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An Exploratory Study on Technology Transfer in Software Engineering

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Talk given at the 9th International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement in Beijing, China.

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An Exploratory Study on Technology Transfer in Software Engineering

  1. 1. Technische Universität München An Exploratory Study on 
 Technology Transfer in Software Engineering Joint work with Philipp Diebold AntonioVetrò Daniel Méndez Technical University of Munich Germany ESEM 2015 Beijing, China @mendezfe
  2. 2. What is Technology Transfer? Technology Transfer (TT) is formally defined as “the process of sharing knowledge, machines, equipment, methods, techniques, processes, and facilities with the aim of facilitating accessibility of scientific and technological developments from primary discoverers or transferors to potential users or transferees/recipients, who will exploit the technology into new products, processes, applications, and business models” Teece, D.J. 1997.Technology transfer by multinational firms:The resource cost of transferring technological know-how. In Economics Journal, 242-261 Transferor Transferee Transfer object Transfer Medium A simple model for TT
  3. 3. Technology transfer in practice
  4. 4. Study design - goals & context Goals theTT of SE objectsCharacterise With respect to From the perspective of In context of (SG1) the current state of practice, (SG2) the transfer mediums used, and (SG3) improvements / future transfer trends industry and academia the project ARAMIS* and SPES_XT** * ** http://spes2020.informatik.tu-muenchen.de http://www.projekt-aramis.de Details on the studydesign
  5. 5. Study design - instrument End Start Demographics Current State of Transfer Mediums Assessment Transfer Improvement Exemplary questions What are your motivations for TT? What are your transfer objects? How is the technology transfer process performed? What are the transfer mediums you are using? How many employees are working in your org.? What is your organisation? … … … Are you interested in starting a TT project with 
 measurement goals? Where do you get the trigger for TT? Details on theinstrument in thepaper Scope of the talk What are your motivations for TT? What are your transfer objects? How is the technology transfer process performed? What are the transfer mediums you are using? Where do you get the trigger for TT?
  6. 6. 13# 2# 7# Transferor# Transferee# Both# TT Role 1" 1" 12" <10" 10&49" 50&249" 250&500" >500" 1" 4" 3" <10" 10'49" 50'249" 250'500" >500" AcademiaIndustry Distribution / Size: 37 respondents, 22 persons completed the survey Domain 6 3 5 3 3 2 Automotive Avionics Automation Railway Tool Other
  7. 7. Transferor Transferee Transfer object Transfer Medium MediumsObjects Motivations 11" 3" 7" 8" 2" 6" 3" 4" 3" 4" 2" 6" 0" 2" 4" 6" 8" 10" 12" 14" Economic" factors" Social"factors" Opera:onal" factors" Strategic" factors" Global" factors" Personal" factors" Academia" Industry" 5" 1" 1" 1" 3" 2" 1" 2" 3" 0" 1" 2" 3" 4" 5" 6" 7" 8" Own"company" Compe6tors" Consul6ng" companies" Other" companies" Research" Academia" Industry" 9" 10" 5" 2" 1" 6" 6" 7" 3" 0" 2" 4" 6" 8" 10" 12" 14" 16" 