Study Name: Distance Learning in North Dakota: A Cross-Technology Study of the Schools,
Administrators, Coordinators, Instructors, and Students with Two-Way Interactive
Television, Audiographic Tele-Learning, and Instruction by Satellite.
Author: Hobbs, 1990.
Audience: North Dakota schools’ administrators, programs coordinators, students and
Abstract: "...no discernible difference between distance learning and traditional foreign
language achievement attributable to the specific distance learning technologies used."
Study Name: Effectiveness and Cost on Interactive Videodisc in Defense Training and
Author: Fletcher, 1990.
Audience: Defense training and in the related settings of industrial training and higher
Objectives: Compared Conventional instruction with IVDI in terms of achievement,
effectiveness and cost effective.
Abstract: "Compared with conventional instruction, IVDI in military training (24 studies)
increased achievement to 65%; in higher education (14 studies) increased achievement
to 75%; increased achievement in both knowledge and performance measures, to 64%.
The more 'interactivity' built into IVDI, the more effective the resulting instruction. IVDI was
more effective than computer-assisted without videodisc interaction. IVDI may increase time
on task and did not effect longer term retention... IVDI was less costly and more cost
effective than conventional instruction."
From our view of point, It is not what but when, how and
Traditional and Distance education are all work depend on the
situation and circumstances.