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DT4RE: Design Thinking for RE
20.08.2018
Banff, Alberta, Canada
Jennifer Hehn, Falk Uebernickel, Daniel Méndez
Jennifer Hehn
www.iwi.unisg.ch
Research areas
● Design Thinking and
Requirements Engineering
● Design Science Research
Daniel Méndez
www.mendezfe.org
Research areas
● Empirical software engineering
w/ focus on:
○ Requirements
Engineering
○ Software Process Models
○ Quality Management
● Interdisciplinary qualitative
research
Falk Uebernickel
goo.gl/WmRyAu
Research areas
● Design Thinking and
Human-centered Design
for Information Systems
● Industry 4.0 / Internet of
Things
● InsurTech
● Qualitative research
This session is based on...
● Previous tutorials given on either Design Thinking
or Requirements Engineering
● Experiences made in projects
This tutorial will be about...
Scope
● Introduction into basic principles and methods for Design Thinking (DT)
● Sharing experiences and lessons learnt on using DT in context of RE
● Discuss synergies with RE and open research challenges
Out of Scope
● Out of the box solutions
● Universally applicable “blueprint”
Ground rule
Whenever you have questions / remarks,
please don’t ask , but
share them with the whole group.
Introduction - Who are you?
Quick round...
● Who are you?
● What are your experiences in Design Thinking
in the context of software development projects/processes?
What do you know?
What is Design Thinking?
Same as with agile methods,
there are different perspectives on Design Thinking
What is Design Thinking (not)?
Design Thinking...
● … is a human-centered problem solving
method that applies extensive user-research,
rapid prototyping, iterative improvement cycles,
and interdisciplinary team work
In contrast, Requirements Engineering
● is a holistic discipline with various principles,
approaches and even more methods
Two faces of the same medal?
In Design Thinking, we
often pretend that after
building a high-resolution
prototype, the rest is “just
development”.
In RE, we often pretend
that requirements are
somehow present and
“just need to be elicited”.
Issues in scope of current debates
When should we make use of Design Thinking?
How can we make use of Design Thinking?
How can we integrate Design Thinking and RE in a
seamless manner?
Outline
1. Design Thinking in a Nutshell
2. Design Thinking for Requirements Engineering
3. Final discussion and closure
Outline
1. Design Thinking in a Nutshell
2. Design Thinking for Requirements Engineering
3. Final discussion and closure
Design Thinking is a problem solving approach that
starts with the human
Viability
FeasibilityDesirability
Design Thinking is explorative and iterative
Define
the problem.
Interviewing and self-immersion in Kenya (Photographer: Falk Uebernickel)
Needfinding
Empathize.
In Needfinding we apply three methods
Observe Ask
Immerse
Synthesis
Make sense.
Pictures: project for an insurance company (2017)
Ideate
Generate ideas.
Prototype
Make ideas tangible.
Screen Flow
Final prototype: Abbi
28
The outcome of a Design Thinking project is one or
more tested prototypes
LOW RESOLUTION
PROTOTYPE HIGH RESOLUTION
PROTOTYPE
Simple and easy to handle prototypes
Quickly created
Focus is on few features / critical functions
Costs: low
Complex simulations and prototypes of the future
product, service or process and business model
All important functions are implemented
Costs: higher
Test
Collect feedback.
(Re-)define
Iterate.
Toolbox
DT
https://www.dt4re.org/
People and Making are the heart of
Design Thinking
Principles
Picture: FIFA Project (DT@HSG 2012/13)
See the human
behind the user
Do not stop at your
corporate doors
Picture: DT@HSG (2016)
Making instead of
over-thinking
Picture: Stanford ME310 Loft
Experiment and
prototype continuously
(“kill your darlings”)
Picture: DT@HSG Loft (St.Gallen 2013/14)
Enforcing
Picture: DT@HSG (2013/14)
Field testing even in
early project phases
(”fail forward”)
Picture: DT@HSG (2013)
Shape your view with
interdisciplinary teams
Design Thinking transforms wicked into ill- and well-
defined problems
Outline
1. Design Thinking in a Nutshell
2. Design Thinking for Requirements Engineering
3. Final discussion and closure
Outline
1. Design Thinking in a Nutshell
2. Design Thinking for Requirements Engineering
3. Final discussion and closure
DT largely concentrates on
identifying/empathising with the
stakeholders and end-users, and
understanding the domain and problem
space to enable distilling needs and
requirements.