18" Knowledge" Machines" Equipment" Methods" Techniques" Processes" FaciliDes" Academia" Industry" Knowledge Modeling)Paradigms Specific)models,)as)e.g.ar5fact)models E/E:architectures)in)other)industry) domains from)former)projects,)lessons)learned) Concepts)and)prototypes,)demonstrators)) Model)based)System)Engineering) Methods Methods)for)safety)and)security)cer5fica5on) Formal)methods) Give)guidance) Concepts)and)prototypes,)demonstrators) Modular)Safety)Analysis) Methods)necessary)for)ISO26262:)compliance Techniques Tool)realiza5ons SysML) Use)of)virtualiza5on Model:based)development Processes Improvement)of)technical) development)process Processes)necessary)for) compliance)with)ISO) 26262 TriggersTECHNOLOGY TRANSFER 33%# 17%# 17%# 14%# 14%# 50%# 67%# 67%# 29%# 17%# 50%# 14%# 29%# 14%# 14%# 17%# 33%# 17%# 14%# 57%# 50%# 17%# 43%# 29%# 14%# 14%# 29%# 57%# 43%# 33%# 29%# 14%# 57%# 57%# 57%# 17%# 14%# 14%# 14%# 14%# 50%# 18%# 11%# 09%# 18%# 09%# 10%# 09%# 20%# 27%# 45%# 09%# 20%# 09%# 09%# 09%# 10%# 20%# 45%# 44%# 18%# 45%# 27%# 20%# 45%# 36%# 45%# 30%# 09%# 10%# 09%# 22%# 18%# 27%# 30%# 45%# 55%# 18%# 30%# 64%# 22%# 09%# 20%# 18%# 30%# 27%# 44%# 12%# 13%# 06%# 11%# 12%# 06%# 06%# 06%# 06%# 31%# 41%# 27%# 39%# 06%# 12%# 31%# 11%# 17%# 11%# 12%# 19%# 41%# 33%# 17%# 50%# 35%# 19%# 44%# 33%# 33%# 24%# 17%# 06%# 06%# 13%# 33%# 33%# 35%# 31%# 39%# 39%# 33%# 41%# 61%# 13%# 06%# 06%# 13%# 06%# 17%# 24%# 22%# 0%# 25%# 50%# 75%# 100%# Licensing#and#standards# Educa:onal#programs# Guidelines# Conferences# Research#coopera:on# Consultancy# Internet#resources# CoFworking# SoJware,#systems,#and# tools# Publica:ons# Personnel#exchange# Workshops#and#mePngs# Never# Rarely# Some:mes# OJen# Always# Never#(1)# Rarely#(2)# Some:mes#(3)# OJen#(4)# Always#(5)# Results (selected)
  8. 8. Motivations 11" 3" 7" 8" 2" 6" 3" 4" 3" 4" 2" 6" 0" 2" 4" 6" 8" 10" 12" 14" Economic" factors" Social"factors" Opera:onal" factors" Strategic" factors" Global" factors" Personal" factors" Academia" Industry" What are your motivations for TT? H: The motivations that drive the transfer in industry and academia are heterogenous.
  9. 9. 5" 1" 1" 1" 3" 2" 1" 2" 3" 0" 1" 2" 3" 4" 5" 6" 7" 8" Own"company" Compe6tors" Consul6ng" companies" Other" companies" Research" Academia" Industry" Triggers Where do you get the trigger for TT? H: Industrial organisations gain new knowledge mainly within their own confines.
  10. 10. Objects 9" 10" 5" 2" 1" 6" 6" 7" 3" 0" 2" 4" 6" 8" 10" 12" 14" 16" 18" Knowledge" Machines" Equipment" Methods" Techniques" Processes" FaciliDes" Academia" Industry" Knowledge Modeling)Paradigms Specific)models,)as)e.g.ar5fact)models E/E:architectures)in)other)industry) domains from)former)projects,)lessons)learned) Concepts)and)prototypes,)demonstrators)) Model)based)System)Engineering) Methods Methods)for)safety)and)security)cer5fica5on) Formal)methods) Give)guidance) Concepts)and)prototypes,)demonstrators) Modular)Safety)Analysis) Methods)necessary)for)ISO26262:)compliance Techniques Tool)realiza5ons SysML) Use)of)virtualiza5on Model:based)development Processes Improvement)of)technical) development)process Processes)necessary)for) compliance)with)ISO) 26262 What are your transfer objects? “This new thing might be a good 
 solution. However, in most cases 
 the solution has to be adapted to 
 the specific needs of the customer.”
