A Road Map Proposal for Transition to Large Scale E-Learning in Open Universities: Case of Anadolu University Open Education System

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A.E. Özkul, M.E. Mutlu, 2nd International Open and Distance Learning (IODL) Symposium konferansı dahilinde "2nd International Open and Distance Learning (IODL) Symposium Proceedings" bildiri kitapçığındaki "A Road Map Proposal for Transition to Large Scale E-Learning in Open Universities: Case of Anadolu University Open Education System", 671-686 pp., Eskişehir, Türkiye, September 13-15, 2006

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  • Good morning. I am doctor Mehmet Emin Mutlu from Anadolu University Open Education Faculty, Computer Aided Instruction Unit. Today, my presentation is about a road map proposal for transition to large scale e-learning in open universities focusing the case of Anadolu University Open Education System.
  • A multiphase evolutionary plan consisting of seven steps is suggested for transition to e-learning in open universities. These steps are: e-exam, e-facilitator, e-book, e-television, e-audio book, e-practice, and e-course. The e-Exam phase includes publishing of the Internet based trial exams , The e-Facilitator phase includes an asynchronous questioning and answering system , The e-Book phase includes the distribution of electronic copies of course books on the Internet , The e-Television phase includes Internet publication of digitized video files of television programs , The e-AudioBook phase includes distribution of dramatized voice files of course books in the Internet , The e-Practice phase includes voiced course software with questions , answers, interactive examples, test and content summaries The e-Course phase includes e-learning software that aim to teach the course using video/voice and interactive animations .
  • Now, let’s mention those factors in detail…
  • The following table shows the skills necessary for the phases of e-learning. As you see, the transition period and the skills necessary differs depending on the phase. For example, for the e-Exam phase, the transition period is between 3 and 6 months, and the skills necessary are w eb application development and arranging the organization . But for the e-course phase, the period is between one or two years, and the skills necessary are w eb application development, scenario and storyboard development, developing template units, d eveloping animations, etcetera.
  • The necessary team structure and the resource content gets more complex as we move from the initial phases to further phases. For example, for the e-facilitator phase, we just need a programmer, facilitator, and a system administrator. The necessary source is the facilitators. On the other hand, for the e-course phase, the team structure is composed of Programmer – e-Learning designer – subject matter specialist –Voice-video-image-animation designer – Vocalization personnel – Television artist - editor –System Administrator . The neccessary sources are an instructional scenario, development scenario and storyboard .
  • As you see in the table, the development and publishing infrastructure, the software used at Anadolu University, the infrastructure that must be owned by the students, and the software necessary for access also differ in each phase.
  • In each new phase, the cost of previous stages cumulates as the number of courses increases . Therefore, the cost of transition to e-learning will increase arithmetically.
  • In Turkey, the central open higher education is executed by Anadolu University, which has a dual mode education system. Today, more than 1 million students are involved in the open education system, which began in 1982 (nineteen eighty two). Transition to e-learning process which began in 1999 (nineteen ninety nine) was established in 87 (eighty seven) months in Anadolu University case without a roadmap . Now, let’s examine all these phases of this transition individually.
  • The development of the e-exam service took six months and it was put into practice in 1999 (ninetheen ninety nine). The e-exam of one hundred- twenty- four courses have been offered so far. Nearly, one hundred eighty thousand students took nearly 8 million exams since the first six months of two thousand and six.
  • The e-practice phase has been developed in 6 months and was put into practice 2003 (two thousand and three). Seven hundred and thirty eight units have been offered so far for 50 (fifty) courses. More than one-hundred-and twenty thousand different students studied over three million units since the first six months of two thousand and six.
  • The e-book service was developed in 3 months and put into practice in 2003 (two thousand and three). Around two hundred courses have been published since the first six months of two thousand and six. More than one-hundred thousand different students has read around one million units since the first six months of two thousand and six.
  • The e-television service was developed in three months. We developed and have broadcasted more than one thousand programs. More than one-hundred thousand different students watched around one million programs since the first six months of two thousand and six.
  • The e-facilitator service is available for 50 courses and nearly three thousand questions have been asked since the first six months of two thousand and six.
  • It took 3 months to develop the e-audio book phase and it was put into practice in two thousand and five. Around two hundred units for twelve courses have been distributed. More than fifty thousand different students listened to more than fifty thousand programs since the first six months of two thousand and six.