RE typically concentrates on
subsequent requirements elicitation,
analysis, and documentation
Cross Comparison
Source: Artefact-based Requirements Engineering: The AMDiRE Approach - https://arxiv.org/abs/1611.10024
Why?
What?
How?
Context Specification
Requirements
Specification
System
Specification
RE
DT
DT largely concentrates on...
● … better understanding the problem space by
identifying and empathising with stakeholders
● … providing a system vision by defining key
(functional) features
● … the rationale for (“formal”) requirements
RE largely concentrates on…
● … identifying, analysing/refining, and
specifying/modelling requirements going beyond
functional ones
Cross Comparison
Source: Artefact-based Requirements Engineering: The AMDiRE Approach - https://arxiv.org/abs/1611.10024
Source: Artefact-based Requirements Engineering: The AMDiRE Approach - https://arxiv.org/abs/1611.10024
Prototype
Persona
User journey
User Test
protocols
Needs
Opportunity
Areas
Stakeholder
Map
Platform
Model
Service
Model
Design
Challenge
Ideas
Business
model
Human
model
Insights
Exemplary DT Artefacts
Disclaimer
… but many lessons learnt
Evolution of Design Thinking and RE
Complexity*
t
Pure
Design Thinking
Infused
Design Thinking
Integrated
Design Thinking
Upfront
Design Thinking
* Note: one is not per-se “better” than the other; everything has its place
Evolution of Design Thinking and RE
t
Pure
Design Thinking
Infused
Design Thinking
Integrated
Design Thinking
Upfront
Design Thinking
* Note: one is not per-se “better” than the other; everything has its place
Complexity*
Pure Design Thinking
● Much like RE, DT shouldn’t suddenly stop
● DT is human-centric, but also team-driven
○ Team members (skills, motivation, participation) are crucial
○ Make explicit implicit assumptions (e.g. to avoid gold plating)
○ Beware dependencies to implicit knowledge
● Potentially working towards the void
○ No immediate counterpart and no institutionalised “hand-shake”
→ Software process model? Needs and team culture?
○ No continuity and potentially no champion
● No guaranteed operationalisation (and feasibility) of prototype
Take-Aways
Evolution of Design Thinking and RE
t
Pure
Design Thinking
Infused
Design Thinking
Integrated
Design Thinking
Upfront
Design Thinking
* Note: one is not per-se “better” than the other; everything has its place
Complexity*
● German Software Company (SME)
● Problem Statement: Development of an offering for a new target
group (private landlords) in real estate management
● Team: Requirements Engineer, Product Manager, IT-Architect,
Designer, Hotline Support, Project Lead, Design Thinking Coach
● Design Thinking Project: 4 months
Upfront Design Thinking
DT RE
DT RE
• 12 qualitative interviews
• 1 quantitative questionnaire
• 2 Personas
• 4 prototypes
• User story definition via
project team
• User stories and high
resolution prototypes are
handed over to
implementation
Upfront Design Thinking
● What works:
○ Fostering a collaborative working environment
○ Fostering a failure tolerant culture through rapid prototyping and
continuous experimentation
○ Broadly validated key features / user stories
● Open challenges:
○ Final deliverable via user stories and HighRes prototype
○ No further feedback cycles
○ Potential starvation of results with no implementation (or control
over it)
Take-Aways
Evolution of Design Thinking and RE
t
Pure
Design Thinking
Infused
Design Thinking
Integrated
Design Thinking
Upfront
Design Thinking
* Note: one is not per-se “better” than the other; everything has its place
Complexity*
● International Electronics group
● Headquarter in Germany,10.500 employees
● Needfinding and Prototyping Infusion
Infused Design Thinking
DT
RE
● What works:
○ Fostering a broader collaborative working environment
○ Integrating creative idea generation in context of a software
development life cycle
● Open challenges:
○ No further development-critical artefacts, e.g. NFRs, technical
constraints, or data models
○ Still no seamless and sustainable integration of DT methods into
software development activities
○ Limited learning curve for reuse in further projects
Take-Aways
Evolution of Design Thinking and RE
t
Pure
Design Thinking
Infused
Design Thinking
Integrated
Design Thinking
Upfront
Design Thinking
* Note: one is not per-se “better” than the other; everything has its place
Currently in
progress
Complexity*
● German Utility Company
● Problem statement: Development of an offering to boost photovoltaik
sales
● Team: multidisciplinary
● Design Thinking process: 3 months
● Integrated approach: 12+ months
Integrated Design Thinking approach
DT RE
Design Thinking
3 months
Final
(non-tech.)