  11. 11. Objects 9" 10" 5" 2" 1" 6" 6" 7" 3" 0" 2" 4" 6" 8" 10" 12" 14" 16" 18" Knowledge" Machines" Equipment" Methods" Techniques" Processes" FaciliDes" Academia" Industry" Knowledge Modeling)Paradigms Specific)models,)as)e.g.ar5fact)models E/E:architectures)in)other)industry) domains from)former)projects,)lessons)learned) Concepts)and)prototypes,)demonstrators)) Model)based)System)Engineering) Methods Methods)for)safety)and)security)cer5fica5on) Formal)methods) Give)guidance) Concepts)and)prototypes,)demonstrators) Modular)Safety)Analysis) Methods)necessary)for)ISO26262:)compliance Techniques Tool)realiza5ons SysML) Use)of)virtualiza5on Model:based)development Processes Improvement)of)technical) development)process Processes)necessary)for) compliance)with)ISO) 26262 What are your transfer objects? H: The technologies developed in SE research projects are not mature enough for direct application, but need strong customisation to fit the industrial context.
  12. 12. 0" 2" 4" 6" 8" 10" 12" 14" 16" 18" K Knowl Modelin Specific E/E:arc doma from)fo Concep Model)b Metho Method Formal) Give)gu Concep Modula Method What are your transfer objects? We are somewhere here… Source: http://www.innovationseeds.eu/Virtual_Library/Knowledge/TLR_Scale.kl (European Commission) Technology readiness level See also the talk On the Benefits and Barriers 
 when adopting Software Modelling
 and Model Driven Techniques H: The technologies developed in SE research projects are not mature enough for direct application, but need strong customisation to fit the industrial context.
  13. 13. What are the transfer mediums you are using? H: Most used transfer mediums are human-intensive. Mediums 33%# 17%# 17%# 14%# 14%# 50%# 67%# 67%# 29%# 17%# 50%# 14%# 29%# 14%# 14%# 17%# 33%# 17%# 14%# 57%# 50%# 17%# 43%# 29%# 14%# 14%# 29%# 57%# 43%# 33%# 29%# 14%# 57%# 57%# 57%# 17%# 14%# 14%# 14%# 14%# 50%# 18%# 11%# 09%# 18%# 09%# 10%# 09%# 20%# 27%# 45%# 09%# 20%# 09%# 09%# 09%# 10%# 20%# 45%# 44%# 18%# 45%# 27%# 20%# 45%# 36%# 45%# 30%# 09%# 10%# 09%# 22%# 18%# 27%# 30%# 45%# 55%# 18%# 30%# 64%# 22%# 09%# 20%# 18%# 30%# 27%# 44%# 12%# 13%# 06%# 11%# 12%# 06%# 06%# 06%# 06%# 31%# 41%# 27%# 39%# 06%# 12%# 31%# 11%# 17%# 11%# 12%# 19%# 41%# 33%# 17%# 50%# 35%# 19%# 44%# 33%# 33%# 24%# 17%# 06%# 06%# 13%# 33%# 33%# 35%# 31%# 39%# 39%# 33%# 41%# 61%# 13%# 06%# 06%# 13%# 06%# 17%# 24%# 22%# 0%# 25%# 50%# 75%# 100%# Licensing#and#standards# Educa:onal#programs# Guidelines# Conferences# Research#coopera:on# Consultancy# Internet#resources# CoFworking# SoJware,#systems,#and# tools# Publica:ons# Personnel#exchange# Workshops#and#mePngs# Never# Rarely# Some:mes# OJen# Always# Never#(1)# Rarely#(2)# Some:mes#(3)# OJen#(4)# Always#(5)# – Knowledge: Personal exchange, 
 workshops and meetings, 
 publications – Methods: Personal exchange, 
 workshops and meetings, 
 guidelines, consultancy, software, 
 systems and tools – Processes: Workshops and meetings – Tools: Workshops and meetings … independent of object See also the talk In Quest for proper Mediums for 
 Technology Transfer in 
 Software Engineering
  14. 14. Transferor Transferee Transfer object Transfer Medium MediumsObjects 8" 2" 6" 4" 2" 6" Strategic" factors" Global" factors" Personal" factors" Industry" 5" 1" 1" 2" 1" 0" 1" 2" 3" 4" 5" 6" 7" 8" Own"company" Compe6tors" Consul6ng" companies" Academia" Industr TriggersTECHNOLOGY TRANSFER Never#(1)# Rarely#(2)# Some:mes#(3)# OJen#(4)# How is the technology transfer process performed?
