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Chemicals in your food

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Food Safety- WHO Theme 2015 calls for a new perspective in not just knowing the nutrient content of our food but also understanding how safe (or unsafe) it is! The ppt discusses some of the common chemicals in our food

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Chemicals in your food

  1. 1. Dr Menaal Kaushal JR- III Department of SPM SN Medical College, Agra Chemicals in Your Food!
  2. 2. Chemicals in Food Regulated Food Ingredients Food Chain Residues Contaminants in Food& Feed Food Additives Food Flavorings Emulsifiers Acidity Regulators Stabilizers More????
  3. 3. Aspartame: ADI= 40- 50 mg/kg/day Aspartame Phenylalanine Aspartic acid Menthol In Rats, Aspartame caused Leukemia and Lymphomas. Studies have linked human Preterm Labor, Multiple myeloma and brain tumors with Aspartame Acceptable Daily Intake= Amount of a substance that people can consume on a daily basis during their whole life without any appreciable risk to health DKP
  4. 4. Chemicals in Food Regulated Food Ingredients Food Chain Residues Contaminants in Food& Feed Food Contact Material Feed Additives Fertilizers& Pesticides
  5. 5. Food Contact Material  Gets transferred into the food through Migration/ Leeching  Migration depends upon:  Properties of Contact material  Type of Food  Temperature at which packed an maintained  Food Contact Material may be:  Bisphenol A in Plastic  Non Plastic  Active and Intelligent Packing Substances
  6. 6. Bisphenol A (BPA)  BPA effects the mammary glands, reproductive, metabolic, neurobehavioural and immune systems  EU has significantly reduced the new ADI for BPA from 50µg/kg/day to 4µg/kg/day BPA Epoxy resins Polycarbonate
  7. 7. Non Plastic Contacts  Inks used in printing the labels contain:  Benzophenone, 4-methylbenzophenone and  Isopropyl thioxanthone (ITX)  Foods packed in Glass Jars have:  Semicarbazide  Epoxides  The Tolerable Daily Intake is 0.03mg/kg/day
  8. 8. Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI)  ADIs relate to chemical substances which are deliberately added to a product or ingredient  A Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) is an estimate of the quantity of a chemical contaminant to which we may be exposed through environmental contamination, and Exposure to such contaminants whilst not desirable may not be avoidable as some may be found in foods as a result of environmental pollution  TDI= amount of chemical in food which can be ingested daily over a lifetime without posing a significant risk to health.
  9. 9. Feed Additives  What is happening with the animals whose products we consume? Milch animals For Meat Animals Natural Feed: Gossypol But pesticide laden Hormones: Steroids, Sex hormones Hormones: Oxytocin, Estrogen, rBGH; The story behind banning DES Unnatual Feeds: Methyl Mercuryis: Fishmeal to cattle; MBM Antibiotics
  10. 10. Pesticides  Soil half-lives should be in the range of days to weeks. But, pesticide residues are found ubiquitously in the environment in ng/liter to μg/liter concentrations  Surveys of groundwater in Developed countries detected 10 to 20 substances above the permissible limits (0.01 µg/dL): Most of the pesticides were no longer in use and about 10- 20% were stable compounds  Some transformational products are worst off: (Eco toxicologically Relevant Products)
  11. 11. Hydrophobic Pesticides:  Persistent, bio-accumulable  Strongly bound to soil  e.g.: Organochlorine, DDT, endosulfan, endrin, heptachlor, lindane.  Most of them are now banned in agriculture but their residues are still present:  e.g. Detection of chloridazon products (first marketed in 1964) in surface and groundwater, or tolylfluanid (first marketed in 1971).
  12. 12. Polar Pesticides:  Herbicides, carbamates, fungicides and some organophosphorus insecticide.  They can be moved from soil by runoff and leaching, thereby constituting a problem for the supply of drinking water to the population  The Cotton Belt of Punjab has turned into the Cancer Belt of Punjab (Malwa Belt: Bathinda, Mukatsar, Mansa, Ferozepore, Moga, Barnala, Faridkot and Sangrur)
  13. 13. Effects of Pesticides on Soil:  Reduces populations of beneficial soil microorganism  Negative impact in the available NPK from soil.  Pesticides destroy Dehydrogenases and Soil phosphatases and ureases help in the mineralization and nitrification processes of organic substrates  Enzymes in soils originate from animal, plant and microbial sources and the resulting soil biological activity includes the metabolic processes of all these organisms.
  14. 14. Which are the Foods Most Contaminated by Pesticides?  Beef, Pork, Poultry  Milk, Cheese, Butter  Strawberries, Raspberries, Cherries  Apples and Pears  Peaches Grapes, Pepper and Tomatoes: Peeling Does not Help  Potatoes  Spinach and Green Leafies
  15. 15. So What to do?  Spray Pesticides within the Maximum Residual Levels (MRL)  MRL= Upper Legal Levels of a concentration of pesticide residues in or on food or feed, aiming at the lowest consumer exposure.  Wash thoroughly the raw fruits, vegetables& grains in Running Water  Prefer Organic Foods atleast for the Thin Peel Fruits and Vegetables
  16. 16. Fertilizers  Any substance containing one or more recognized plant nutrient(s) which is used for its plant nutrient content and which is designed for use or claimed to have value in promoting plant growth” Macronutrient Fertilizers Manufactured from Recycled Industrial Waste Micronutrient Fertilizers Rich in Dioxins and PCB Manufactured from Virgin Ores
  17. 17. Dioxins& Poly-chlorinated Biphenyls: Persistent Environmental Pollutants (POP)  By-products of industrial processes e.g. smelting, chlorine bleaching of paper pulp and the manufacturing of some herbicides and pesticides.  Dioxins accumulate in Animal Fat  Dioxins are highly toxic carcinogenic compounds and can cause reproductive and developmental problems, damage the immune system, interfere with hormones.
  18. 18. Chemicals in Food Regulated Food Ingredients Food Chain Residues Contaminants in Food& Feed Environmental Pollutants Metals Process Contaminants
  19. 19. Thank you

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