  • Finally, the e-course service. It took eight months to develop the e-course phase. It will be put into practice this year. Twenty six courses are under construction.
  • In this study, a road map that open universities can use in transition to large scale e-learning was prepared taking the e-learning practices developed between 1999-2006 (nineteen ninety one and two thousand and six) at Anadolu University into account. The suggested road map requires the development of the e-learning services from simple to complex practices in an evolutionary manner and its implementation by involving larger populations in each phase. Factors such as costs, organizational structure, IT infrastructure , availability of the resource content that can be used in e-learning are the factors that determine the road map. The transition to e-learning road map can be adapted by open universities in different countries and having different resources. Thank you!
  • A Road Map Proposal for Transition to Large Scale E-Learning in Open Universities: Case of Anadolu University Open Education System

    1. 1. A ROAD MAP PROPOSAL FOR TRANSITION TO LARGE SCALE E-LEARNING IN OPEN UNIVERSITIES:CASE OF ANADOLU UNIVERSITY OPEN EDUCATION SYSTEM Prof. Dr. Ali Ekrem Özkul Ass. Prof. Dr. M. Emin Mutlu Anadolu University, Turkey2nd International Open and Distance Learning (IODL) Eskişehir, Türkiye, September 13-15, 2006
    2. 2. e-Learning in Open Universities• The importance of the use of information and communication technologies (e-learning) in education has increased since the second half of 1990’s.• In open universities having a large number of students and acting as central institutions, transition to e-learning applications has not been occurred as fast as expected.• When the web sites of the 20 mega universities in the list of UNESCO are examined, it is seen that except for some universities such as Korea National Open University, University of Phoenix, Athabasca University and Anadolu University, those universities continue to use traditional distance learning methods.
    3. 3. Transition to e-Learning in open universities• Designing and putting into practice the e- learning systems in open universities is difficult because there are many programs, courses and students.
    4. 4. Multiphase evolution approach• An approach to design and put into practice the e- learning system in open universities is a multiphase approach.• It starts with simple e-learning practices for large number of people, and then, transition to complex e- learning practices occurs.• In this way, – many academic personnel and students are included in the project starting from the first steps, – planning and controlling processes gets easy, – and the results of the investments for each phase are obtained in the same phase.
    5. 5. A road map for transition to e-learningPhase Name of the Action Phase1. Phase e-Exam Preparing and publishing Internet based trial exams that include questions randomly withdrawn from a question bank for all possible courses.2. Phase e-Facilitator Publishing an asynchronous questioning and answering system among academic facilitators and students for all possible courses via the Internet.3. Phase e-Book Starting the distribution of electronic copies of course books on the Internet for all possible courses.4. Phase e-Television Starting the Internet publication of digitized video files of television programs for all possible courses5. Phase e-Audio Book Starting the distribution of dramatized voice files of course books in the Internet starting from the courses having the highest number of students.6. Phase e-Practice Starting from the courses having the highest number of students, preparing voiced course software that include components such as many questions with answers, interactive examples, test and content summaries7. Phase e-Course Starting from the courses having the highest number of students, preparing e-learning software that aim to teach the course using video/voice and interactive animations in the Internet
    6. 6. Transition process• An e-learning practice is started in each phase and this practice continues in the following periods. Hence, when the seventh phase is reached, seven e-learning practices that are parallel to each other will be in practice.• In this way, all the options necessary are offered so that students having different learning styles can benefit from the most appropriate learning environments for them.
    7. 7. Adaptation of the road map• The determination of these phases and their order may change depending on the countries or on the sources of the open universities in a country.• If the Internet infrastructure in a country is developed and a large proportion of students access the Internet, a decision to whether or not practice more than one phase of the roadmap simultaneously depends on the resources of the university.• If the copyright rules of a university does not allow the practice of services such as e-Book, e-Television or e- Audio Book, those phases can be excluded from the roadmap.
    8. 8. The main factorsThe main factors that affect the design and implementationof the e-learning system in open universities can be listedas  skills necessary for transition to e-learning,  organizational structure, e-learning teams and institutional resource content,  infrastructure for e-learning development and publishing – the Information Technologies (IT) infrastructure owned by students, and  the cost of transition to e-learning.The roadmap for transition to e-learning suggested foropen universities will be analyzed in terms of those factors.