prototype
DT
● 10 expert interviews
● 22 interviews with possible
users (homeowners and
craftsmen)
● 40 insights collected
● 50 ideas generated
● 12 value propositions for
both craftsmen and
customers
● 3 Personas
● 12 low resolution prototypes
tested with both stakeholder
groups
● 1 final high resolution
prototype (not yet tested)
Full Design Thinking
Approach
Revised vision:
Home Improvement
Platform
Design Thinking
3 months
DT@Scrum
12-x months
Design Thinking Toolbox: User Testing & Prototyping;
Product Owner Role is inhabited by Design Thinking Team
SCRUM
Sprint 0
SCRUM
Sprint 1
SCRUM
Sprint 2
....
SCRUM
Sprint n
Sprint
backlog
Sprint
backlog
Sprint
backlog
MVP1
Final
(non-tech.)
prototype
DT
● 10 expert interviews
● 22 interviews with possible
users (homeowners and
craftsmen)
● 40 insights collected
● 50 ideas generated
● 12 value propositions for
both craftsmen and
customers
● 3 Personas
● 12 low resolution prototypes
tested with both stakeholder
groups
● 1 final high resolution
prototype (not yet tested)
E
p
i
c
s
User
stories
Flow
Charts
Non-tech
Prototype
Full Design Thinking
Approach
Revised vision:
Home Improvement
Platform
● What works:
○ DT as a structured, domain-agnostic approach to requirements elicitation
○ Extended arm into wicked problems and re-define actual problems and
SW system context
○ Sufficiently correct and complete key features / user stories via
continuous experimentation and testing of non-technical and technical
prototypes
○ Clear roles and responsibilities
● Currently open challenges:
○ Difficulty in integrating further RE-specific artefacts, e.g. NFRs, technical
constraints, or data models
Take-Aways
How can we efficiently integrate DT and RE?
Reminder
Towards a pragmatic approach to human-centric RE
DT
RE
Infused RE
DT RE
Fully integrated DT
? ● Coarse problems &
goals
● Project characteristics
DT RE
Upfront DT
Open research challenges
● Principles: Which principles and approaches
in DT can be found in more holistic human-
centred software development approaches
and how do they differ?
● Boundary objects: How can artefacts with
similar purposes, but different forms, be
integrated?
General Challenges
Open research challenges
● How can problems be efficiently classified?
● What are typical project situations which
influence the choice of a strategy?
● How do these situations and the class of
systems influence the choice of a strategy
and single methods?
● How can these situations be characterised
and assessed in early stages of a project
(with which confidence)?
Project Influences
Open research challenges
● Which methods in DT can be found in /
reused for other software engineering
disciplines (e.g. HCI, TDD)?
● How do these methods differ? How can they
be integrated?
Method adoption
Open research challenges
Interfaces
● How can artefacts, roles, and methods be
seamlessly integrated?
● Which artefacts do overlap? Are shifts in roles and
responsibilities necessary?
● How can milestones be efficiently defined?
Operationalisation
● How can resulting processes be integrated (into the
overall life cycle) - for instance SCRUM?
