Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Oceanography

4,866 views

Published on

 Oceanography is the science that studies the oceans along with marine organisms and ecosystem dynamics, ocean currents and waves, plate tectonics and the geology of the sea floor, and the chemical substances and physical properties of the world oceans.

Published in: Science
  • DOWNLOAD FULL BOOKS, INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ,DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/y6a5rkg5 } ......................................................................................................................... ,DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y6a5rkg5 } ......................................................................................................................... ,DOWNLOAD FULL. doc Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y6a5rkg5 } ......................................................................................................................... ,DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/y6a5rkg5 } ......................................................................................................................... ,DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y6a5rkg5 } ......................................................................................................................... ,DOWNLOAD FULL. doc Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y6a5rkg5 } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks ......................................................................................................................... Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult,
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • DOWNLOAD FULL BOOKS, INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/y8nn3gmc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y8nn3gmc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y8nn3gmc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/y8nn3gmc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y8nn3gmc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y8nn3gmc } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks ......................................................................................................................... Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult,
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • DOWNLOAD FULL BOOKS, INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/y8nn3gmc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y8nn3gmc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y8nn3gmc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/y8nn3gmc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y8nn3gmc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y8nn3gmc } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks ......................................................................................................................... Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult,
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • DOWNLOAD FULL. BOOKS INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT, ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/y8nn3gmc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y8nn3gmc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y8nn3gmc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/y8nn3gmc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y8nn3gmc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y8nn3gmc } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks ......................................................................................................................... Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult,
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Hello! Get Your Professional Job-Winning Resume Here - Check our website! https://vk.cc/818RFv
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here

