Performance Ethics Workbook

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Performance Ethics Workbook

  1. 1. Prepared byThomas G. McWeeney, PhDExecutive Director, Public Leadership Institutewww.CSM-PLI.orgApril 4, 2013LEADERSHIP, ETHICSP E R F O R M A N C EI M P E R A T I V EAND THEA PROSPECTUS
  2. 2. Prospectus Contents• Preface• Overview• The Leadership Imperative• Training Program• Excerpts
  3. 3. P R E F A C E
  4. 4. Hello - Im Tom McWeeney, Executive Director of the Public Leadership Institute.This is one of the few times in our history where American citizens are truly dependent upon governmentto be properly focused, efficiently managed, and well led. While bureaucratic ineptitude andinefficiencies have historically been viewed with amusement by the 97% of Americans who work in theprivate sector, the need for government agencies to reach and sustain a high level of performance is now apublic management imperative. For the foreseeable future, public services associated with health care,social security, law enforcement, infrastructure, education and housing are all considered essential topublic safety and public well being. Quality performance in these areas is dependent upon effectiveleadership.For most public sector organizations, elevating performance to a new level requires change. Unfortunately,the strongest force in most government agencies continues to be a cultural resistance to change. It’s a truebarrier – it makes simple things complex, prevents apparent solutions from taking hold, and reinforces thestatus quo at every level. While institutional resistance to change is a powerful and regressive force, itcan be overcome.After working in government agencies, teaching public administration for more than 30 years, and havingobserved many efforts to enhance performance through new systems and procedures, I believe that botheducators and reformers have forgotten the role that human beings – acting as leaders – play in definingand achieving success. Simply stated, the only thing that can break through the force-field of changeresistance is strong, ethically motivated, committed, and engaged leadership. Such leadership has provento be the imperative, the direction, and the power to define and achieve success. Our new trainingprogram seeks to capture both leadership essentials and the critical role that leadership must play indriving government agencies to new directions and high performance. (cont. on next page)Leadership & Public Management
  5. 5. This presentation introduces a new approach to leadership training for public employees – focusing on thelittle understood and often ignored role of leadership in obtaining high value performance from publicagencies. Our approach seeks to address both the training needs of emerging leaders and the realities ofthe current environment by:• Emphasizing the ethical imperative of public officials to do “the right thing” and ensure a maximumfeasible level of performance for critical public needs;• Providing the training in a distance learning format, underscoring the need for austerity andefficiency;• Utilizing interviews and case studies of individual leaders who have proven that committed leaders canovercome great obstacles and achieve great success;• Using interactive exercises that reinforce the primary message of the courses.This presentation consists of five parts: (1) a brief overview of the program; (2) some backgrounddiscussion on the importance of leadership and what many are referring to as the contemporary leadershipvoid in public management; (3) a summary of our “performance ethics” concept; (4) a brief description ofthe entire program; and (5) excerpts from our introductory course, “Leadership, Ethics and thePerformance Imperative”, a refreshing change in how we approach this very important topic.Hope to see you in class.Thomas G. McWeeney, PhDExecutive Director, The Public Leadership Institutewww.CSM-PLI.orgLeadership & Public Management
  6. 6. O V E R V I E W
  7. 7. WELCOMEto this preview of our new ProgramLEADERSHIP, ETHICS, AND THE PERFORMANCE IMPERATIVEOverviewFollow the link to watch a short video introduction byDr. Thomas McWeeney, Executive Director of thePublic Leadership InstituteVIDEO: “Introduction”
  8. 8. Our new training program captures both the essentials of ethical leadership and theresponsibility of leaders to accept the moral and ethical imperative. It is especially truein today’s environment that public agencies must perform at their maximum feasiblecapability -- as public servants and as stewards of vital interests of the American people.However, it is clear that neither charismatic personalities, new policies or standards, orrevised management approaches are capable of providing the transformative successreform agendas usually promised. As such, we urge the consideration of an approach toleadership training, which is outlined below:PROGRAM APPROACH• 5-Course Certificate Program• Distance Learning Platform• Sector focus (Public Safety)• Slide presentation with embedded videos• Links to relevant articles• Webliography• Leadership Advisory Boardo Course material, examples, topicso Selection of studentso Review of capstone project presentationsSUGGESTED COURSES• Leadership, Ethics, and Performance• Strategy: Overcoming Barriers• Managing for Results• Performance Budgeting• Transforming the Organizational Culture• Outcome-Based Performance Appraisals• Utilization-Focused Evaluations• Measuring Quality Performance[A certificate in Performance Management willbe awarded after the completion of 5 courses)Overview
  9. 9. T H EL E A D E R S H I PI M P E R A T I V E