● How can resulting processes be tailored?
Interface and Operationalisation
Outline
1. Design Thinking in a Nutshell
2. Design Thinking for Requirements Engineering
3. Final discussion and closure

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DT4RE: Design Thinking for RE Integration

  • 1. DT4RE: Design Thinking for RE 20.08.2018 Banff, Alberta, Canada Jennifer Hehn, Falk Uebernickel, Daniel Méndez
  • 2. Jennifer Hehn www.iwi.unisg.ch Research areas ● Design Thinking and Requirements Engineering ● Design Science Research Daniel Méndez www.mendezfe.org Research areas ● Empirical software engineering w/ focus on: ○ Requirements Engineering ○ Software Process Models ○ Quality Management ● Interdisciplinary qualitative research Falk Uebernickel goo.gl/WmRyAu Research areas ● Design Thinking and Human-centered Design for Information Systems ● Industry 4.0 / Internet of Things ● InsurTech ● Qualitative research
  • 3. This session is based on... ● Previous tutorials given on either Design Thinking or Requirements Engineering ● Experiences made in projects
  • 4. This tutorial will be about... Scope ● Introduction into basic principles and methods for Design Thinking (DT) ● Sharing experiences and lessons learnt on using DT in context of RE ● Discuss synergies with RE and open research challenges Out of Scope ● Out of the box solutions ● Universally applicable “blueprint”
  • 5. Ground rule Whenever you have questions / remarks, please don’t ask , but share them with the whole group.
  • 6. Introduction - Who are you? Quick round... ● Who are you? ● What are your experiences in Design Thinking in the context of software development projects/processes?
  • 7. What do you know? What is Design Thinking?
  • 8. Same as with agile methods, there are different perspectives on Design Thinking
  • 9. What is Design Thinking (not)? Design Thinking... ● … is a human-centered problem solving method that applies extensive user-research, rapid prototyping, iterative improvement cycles, and interdisciplinary team work In contrast, Requirements Engineering ● is a holistic discipline with various principles, approaches and even more methods
  • 10. Two faces of the same medal? In Design Thinking, we often pretend that after building a high-resolution prototype, the rest is “just development”. In RE, we often pretend that requirements are somehow present and “just need to be elicited”.
  • 11. Issues in scope of current debates When should we make use of Design Thinking? How can we make use of Design Thinking? How can we integrate Design Thinking and RE in a seamless manner?
  • 12. Outline 1. Design Thinking in a Nutshell 2. Design Thinking for Requirements Engineering 3. Final discussion and closure
  • 13. Outline 1. Design Thinking in a Nutshell 2. Design Thinking for Requirements Engineering 3. Final discussion and closure
  • 14.
  • 15.
  • 16. Design Thinking is a problem solving approach that starts with the human Viability FeasibilityDesirability
  • 17. Design Thinking is explorative and iterative
  • 19. Interviewing and self-immersion in Kenya (Photographer: Falk Uebernickel) Needfinding Empathize.
  • 20. In Needfinding we apply three methods Observe Ask Immerse
  • 22. Pictures: project for an insurance company (2017)
  • 25.
