficult to get it.