    9. 9. Skills Necessary for the Phases of e-LearningPhase Transitio Skills Necessary for the Development and Implementation of the n Period e-Learning Service (Degree of Complexity)e-Exam 3-6 months Web application development, arranging organizations for the updating of questions of many coursese-Facilitator 3-6 months Web application development, moderator support, facilitation skillse-Book 3-6 months Web application development, transforming various formats into PDF and Flash Paper, arranging organizations for updating a large number of course bookse-Television 3-6 months Web application development, transforming various video formats into WMV, arranging organizations for updating the television programs of many courses.e-Audio Book 3-6 months Web application development, transforming various voice formats into MP3, arranging organizations to update the audio book of many coursese-Practice 1-2 years Web application development, scenario development, developing template units using Flash, developing animations using Flash, transforming various voice formats into MP3, arranging organizations for updating the practice software of many coursese-Course 1-2 years Web application development, scenario and storyboard development, developing template units using Flash, Developing animations using Flash, transforming various voice formats into MP3, transforming various video formats into Flash video, ensuring audio, video and animation synchronization, arranging organization to update the tutorial software of many courses
    10. 10. Organizational Structure, e-Learning Teams and Resource ContentPhase Team Structure Necessary Content/Sourcee-Exam Programmer – Data Entry Operator – System Questions asked in previous Administrator examinationse-Facilitator Programmer – Facilitator – System Facilitators Administratore-Book Programmer – Support of the typography Published course books operators –Scanner Operator- System Administratore-Television Programmer – Digital video operators- System Broadcasted television programs Administratore-Audio Book Programmer – Vocalization personnel – Digital Published course books audio operators – System Administratore-Practice Programmer – e-Learning designer – Subject Instructional and development matter specialist – Voice-Video-Animation scenario for original product designer – Vocalization personnel - Editor – System Administratore-Course Programmer – e-Learning designer – subject Instructional scenario, matter specialist –Voice-video-image-animation development scenario, designer – Vocalization personnel – Television storyboard for original product artist - editor –System Administrator
    11. 11. e-Learning Development and Production Infrastructure and the Infrastructure of IT Owned by StudentsPhase Development and Publishing Software (Used at Access Software Infrastructure Anadolu University) Infrastructure Necessary for of Students Accesse-Exam Desktop computer – small server– At the beginning (Apache - At least 64 Kbps Web Browser web application– at least 2 Mbps CGI – Visual Basic – Dial-up network (Text) network connection Access), at the end (IIS connection - .NET – SQL Server) Web applicatione-Facilitator Desktop computer – small server– (IIS - .NET – SQL Server) At least 64 Kbps Web Browser web application– at least 2 Mbps Web application dialup network (Text) network connection connectione-Book Desktop computer – small server– (IIS - .NET – SQL Server) At least 64 Kbps Web Browser web application– at least 8 Mbps Web application dialup network (PDF) network connection connectione-Television Workstation – middle server – (IIS - .NET – SQL Server) At least 128 Kbps Web Browser web application – at least 32 Mbps Web application ADSL network (Media Player) network connection connectione-Audio Book Workstation– middle server – web (IIS - .NET – SQL Server) At least 128 Kbps Web Browser application – eat least 32 Mbps Web application ADSL network (Media Player) network connection connectione-Practice Workstation – big server – LMS – (IIS - .NET – SQL Server) At least 256 Web Browser at least 100 Mbps network Web application Kbps ADSL (Flash Player) connection network connectione-Course Workstation – big server– LMS – (IIS - .NET – SQL Server) At least 512 Kbps Web Browser at least 200Mps network Web application ADSL network (Flash Player) connection connection
    12. 12. Cost ProjectionPhase Copyright Costs Personnel Personnel Infrastructure Cumulative in e-Learning Outside the (Production Total Cost Development Unit and publishing) Unite-Exam It is not necessary for the 1-10 Question Small 1 exam questions asked in the writers, past. Copy right payments editors of new exam questions must be paide-Facilitator Facilitation fee must be 1-10 Facilitators Small 3 paid.e-Book The copyright costs of the 1-10 Book writers, Medium 6 books are zero since the editors, index copyright of the books operators belong to the university.e-Television The copyright costs of the 10-50 Scenario Medium 10 television programs is zero writers, since the copyright of the speakers, TV programs belong to the production university. teame-Audio Book Audio-visual development 10-50 Vocalization Medium 15 copyrights must be paid. staff, voice techniciane-Practice CAI development 50-100 Subject Large 21 copyrights must be paid. specialists, editorse-Course CAI development 50-100 Subject Large 28 copyrights must be paid. specialist, editors