  • 28. 28
  • 29. The outcome of a Design Thinking project is one or more tested prototypes LOW RESOLUTION PROTOTYPE HIGH RESOLUTION PROTOTYPE Simple and easy to handle prototypes Quickly created Focus is on few features / critical functions Costs: low Complex simulations and prototypes of the future product, service or process and business model All important functions are implemented Costs: higher
  • 33. People and Making are the heart of Design Thinking Principles
  • 34. Picture: FIFA Project (DT@HSG 2012/13) See the human behind the user
  • 35. Do not stop at your corporate doors Picture: DT@HSG (2016)
  • 37. Experiment and prototype continuously (“kill your darlings”) Picture: DT@HSG Loft (St.Gallen 2013/14)
  • 38. Enforcing Picture: DT@HSG (2013/14) Field testing even in early project phases (”fail forward”)
  • 39. Picture: DT@HSG (2013) Shape your view with interdisciplinary teams
  • 40. Design Thinking transforms wicked into ill- and well- defined problems
  • 41. Outline 1. Design Thinking in a Nutshell 2. Design Thinking for Requirements Engineering 3. Final discussion and closure
  • 42. Outline 1. Design Thinking in a Nutshell 2. Design Thinking for Requirements Engineering 3. Final discussion and closure
  • 43. DT largely concentrates on identifying/empathising with the stakeholders and end-users, and understanding the domain and problem space to enable distilling needs and requirements. RE typically concentrates on subsequent requirements elicitation, analysis, and documentation Cross Comparison Source: Artefact-based Requirements Engineering: The AMDiRE Approach - https://arxiv.org/abs/1611.10024 Why? What? How? Context Specification Requirements Specification System Specification RE DT
  • 44. DT largely concentrates on... ● … better understanding the problem space by identifying and empathising with stakeholders ● … providing a system vision by defining key (functional) features ● … the rationale for (“formal”) requirements RE largely concentrates on… ● … identifying, analysing/refining, and specifying/modelling requirements going beyond functional ones Cross Comparison Source: Artefact-based Requirements Engineering: The AMDiRE Approach - https://arxiv.org/abs/1611.10024
  • 45. Source: Artefact-based Requirements Engineering: The AMDiRE Approach - https://arxiv.org/abs/1611.10024 Prototype Persona User journey User Test protocols Needs Opportunity Areas Stakeholder Map Platform Model Service Model Design Challenge Ideas Business model Human model Insights Exemplary DT Artefacts
  • 46. Disclaimer … but many lessons learnt
  • 47. Evolution of Design Thinking and RE Complexity* t Pure Design Thinking Infused Design Thinking Integrated Design Thinking Upfront Design Thinking * Note: one is not per-se “better” than the other; everything has its place
  • 48. Evolution of Design Thinking and RE t Pure Design Thinking Infused Design Thinking Integrated Design Thinking Upfront Design Thinking * Note: one is not per-se “better” than the other; everything has its place Complexity*
  • 50. ● Much like RE, DT shouldn’t suddenly stop ● DT is human-centric, but also team-driven ○ Team members (skills, motivation, participation) are crucial ○ Make explicit implicit assumptions (e.g. to avoid gold plating) ○ Beware dependencies to implicit knowledge ● Potentially working towards the void ○ No immediate counterpart and no institutionalised “hand-shake” → Software process model? Needs and team culture? ○ No continuity and potentially no champion ● No guaranteed operationalisation (and feasibility) of prototype Take-Aways
  • 51. Evolution of Design Thinking and RE t Pure Design Thinking Infused Design Thinking Integrated Design Thinking Upfront Design Thinking * Note: one is not per-se “better” than the other; everything has its place Complexity*
  • 52. ● German Software Company (SME) ● Problem Statement: Development of an offering for a new target group (private landlords) in real estate management ● Team: Requirements Engineer, Product Manager, IT-Architect, Designer, Hotline Support, Project Lead, Design Thinking Coach ● Design Thinking Project: 4 months Upfront Design Thinking DT RE
  • 53. DT RE • 12 qualitative interviews • 1 quantitative questionnaire • 2 Personas • 4 prototypes • User story definition via project team • User stories and high resolution prototypes are handed over to implementation Upfront Design Thinking
  • 54. ● What works: ○ Fostering a collaborative working environment ○ Fostering a failure tolerant culture through rapid prototyping and continuous experimentation ○ Broadly validated key features / user stories ● Open challenges: ○ Final deliverable via user stories and HighRes prototype ○ No further feedback cycles ○ Potential starvation of results with no implementation (or control over it) Take-Aways
