The largest organ of the
integumentary system which is
made up of multiple layers of
epithelial tissues that guard the
underlying muscles and organs
It plays the most important
role in protecting the body
Its other main functions are
insulation, regulation of body
temperature, sensation and the
synthesisof VitaminsB and D.
Skin is considered as one of
the most important parts of the
made up of stratified squamous layer of
10 to 30 cellsthick, about asthick asthispage.
made up of fibrous connective tissue containing
collagen and elastic fibers.
also contains muscle fibers, glands, pigment
cells, blood vesselsand sensory nerves.
15 to 40 timesthicker than theepidermis.
provides structural support for all the epidermis
and as matrix for any nerve endings, muscles and
specialized cellsin theskin.
1. Support the
2. Attachment of
3. Protection of
4. Act as levers
5. Production of
6. Gives stability
and shape to the
Therearetotal of 206 bones in an adult human
skull ( cranium + face ) = 22 ( 8 +
Ears = 6
hyoid = 1
vertebral column = 26
sternum = 1
ribs = 24
pectoral girdle and forelimbs = 64
pelvic girdle and hindlimbs = 62
Muscular System Muscles make up about
half of the body’s bulk.
Working with the
skeleton, they generate
the energy to move, make
precise and intricate hand
movements, lift objects,
and even speak.
including the specialized
cardiac muscle and all
smooth muscles, provide
the essential power for
1. Ingestion of food
2. Breaking down of complex
substance ( food ) into simple
3. Absorption of digested food
4. Egestion of excretion of
Types of Digestion as to action:
* Mechanical digestion – food is
converted into small pieces by
physical means such as
mastication by theteeth.
* Chemical digestion – food is
converted into simpler forms by
theaction of enzyme/s.
Deglutition - complicated process
that involves the coordinated
activity of the tongue, soft
palate, pharynx and esophagus
Metabolism- all of thephysical and
chemical activitiesin your body that convert
or useenergy. Theseincludethingslike
breathing, digesting food, and circulating
Catabolic reactions arereactionsthat
involvethebreakdown of biomolecules.
Anabolic reactions - reverseof catabolic
reactions. Build largebiomoleculesfrom
1. Refersto all chemical reactionsnecessary to maintain life.__________________.
2. Theprocessby which food isbroken down into smaller particlesor moleculesfor use
in thehuman body.______________________.
3. Muscular tubethat providesapassageway for food and
4. Straight, collapsibletubeabout 25 cm (10 incheslong) and essentially apassageway
that conductsfood by peristalsisto thestomach ___________________.
5. J-shaped, muscular, distensiblesac, approximately 25 to 30 centimeterslong..
6. Digestivejuicein thestomach. Under normal conditions, two to three liters of it are
7. Storeswastefood productsand absorbssmall amountsof water and minerals.
8. Largest glandular organ of thebody weighing from 3 to 4 pounds(1.4 to 1.8 kg) and
isasoft, dark red or chocolate-colored mass._____________________.
9. Body’smajor digestiveorgan and isabout 20 feet (6m) long and emptiesinto the
largeintestine. It carrieson most of thedigestiveprocess. _________________.
10. Tiny fingerlikeprojectionsin thewall of thesmall
11. A gland lying crosswisein theabdomen just below theliver. It isapinkish-yellow
gland about 6-8 inches(15.20 cm) long, 1 ½ inches(3.8 cm) wide, and 1 inch (2.5 cm)
thick which producesadigestivejuiceand thehormonesinsulin and
The respiratory tract, working
together with breathing
muscles, carries air into and
out of the lungs. The
transport these gases to and
from all body tissues,
supplying vital oxygen and
removing waste carbon
dioxide. A variety of viruses,
bacteria, and chemicals
contaminate most of the air we
breath; overcoming these
threats to our health is a vital
role played by the immune
• Lung istheorgan of external respiration
(breathing) present in human beings. It isvital in
maintaining lifeand actsasan exchangepoint
whereoxygen from theair issubstituted for
carbon dioxidein theblood.
• Pleuraisacontinuous, thin, elastic membrane
that coverstheoutsideof thelungsand theinner
wallsof thechest cavity.
• Alveoli arethe300 millionsof air sacs
emanating from thebronchiolesmaking up the
bulk of thelungs.