    13. 13. Case of Anadolu UniversityPhase Developme Date of Previous Experiences Amount of Usage nt Period Putting Publishing Information into (first six months Practice of 2006 )e-Exam 6 months 1999/12 Academic studies in 124 courses, 180.502 different 1997-1998 about developing 11216 students took test software in the Internet questions 7.937.775 trial environment examinationse-Practice 6 months 2003/3 Design applied for 50 courses, 738 120.421 different 1993-1999 LAN, 2000-2001 units students studied CD-ROM 3.866.446 unitse-Book 3 months 2003/9 e-Book practices in 2724 units for 116.321 different 2000-2001 CD-ROM and 211 courses students read 2003 e-Practice designs 987.767 unitse-Television 3 months 2004/4 e-Television practices in 1196 programs 122.306 different 2000-2001 CD-ROM and for 163 courses students 1.023.665 2003-2004 e-Practice units designse-Facilitator 3 months 2005/5 e-Facilitator practice in This service is 2937 questions Information Management for 50 courses were asked Program in 2001-2005e-Audio Book 3 months 2005/9 Audible screen video CD- 220 units for 56.561 different ROMs in 2001-2005 12 courses students listened to Information Management 370.315 units. Programe-Course 8 months 2006/12 e-Learning Project 26 courses are Not available for developed for the under publishing for the Ford/Otosan project in construction time being 2006/1-2006/8 period
    14. 14. e-ExamPhase Developme Date of Previous Experiences Amount of Usage nt Period Putting Presentation Information into (first six months Practice of 2006 )e-Exam 6 months 1999/12 Academic studies in 124 courses, 180.502 different 1997-1998 about developing 11216 students took test software in the Internet questions 7.937.775 trial environment examinations
    15. 15. e-PracticePhase Developme Date of Previous Experiences Amount of Usage nt Period Putting Presentatio Information into n (first six months Practice of 2006 )e-Practice 6 months 2003/3 Design applied for 50 courses, 120.421 different 1993-1999 LAN, 2000-2001 738 units students studied CD-ROM 3.866.446 units
    16. 16. e-BookPhase Developme Date of Previous Experiences Amount of Usage nt Period Putting Presentation Information into (first six months Practice of 2006 )e-Book 3 months 2003/9 e-Book practices in 2724 units for 116.321 different 2000-2001 CD-ROM and 211 courses students read 2003 e-Practice designs 987.767 units
    17. 17. e-TelevisionPhase Developme Date of Previous Experiences Amount of Usage Information nt Period Putting Presentation (first six months into of 2006 ) Practicee-Television 3 months 2004/4 e-Television practices in 1196 programs 122.306 different 2000-2001 CD-ROM and for 163 courses students 1.023.665 2003-2004 units e-Practice designs
    18. 18. e-FacilitatorPhase Developme Date of Previous Experiences Amount of Usage Information nt Period Putting Presentation (first six months into of 2006 ) Practicee-Facilitator 3 months 2005/5 e-Facilitator practice in This service is 2937 questions were Information Management for 50 courses asked Program in 2001-2005
    19. 19. e-AudioBookPhase Developme Date of Previous Experiences Amount of Usage Information nt Period Putting Presentation (first six months into of 2006 ) Practicee-Audio Book 3 months 2005/9 Audible screen video CD- 220 units for 56.561 different ROMs in 2001-2005 12 courses students listened to Information Management 370.315 units. Program
    20. 20. e-CoursePhase Development Date of Previous Experiences Amount of Usage Information Period Putting into Presentation (first six months Practice of 2006 )e-Course 8 months 2006/12 e-Learning Project developed 26 courses are Not available for for the Ford/Otosan project under publishing for the in 2006/1-2006/8 period construction time being
    21. 21. Conclusion• In this study, a road map that open universities can use in transition to large scale e-learning was prepared taking the e-learning practices developed in 1999-2006 at Anadolu University.• The suggested road map requires the development of the e-learning services from simple to complex practices in an evolutionary manner and its implementation by involving larger populations in each phase.• Factors such as costs, organizational structure, students’ IT use characteristics, availability of the resource content that can be used in e-learning are the factors that determine the road map.• The transition to e-learning road map can be adapted by universities in different countries and having different resources.

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