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Why we look the way we do (Human Body Systems)


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The human body is a machine that does many things. To do these things, it needs many parts. All these parts together are what we are.

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Why we look the way we do (Human Body Systems)

  1. 1. Why welook theway wedo? (Human Body Systems)
  2. 2. Of all the living things, thehuman body in particular hasbeen a sourceof curiosity by most of us.
  3. 3. Why we look the way we do? Why we do the things we do like walking, running, feeling, seeing, hearing and alot moreintrigueus
  4. 4. The human body is a machine that does many things. To do these things, it needsmany parts. All thesepartstogether arewhat weare.
  5. 5. Integumentary System
  6. 6.  The largest organ of the integumentary system which is made up of multiple layers of epithelial tissues that guard the underlying muscles and organs of thebody.  It plays the most important role in protecting the body against pathogens.  Its other main functions are insulation, regulation of body temperature, sensation and the synthesisof VitaminsB and D.  Skin is considered as one of the most important parts of the body.
  7. 7. Epidermis made up of stratified squamous layer of epithelial tissue 10 to 30 cellsthick, about asthick asthispage. Dermis made up of fibrous connective tissue containing collagen and elastic fibers. also contains muscle fibers, glands, pigment cells, blood vesselsand sensory nerves. 15 to 40 timesthicker than theepidermis. provides structural support for all the epidermis and as matrix for any nerve endings, muscles and specialized cellsin theskin.
  8. 8. Skeletal System Functions: 1. Support the body. 2. Attachment of muscles. 3. Protection of internal organs. 4. Act as levers for movement. 5. Production of blood cells. 6. Gives stability and shape to the body.
  9. 9. Therearetotal of 206 bones in an adult human distributed asfollows: skull ( cranium + face ) = 22 ( 8 + 14 ) Ears = 6 hyoid = 1 vertebral column = 26 sternum = 1 ribs = 24 pectoral girdle and forelimbs = 64 pelvic girdle and hindlimbs = 62
  10. 10. Muscular System Muscles make up about half of the body’s bulk. Working with the skeleton, they generate the energy to move, make precise and intricate hand movements, lift objects, and even speak. Involuntary muscles, including the specialized cardiac muscle and all smooth muscles, provide the essential power for the respiratory, cardiovascular and digestivesystems.
  11. 11. Digestive System Functions: 1. Ingestion of food 2. Breaking down of complex substance ( food ) into simple forms( nutrients) 3. Absorption of digested food 4. Egestion of excretion of undigested food Types of Digestion as to action: * Mechanical digestion – food is converted into small pieces by physical means such as mastication by theteeth. * Chemical digestion – food is converted into simpler forms by theaction of enzyme/s. Deglutition - complicated process that involves the coordinated activity of the tongue, soft palate, pharynx and esophagus
  12. 12. Metabolism
  13. 13. Metabolism- all of thephysical and chemical activitiesin your body that convert or useenergy. Theseincludethingslike breathing, digesting food, and circulating blood. Catabolic reactions arereactionsthat involvethebreakdown of biomolecules. Anabolic reactions - reverseof catabolic reactions. Build largebiomoleculesfrom smaller ones.
  14. 14. 1. Refersto all chemical reactionsnecessary to maintain life.__________________. 2. Theprocessby which food isbroken down into smaller particlesor moleculesfor use in thehuman body.______________________. 3. Muscular tubethat providesapassageway for food and air.______________________. 4. Straight, collapsibletubeabout 25 cm (10 incheslong) and essentially apassageway that conductsfood by peristalsisto thestomach ___________________. 5. J-shaped, muscular, distensiblesac, approximately 25 to 30 centimeterslong.. _______________. 6. Digestivejuicein thestomach. Under normal conditions, two to three liters of it are produced everyday._________________. 7. Storeswastefood productsand absorbssmall amountsof water and minerals. ________________. 8. Largest glandular organ of thebody weighing from 3 to 4 pounds(1.4 to 1.8 kg) and isasoft, dark red or chocolate-colored mass._____________________. 9. Body’smajor digestiveorgan and isabout 20 feet (6m) long and emptiesinto the largeintestine. It carrieson most of thedigestiveprocess. _________________. 10. Tiny fingerlikeprojectionsin thewall of thesmall intestine.____________________. 11. A gland lying crosswisein theabdomen just below theliver. It isapinkish-yellow gland about 6-8 inches(15.20 cm) long, 1 ½ inches(3.8 cm) wide, and 1 inch (2.5 cm) thick which producesadigestivejuiceand thehormonesinsulin and glucagons.________________.
  15. 15. Respiratory System The respiratory tract, working together with breathing muscles, carries air into and out of the lungs. The cardiovascular system transport these gases to and from all body tissues, supplying vital oxygen and removing waste carbon dioxide. A variety of viruses, bacteria, and chemicals contaminate most of the air we breath; overcoming these threats to our health is a vital role played by the immune system.
  16. 16. • Lung istheorgan of external respiration (breathing) present in human beings. It isvital in maintaining lifeand actsasan exchangepoint whereoxygen from theair issubstituted for carbon dioxidein theblood. • Pleuraisacontinuous, thin, elastic membrane that coverstheoutsideof thelungsand theinner wallsof thechest cavity. • Alveoli arethe300 millionsof air sacs emanating from thebronchiolesmaking up the bulk of thelungs.
  17. 17. Breathing