  15. 15. Transferor Transferee Transfer object Transfer Medium MediumsObjects 8" 2" 6" 4" 2" 6" Strategic" factors" Global" factors" Personal" factors" Industry" 5" 1" 1" 2" 1" 0" 1" 2" 3" 4" 5" 6" 7" 8" Own"company" Compe6tors" Consul6ng" companies" Academia" Industr TriggersTECHNOLOGY TRANSFER Never#(1)# Rarely#(2)# Some:mes#(3)# OJen#(4)# How is the technology transfer process performed? “I’m not sure whether there is 
 an explicit process.[…]”
  16. 16. Transferor Transferee Transfer object Transfer Medium MediumsObjects 8" 2" 6" 4" 2" 6" Strategic" factors" Global" factors" Personal" factors" Industry" 5" 1" 1" 2" 1" 0" 1" 2" 3" 4" 5" 6" 7" 8" Own"company" Compe6tors" Consul6ng" companies" Academia" Industr TriggersTECHNOLOGY TRANSFER Never#(1)# Rarely#(2)# Some:mes#(3)# OJen#(4)# How is the technology transfer process performed? H: Technology transfer takes place without an explicit process.
  17. 17. Transferor Transferee Transfer object Transfer Medium MediumsObjects 8" 2" 6" 4" 2" 6" Strategic" factors" Global" factors" Personal" factors" Industry" 5" 1" 1" 2" 1" 0" 1" 2" 3" 4" 5" 6" 7" 8" Own"company" Compe6tors" Consul6ng" companies" Academia" Industr TriggersTECHNOLOGY TRANSFER Never#(1)# Rarely#(2)# Some:mes#(3)# OJen#(4)# How is the technology transfer process performed? H: Technology transfer takes place without an explicit process. “Needs for action are identified. Possible transfer 
 objects are identified.Transfer objects are modified, 
 so that they fit the to our internal processes. Objects
 are applied in pilot projects. Objects are integrated 
 in internal work instructions.”
  18. 18. Transferor Transferee Transfer object Transfer Medium MediumsObjects 8" 2" 6" 4" 2" 6" Strategic" factors" Global" factors" Personal" factors" Industry" 5" 1" 1" 2" 1" 0" 1" 2" 3" 4" 5" 6" 7" 8" Own"company" Compe6tors" Consul6ng" companies" Academia" Industr TriggersTECHNOLOGY TRANSFER Never#(1)# Rarely#(2)# Some:mes#(3)# OJen#(4)# How is the technology transfer process performed? H:The standard model of representingTT as a transaction of an object that occurs from a transferor to a transferee does not fit reality. H: Technology transfer takes place without an explicit process.
  19. 19. Transferor Transferee Transfer object Transfer Medium MediumsObjects 8" 2" 6" 4" 2" 6" Strategic" factors" Global" factors" Personal" factors" Industry" 5" 1" 1" 2" 1" 0" 1" 2" 3" 4" 5" 6" 7" 8" Own"company" Compe6tors" Consul6ng" companies" Academia" Industr TriggersTECHNOLOGY TRANSFER Never#(1)# Rarely#(2)# Some:mes#(3)# OJen#(4)# How is the technology transfer process performed? H:The standard model of representingTT as a transaction of an object that occurs from a transferor to a transferee does not fit reality. H: Technology transfer takes place without an explicit process. We need to consider: – TT needs careful choice of mediums in response to the objects. – TT is a bidirectional process of sharing and developing an object rather than transferring one. – TT needs a concept of sustainable adaptation of an object.