  • 55. Evolution of Design Thinking and RE t Pure Design Thinking Infused Design Thinking Integrated Design Thinking Upfront Design Thinking * Note: one is not per-se “better” than the other; everything has its place Complexity*
  • 56. ● International Electronics group ● Headquarter in Germany,10.500 employees ● Needfinding and Prototyping Infusion Infused Design Thinking DT RE
  • 57. ● What works: ○ Fostering a broader collaborative working environment ○ Integrating creative idea generation in context of a software development life cycle ● Open challenges: ○ No further development-critical artefacts, e.g. NFRs, technical constraints, or data models ○ Still no seamless and sustainable integration of DT methods into software development activities ○ Limited learning curve for reuse in further projects Take-Aways
  • 58. Evolution of Design Thinking and RE t Pure Design Thinking Infused Design Thinking Integrated Design Thinking Upfront Design Thinking * Note: one is not per-se “better” than the other; everything has its place Currently in progress Complexity*
  • 59. ● German Utility Company ● Problem statement: Development of an offering to boost photovoltaik sales ● Team: multidisciplinary ● Design Thinking process: 3 months ● Integrated approach: 12+ months Integrated Design Thinking approach DT RE
  • 60. Design Thinking 3 months Final (non-tech.) prototype DT ● 10 expert interviews ● 22 interviews with possible users (homeowners and craftsmen) ● 40 insights collected ● 50 ideas generated ● 12 value propositions for both craftsmen and customers ● 3 Personas ● 12 low resolution prototypes tested with both stakeholder groups ● 1 final high resolution prototype (not yet tested) Full Design Thinking Approach Revised vision: Home Improvement Platform
  • 61. Design Thinking 3 months DT@Scrum 12-x months Design Thinking Toolbox: User Testing & Prototyping; Product Owner Role is inhabited by Design Thinking Team SCRUM Sprint 0 SCRUM Sprint 1 SCRUM Sprint 2 .... SCRUM Sprint n Sprint backlog Sprint backlog Sprint backlog MVP1 Final (non-tech.) prototype DT ● 10 expert interviews ● 22 interviews with possible users (homeowners and craftsmen) ● 40 insights collected ● 50 ideas generated ● 12 value propositions for both craftsmen and customers ● 3 Personas ● 12 low resolution prototypes tested with both stakeholder groups ● 1 final high resolution prototype (not yet tested) E p i c s User stories Flow Charts Non-tech Prototype Full Design Thinking Approach Revised vision: Home Improvement Platform
  • 62. ● What works: ○ DT as a structured, domain-agnostic approach to requirements elicitation ○ Extended arm into wicked problems and re-define actual problems and SW system context ○ Sufficiently correct and complete key features / user stories via continuous experimentation and testing of non-technical and technical prototypes ○ Clear roles and responsibilities ● Currently open challenges: ○ Difficulty in integrating further RE-specific artefacts, e.g. NFRs, technical constraints, or data models Take-Aways
  • 63. How can we efficiently integrate DT and RE?
  • 65. Towards a pragmatic approach to human-centric RE DT RE Infused RE DT RE Fully integrated DT ? ● Coarse problems & goals ● Project characteristics DT RE Upfront DT
  • 66. Open research challenges ● Principles: Which principles and approaches in DT can be found in more holistic human- centred software development approaches and how do they differ? ● Boundary objects: How can artefacts with similar purposes, but different forms, be integrated? General Challenges
  • 67. Open research challenges ● How can problems be efficiently classified? ● What are typical project situations which influence the choice of a strategy? ● How do these situations and the class of systems influence the choice of a strategy and single methods? ● How can these situations be characterised and assessed in early stages of a project (with which confidence)? Project Influences
  • 68. Open research challenges ● Which methods in DT can be found in / reused for other software engineering disciplines (e.g. HCI, TDD)? ● How do these methods differ? How can they be integrated? Method adoption
  • 69. Open research challenges Interfaces ● How can artefacts, roles, and methods be seamlessly integrated? ● Which artefacts do overlap? Are shifts in roles and responsibilities necessary? ● How can milestones be efficiently defined? Operationalisation ● How can resulting processes be integrated (into the overall life cycle) - for instance SCRUM? ● How can resulting processes be tailored? Interface and Operationalisation
  • 70. Outline 1. Design Thinking in a Nutshell 2. Design Thinking for Requirements Engineering 3. Final discussion and closure