Oceanography

  1. 1.  Oceanography is the science that studies the oceans along with marine organisms and ecosystem dynamics, ocean currents and waves, plate tectonics and the geology of the sea floor, and the chemical substances and physical properties of the world oceans.
  2. 2.  study the composition of seawater, its processes and cycles, and the chemical interaction of seawater with the atmosphere and sea floor.  analyze seawater components, the effects of pollutants, and the impacts of chemical processes on marine organisms.  use chemistry to understand how ocean currents move seawater around the globe and how the ocean affects climate or to identify potentially beneficial ocean resources such as natural products that can be used as medicines.
  3. 3. The surface of the planet is approximately 71% water and contains (5) five oceans: Arctic, Atlantic, Indian, Pacific and Southern.
  4. 4. By Size Greatest Depths  Pacific - 155,557,000 sq km  Atlantic - 76,762,000 sq km  Indian - 68,556,000 sq km  Southern - 20,327,000 sq km  Arctic - 14,056,000 sq km  Mariana Trench, Pacific 35,827 ft  Puerto Rico Trench, Atlantic 30,246 ft  Java Trench, Indian 24,460 ft  Arctic Basin, Arctic 18,456 ft  Southern Ocean, 23,737 ft
  5. 5.  Surface Area of the Planet (510,066,000 sq km)  Land Area on the Planet (148,647,000 sq km) 29.1%  Ocean Area (335,258,000 sq km)  Total Water Area (361,419,000 sq km) 70.9%  Type of Water (97% salt), (3% fresh)
  6. 6.  The Ring of Fire coincides with the edges of one of the Pacific Plate which is world's main tectonic plates. It contains over 450 volcanoes and is home to approximately 75% of the world's active volcanoes.  Nearly 90% of the world's earthquakes occur along the Ring of Fire; most recently, the devastating quakes in Chile, Japan and New Zealand.
  7. 7.  Water covers 71% of the surface of the earth. This fact is combined with the great depth of many of the oceans (average depth 3700 m / 12140 ft.) provides a living space estimated to 200 times larger than all the land ecosystem. Aquatic ecosystem can be divided into fresh water systems (rivers and lakes) and marine systems (salt water).
  8. 8.  Aquatic ecosystems are better able to support life than the terrestrial ecosystem.  Because of the constancy of the water environment when compared to the land environment the diversity of life in the vast aquatic ecosystem is relatively small.  Water, is a major natural resource. Water is the basis of life, it supports life, and countless species live in it for all or part of their lives. Freshwater biomes supply us with our drinking water and water for crop irrigation.  The world's oceans have an even greater effect on global climate than forests do. Water has a high capacity for heat, and because the Earth is mostly covered with water, the temperature of the atmosphere is kept fairly constant and able to support life.  The oceans contain several billion photosynthetic plankton, which account for most of the photosynthesis occurring on Earth. Without these, there might not be enough oxygen to support such a large world population and complex animal life.
  9. 9. A watery environment was almost certainly the original source of all life on this planet.  Water provides a protective shield around plants and animals, preventing the drying out of cells, providing buoyancy transporting food to the organism and carrying waste products away.  Water also makes fertilization much easier than on land, preventing the developing young from becoming dry, maintaining an even temperature, filtering out harmful ultraviolet light from the sun, and dispersing the young after birth.  One of the most remarkable properties of water is its dissolving power. Chemical compounds can be dissolved, transported and precipitated out with virtually no chemical alteration due to neutrality of rainwater (pH about 6.5 just slightly acid). In some places, acid rain has increased the acidity of water, with harmful consequences for the organisms living in it.
  10. 10. Marine Freshwater
  11. 11.  Water has several unusual properties that combine to minimize temperature changes, thus the range of variation is smaller and changes more slowly in water than in air.  It has the largest specific heat, the largest heat of evaporation. At ordinary temperature, it conducts heat better than any common liquid except mercury. The special properties of water arise from the structure of water molecules. Water is the only natural substance that expands when it freezes. The density of ice is less than of water, and it floats. Because of this peculiarity when the temperature of the air falls far enough, a layer of ice forms on the surface of a body of water and floats there.  It serves as the barrier that reduces the rate of heat flow from the liquid water from the atmosphere. As freezing continues, the increasing thickness of the ice between the atmosphere and the water slows down freezing greatly. A layer of ice only feet thick protects the rest of the water from freezing, so that aquatic plants and animals can carry on their life processes below the ice.
  12. 12.  The most important factor which depends principally upon the amount of sodium chloride dissolved in it, along with the small amount of bromides, carbonates and sulfates of the elements sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium.  Salinity is lowest typically 30 parts per thousands (ppt) near the estuaries of large rivers where the addition of fresh-water dilutes the concentration of salts. High salinity (70ppt) is recorded where rainfall is low and evaporation is high in the Red Sea. The amount is salinity divides aquatic ecosystems into two main groups: the fresh water ecosystems and the marine ecosystems.
  13. 13.  Evaporation against precipitation: The relative amount of evaporation or precipitation in an area causes variations in ocean salinity. If there is more evaporation than precipitation, then the salinity increases; considering the fact that salts are not evaporated into the atmosphere along with water. If there is more precipitation than evaporation then the salinity decreases
  14. 14. When large rivers meet the oceans, they change the salinity of water. Large rivers have more impacts on the sea water salinity as compared to the smaller rivers and streams. The runoff from the smaller streams and rivers is quickly mixed with ocean water by the currents and has little effect on salinity and in other hand, large rivers e.g. Nile, Amazon, Ganges, etc considerably affect the salinity due to its little or no salt content.
  15. 15.  Out of 3% freshwater available on earth, 67% is stored in glaciers, icebergs and ice caps. Large icebergs that are made up of frozen fresh water and without any salts can decrease the salinity of the ocean water upon melting in the ocean water. Glaciers are the largest moving objects on earth. They are massive rivers of ice that form in areas where more snow falls each winter than melts each summer.
  16. 16.  As per the information by NASA Science (‘highest concentrations (which is about 37 practical salinity units) of salt water are present in the mid-Atlantic Ocean and lower-Atlantic off the coast of Brazil, the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea. Lower concentrations are found near the Arctic and Antarctic and the coastal regions of East Asia and western North America’.
  17. 17.  Salinity affects seawater density, which in turn governs ocean circulation and climate. We know that the wind drives upper ocean currents, however ocean current can also flow deep below the surface. These deep- ocean currents are driven by differences in the sea water density. As sea water density is controlled by temperature and salinity, these factors make the oceans very dynamic in nature.
  18. 18.  thermohaline circulation (THC) (thermo– temperature and haline – salt content)  refers to a part of the large-scale ocean current circulation that is driven by global density gradients created by surface heat and salinity of the sea water
  19. 19.  the principal mechanism by which the oceans store and transport heat. Since salinity is a key ingredient in the global thermohaline circulation, its measured value helps to discover how its variation induces change in global ocean circulation.
  20. 20.  Oxygen is a vital component of all aquatic ecosystems. Most oxygen is found on the surface of the water bodies especially in turbulent streams or when waves break.  The amount of dissolved oxygen in water can be severely altered due to human activity. In particular, the dumping of untreated sewage and industrial waste directly into the seas and rivers has caused a huge increased in demand for oxygen by the organism that feeds on the effluents. Organic debris, phosphates from soap powder and ammonia from agricultural sources and sewage all provide rich food supply for bacteria and scavenger organisms. They feed rapidly on this effluent, growing and reproducing much more quickly that in unpolluted waters. The increase in numbers consumes most or evens all of the dissolved oxygen and this in turn asphyxiates other aquatic life forms.
  21. 21.  It depends upon the quantity of suspended materials and floating organisms in the water. Usually some 50% of red, orange and yellow light is absorbed in the top 2m (61/2 ft.) of water and by 20m (65 ft.) only small amount of blue green light remain to give its typical color.  The rapid removal of sunlight makes all aquatic ecosystems that are more than several meters deep into dark relatively cold environments.  Even at the equator the temperature of deeper water does not exceeds 4 degree Celsius (39 degrees Fahrenheit).
  22. 22. 1. Secchi disc 2. By measuring the intensity of submarine daylight at different depths by means of photoelectric cells. Both methods are limited to comparatively small depths, where the residual daylight has a measurable intensity. In addition, the results, if no color filters are used, are affected by the changes in spectral composition which daylight undergoes with increasing depth.

×