  20. 20. Transferor Transferee Transfer object Transfer Medium MediumsObjects Motivations 11" 3" 7" 8" 2" 6" 3" 4" 3" 4" 2" 6" 0" 2" 4" 6" 8" 10" 12" 14" Economic" factors" Social"factors" Opera:onal" factors" Strategic" factors" Global" factors" Personal" factors" Academia" Industry" 5" 1" 1" 1" 3" 2" 1" 2" 3" 0" 1" 2" 3" 4" 5" 6" 7" 8" Own"company" Compe6tors" Consul6ng" companies" Other" companies" Research" Academia" Industry" 9" 10" 5" 2" 1" 6" 6" 7" 3" 0" 2" 4" 6" 8" 10" 12" 14" 16" 18" Knowledge" Machines" Equipment" Methods" Techniques" Processes" FaciliDes" Academia" Industry" Knowledge Modeling)Paradigms Specific)models,)as)e.g.ar5fact)models E/E:architectures)in)other)industry) domains from)former)projects,)lessons)learned) Concepts)and)prototypes,)demonstrators)) Model)based)System)Engineering) Methods Methods)for)safety)and)security)cer5fica5on) Formal)methods) Give)guidance) Concepts)and)prototypes,)demonstrators) Modular)Safety)Analysis) Methods)necessary)for)ISO26262:)compliance Techniques Tool)realiza5ons SysML) Use)of)virtualiza5on Model:based)development Processes Improvement)of)technical) development)process Processes)necessary)for) compliance)with)ISO) 26262 TriggersTECHNOLOGY TRANSFER 33%# 17%# 17%# 14%# 14%# 50%# 67%# 67%# 29%# 17%# 50%# 14%# 29%# 14%# 14%# 17%# 33%# 17%# 14%# 57%# 50%# 17%# 43%# 29%# 14%# 14%# 29%# 57%# 43%# 33%# 29%# 14%# 57%# 57%# 57%# 17%# 14%# 14%# 14%# 14%# 50%# 18%# 11%# 09%# 18%# 09%# 10%# 09%# 20%# 27%# 45%# 09%# 20%# 09%# 09%# 09%# 10%# 20%# 45%# 44%# 18%# 45%# 27%# 20%# 45%# 36%# 45%# 30%# 09%# 10%# 09%# 22%# 18%# 27%# 30%# 45%# 55%# 18%# 30%# 64%# 22%# 09%# 20%# 18%# 30%# 27%# 44%# 12%# 13%# 06%# 11%# 12%# 06%# 06%# 06%# 06%# 31%# 41%# 27%# 39%# 06%# 12%# 31%# 11%# 17%# 11%# 12%# 19%# 41%# 33%# 17%# 50%# 35%# 19%# 44%# 33%# 33%# 24%# 17%# 06%# 06%# 13%# 33%# 33%# 35%# 31%# 39%# 39%# 33%# 41%# 61%# 13%# 06%# 06%# 13%# 06%# 17%# 24%# 22%# 0%# 25%# 50%# 75%# 100%# Licensing#and#standards# Educa:onal#programs# Guidelines# Conferences# Research#coopera:on# Consultancy# Internet#resources# CoFworking# SoJware,#systems,#and# tools# Publica:ons# Personnel#exchange# Workshops#and#mePngs# Never# Rarely# Some:mes# OJen# Always# Never#(1)# Rarely#(2)# Some:mes#(3)# OJen#(4)# Always#(5)# Daniel Méndez Daniel.Mendez@tum.de @mendezfe XIÉ XIE The standard model of representingTT as a transaction of an object that occurs from a transferor to a transferee does not fit reality. Technology transfer takes place without an explicit process. The motivations that drive the transfer in industry and academia are heterogenous. Industrial organisations gain new knowledge mainly within their own confines. The technologies developed in SE research projects are not mature enough for direct application, but need strong customisation to fit the industrial context. Most used transfer mediums are human intensive. Hypotheses

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