Circulation - means by which food is carried
to the tissues of the body and wastes are
1.Transport theoxygen and
carbon dioxide, soluble
food materials, organic
wastes, and hormones
2. Regulation of thepH of
3. Protection of thebody
4. Regulation of body
A specialized connective
medium of thebody
8% of total body weight
(4 to 6 litersin average
Considered to bethe
Composition of blood:
Plasma- fluid portion of the
• Erythrocytesor red blood
• Leukocytesor whiteblood
cells(WBC) lessthan 1% of
thecellsin human blood
• Thrombocytesor blood
Involved in blood clotting
any substance that causes your immune system to
produce antibodies against it.
may be a foreign substance from the environment, such as chemicals,
bacteria, viruses, or pollen.
may also be formed inside the body, as with bacterial toxins or tissue
a protein produced by the body's immune system when it detects
harmful substances, called antigens. Examples of antigens include
microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses) and chemicals.
may be produced when the immune system mistakenly considers
healthy tissue a harmful substance. This is called an autoimmune
each type of antibody is unique and defends the body against one
specific type of antigen.
• main pumping
organ of thebody
• highly muscular
organ located in the
of the thoracic
• enclosed by a
• An adult’s heart is
about 3 inches (13
cm.) long, 3 ½
inches (9 cm.) wide
and 2 ½ inches (6.4
• The septum
divides the heart
into right and left
• Valves control the
flow of blood
Each heart isasequenceof musclecontractionsand relaxation
called thecardiac cycle.
• Consistsof transport
organs( lymph vascular
• When thetissuefluid
hasmoved into these
tubes, it iscalled the
• Thelymphoid organs,
which takepart in
with both theblood and
lymph vascular system.
Thebrain istheseat of both consciousnessand creativity. Through thespinal cord and nerve
branches, thebrain also controlsall body movement. Thenervoussystem workswith endocrine
glandsto monitor and maintain theother body systems
Thespinal cord, the
of thebrain stem is
approximately 17 inches(42
cm ) long.
Functionsof thespinal cord
2.Conduction of sensory
impulses- - upward through
ascending tractsto thebrain.
3.Conduction of motor
impulses- from thebrain
down through descending
tractsto theefferent neurons
that supply musclesor
According to thedirection of thenerveimpulses, the
functional classification groupsof neuronstravel relativeto
Afferent or sensory neuronsaretheneuronscarrying
sensory input to theCentral NervousSystem.
Efferent neurons aretheneuronscarrying motor output
away from theCentral NervousSystem.
Efferent neuronsareof two distinct systems.
• Somatic NervousSystem isthesystem of efferent nerves
leading from thecentral nervoussystem to theskeletal
• Autonomic NervousSystem iscomposed of efferent
nervesleading from thecentral nervoussystem to cardiac
cells, musclecells, smooth musclescellsand glands.
A neuron isseparated
from anext neuron by
ajunction or atiny gap
called asynapse. No
matter how close
neuronsarethey do not
actually touch each
other. Synaptic cleft is
neuronsand to cross
them will requirethe
PARTSOF THE EYE
Scleraor whiteof theeyeisafirm membranethat formstheouter layer of theeyeball.
Corneaisatransparent convex membranefound in front of theeyethat refractsthelight raysto
Lacrimal Glandsaresituated in recessesjust aboveeach eye. They secretetearscomposed of
water, saltsand thebacteria-killing enzymelyso zo me.
Eyelidsform apair of protectiveshuttersclosing instantly if injury isfeared. They also spread
tearsover thecorneakeeping it moist and freefrom infection.
Choroid that isrich in blood vesselslinestheinner surfaceof thesclera.
Melbonian glandsaremodified sebaceousglandsassociated with theeyelid edgesproducing an
oily secretion that lubricatestheeye.
Irisisthepart of theeyethat regulatestheamount of light that enterstheeyelying behind the
corneaand in front of thelens.
Pupil arounded opening in theiristhrough which light passes.
Lensisaflexiblebiconvex crystal-likestructuresituated behind thepupil. It dividestheeyeinto
a. Aqueouschamber aclear watery fluid, which helpsmaintain intraocular pressureor pressure
insidetheeye, and also providesnutrientsfor thelensand cornea.
b. Vitreouschamber agel - likesubstance, which preventstheeyeball from collapsing inward by
reinforcing it internally.
Retinaisthelight sensitivelayer lining theeye. It containsnervefibersand specialized cellscalled
ro ds and co nes, which arethepho to recepto rs.
1. Therodsabout 125 million areessential for seeing in dim light. They contain apigment known
asvisual purple, which isbroken down in thelight and regenerated in thedark.
2. Theconesabout 6-7 million, function in bright light and arenecessary for sharp vision. They
aremost concentrated in thefovea, asmall depression in theretina.
Ocular musclesallow vision in different directionswithout turning thehead and allow theeyebe
swiveled around in thesocket.