  18. 18. Cardiovascular System Circulation - means by which food is carried to the tissues of the body and wastes are carried away. 1.Transport theoxygen and carbon dioxide, soluble food materials, organic wastes, and hormones 2. Regulation of thepH of tissue 3. Protection of thebody against invading microbes 4. Regulation of body temperaturein warm- blooded animals TheBlood  A specialized connective tissue  Themain transporting medium of thebody  8% of total body weight (4 to 6 litersin average adult)  Considered to bethe ‘essenceof life’
  19. 19. Composition of blood: Plasma- fluid portion of the blood Formed Elements: • Erythrocytesor red blood corpuscles(RBC) Small, biconcavediskswith polysaccharideson theouter membrane • Leukocytesor whiteblood cells(WBC) lessthan 1% of thecellsin human blood • Thrombocytesor blood plateletsin humans. Involved in blood clotting or coagulation
  20. 20. ABO GROUPS
  21. 21. An antigen: any substance that causes your immune system to produce antibodies against it. may be a foreign substance from the environment, such as chemicals, bacteria, viruses, or pollen. may also be formed inside the body, as with bacterial toxins or tissue cells. An antibody: a protein produced by the body's immune system when it detects harmful substances, called antigens. Examples of antigens include microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses) and chemicals. may be produced when the immune system mistakenly considers healthy tissue a harmful substance. This is called an autoimmune disorder. each type of antibody is unique and defends the body against one specific type of antigen.
  22. 22. TheHeart
  23. 23. • main pumping organ of thebody • highly muscular organ located in the mid-ventral region of the thoracic cavity • enclosed by a tough connective tissue, the pericardium • An adult’s heart is about 3 inches (13 cm.) long, 3 ½ inches (9 cm.) wide and 2 ½ inches (6.4 cm.) thick. • The septum divides the heart into right and left portions. • Valves control the flow of blood through theheart.
  24. 24. Each heart isasequenceof musclecontractionsand relaxation called thecardiac cycle.
  25. 25. Blood Vessels
  26. 26. TheLymphatic System • Consistsof transport tubesand lymphoid organs( lymph vascular system,) which supplementspulmonary and thesystematic circulation. • When thetissuefluid hasmoved into these tubes, it iscalled the lymph. • Thelymphoid organs, which takepart in defenseresponses, are structurally and functionally connected with both theblood and lymph vascular system.
  27. 27. Urinary System
  28. 28. Thebrain istheseat of both consciousnessand creativity. Through thespinal cord and nerve branches, thebrain also controlsall body movement. Thenervoussystem workswith endocrine glandsto monitor and maintain theother body systems
  29. 29. Neuron
  30. 30. Thespinal cord, the sparkling whitecontinuation of thebrain stem is approximately 17 inches(42 cm ) long. Functionsof thespinal cord 1.Reflex activities/Reflex Action 2.Conduction of sensory impulses- - upward through ascending tractsto thebrain. 3.Conduction of motor impulses- from thebrain down through descending tractsto theefferent neurons that supply musclesor glands.
  31. 31. According to thedirection of thenerveimpulses, the functional classification groupsof neuronstravel relativeto theCentral NervousSystem.  Afferent or sensory neuronsaretheneuronscarrying sensory input to theCentral NervousSystem.  Efferent neurons aretheneuronscarrying motor output away from theCentral NervousSystem. Efferent neuronsareof two distinct systems. • Somatic NervousSystem isthesystem of efferent nerves leading from thecentral nervoussystem to theskeletal muscles. • Autonomic NervousSystem iscomposed of efferent nervesleading from thecentral nervoussystem to cardiac cells, musclecells, smooth musclescellsand glands.
  32. 32. A neuron isseparated from anext neuron by ajunction or atiny gap called asynapse. No matter how close neuronsarethey do not actually touch each other. Synaptic cleft is thespacebetween two neuronsand to cross them will requirethe actionsof the neurotransmitters.
  33. 33. Autonomic NervousSystem
  34. 34. Eyes
  35. 35. PARTSOF THE EYE Scleraor whiteof theeyeisafirm membranethat formstheouter layer of theeyeball. Corneaisatransparent convex membranefound in front of theeyethat refractsthelight raysto focuson theretina. Lacrimal Glandsaresituated in recessesjust aboveeach eye. They secretetearscomposed of water, saltsand thebacteria-killing enzymelyso zo me. Eyelidsform apair of protectiveshuttersclosing instantly if injury isfeared. They also spread tearsover thecorneakeeping it moist and freefrom infection. Choroid that isrich in blood vesselslinestheinner surfaceof thesclera. Melbonian glandsaremodified sebaceousglandsassociated with theeyelid edgesproducing an oily secretion that lubricatestheeye. Irisisthepart of theeyethat regulatestheamount of light that enterstheeyelying behind the corneaand in front of thelens. Pupil arounded opening in theiristhrough which light passes. Lensisaflexiblebiconvex crystal-likestructuresituated behind thepupil. It dividestheeyeinto two chambers: a. Aqueouschamber aclear watery fluid, which helpsmaintain intraocular pressureor pressure insidetheeye, and also providesnutrientsfor thelensand cornea. b. Vitreouschamber agel - likesubstance, which preventstheeyeball from collapsing inward by reinforcing it internally. Retinaisthelight sensitivelayer lining theeye. It containsnervefibersand specialized cellscalled ro ds and co nes, which arethepho to recepto rs. 1. Therodsabout 125 million areessential for seeing in dim light. They contain apigment known asvisual purple, which isbroken down in thelight and regenerated in thedark. 2. Theconesabout 6-7 million, function in bright light and arenecessary for sharp vision. They aremost concentrated in thefovea, asmall depression in theretina. Ocular musclesallow vision in different directionswithout turning thehead and allow theeyebe swiveled around in thesocket.
  36. 36. MaleReproductiveSystem
  37. 37. FemaleReproductiveSystem
  38. 38. EndocrineSystem