  10. 10. Throughout much of the last century reforms have been initiated at all levels ofgovernment to improve the performance of government. Most of these reforms havebeen motivated by a public perception that government has grown more inefficient andless responsive. However, notwithstanding the relatively high priority of these efforts,most reforms have failed to live up to their lofty expectations.As complex and sophisticated as some of these efforts have been, past reforms haveconsistently ignored the single most important variable in improving any organization: therole that human beings acting as leaders play in defining and achieving success.Behind most thriving government programs is usually a person who is committed to specificresults, asks the hard questions, devises new and innovative strategies, takes strong action,and holds both he/she and his/her organization accountable for their performance. Suchpersons embody a type of leadership that was once considered to be a key part of theAmerican political tradition. The lack of effective, committed, and engaged leadership makesit nearly impossible to overcome the barriers to effective performance.THE LEADERSHIP IMPERATIVEVIDEO: “Reflections from LawEnforcement Leaders”Leadership & Performance
  11. 11. “Ford: No doubt there‟s aleadership void ”“Leadership void: policedeserve better at the top”“The lack of globalleadership…has become acommon refrain”“When I speakwith people inprivateenterprise or in government,there is a common refrain:„there is no leadership at thetop‟”The notion of a leadership void today describes the belief -- on the part oforganizations, sectors, and institutions -- that very important matters are notbeing addressed, decisions are not being made, and that leaders are moreinterested in their own well-being than in the success and welfare of theorganization they are leading.Leadership Void
  12. 12. The notion of a“LEADERSHIP VOID”today describes the following beliefs -- on the part of• Matters of true importance are notbeing addressed appropriately.• Decisions take too long to be made, ornot made at all.• Leaders are more interested in theirown well-being than in the success andwelfare of the organization they areleading.ORGANIZATIONS SECTORS INSTITUTIONSLeadership Void
  13. 13. In seeking to address the contemporary leadershipvoid, well-meaning people repeatedly confuseleadership with management and prescribe“management reforms” that often consist ofburdensome tasks, reports, and process that haveonly added to skepticism and pessimism.LEADERSHIP is oftenconfused withMANAGEMENT,in which leadershipimprovement is sought bycalling for more rules,processes, audits and reports.If a current review of theliterature is a valid indicator,these efforts have had LITTLEIMPACT on the dauntingleadership void.charismatic personalitythat will transform theorganization. Still othershope to find renewedleadership in thepromulgation of newlaws, policies standardsof conduct.Many believe that leadership is an inheritedtrait and seek processes to ferret out themagnetic orMisguided Efforts
  14. 14. Leadership &the Performance GapPerformance Management –the Need for a Cohesive CurriculumAmong the most intractable problems of public management has been the widening gap between policy andperformance. The difficulties public managers have had in implementing practices to enhance collaboration,information sharing, innovation, and change – all clear policy imperatives -- are symptoms of a “gap” betweenpromise and performance that is only likely to worsen without engaged leadership.In general, current efforts only tangentially involved agency leadership, are conducted by the managementcomponents of the organization with minimal engagement of the business components, and have producedonly marginal improvements of uncertain value. This is one of the primary causes of what is becomingknown as a “performance gap” – the difference between expected and actual performance.This “performance gap” is evident in the lack of (a) clarity in desired outcomes, (b) innovativeimplementation strategies, (c) creative and collaborative use of resources, (d) candid assessments of progress,and (e) accountability – all critical performance functions which are all dependent upon strong, engaged, andcommitted leadership.For the foreseeable future, government will be called upon to do a much betterjob in producing high-value results for the American people. This can only occurwhen senior leadership ensures that the key elements of performancemanagement - planning, budgeting, performance measurement, and cost-benefit assessments - are taken seriously by both leadership and staff, arerelevant to important issues, and play a major role in agency decision-making.
  15. 15. T R A I N I N GP R O G R A M
  16. 16. NEW APPROACH: Performance EthicsPERFORMANCEETHICSETHICS PERFORMANCELEADERSHIPGovernment has shown a concern for ethics in recent years; however,the emphasis is primarily negative and punitive, focusing on rules andregulations that proscribe and restrict behavior rather than focusingprogrammatically on the right thing to do.The emphasis on performance has produced irrelevant metrics and areporting burden for many agencies. Few public agencies use themetrics for meaningful decision-making and fewer have developed aprocess that relates metrics to indicators that reflect success inmission critical areas.PERFORMANCE ETHICSA framework to assess, develop, and measureleadership, performance, and ethicsPerformance Ethics is a construct of leadership that forms atthe intersection of leadership, performance and ethics. It isfundamentally different than other approaches because itprovides a framework to both describe and proscribeleadership.VIDEO: “Performance Ethics”
  17. 17. VIDEO: “Case Studies”CURRICULUMThe unique component of the curriculum will be its emphasis onmelding theory with practice – in order to address the real problemsof real people in real organizations. Much of the course will bedevoted to addressing the various options available to a select groupof leaders that have agreed to use their experiences for case studies.Excerpts from law enforcement officials, who have demonstratedstrong and effective leadership, will be analyzed.A Distinctive Approach
  18. 18. Collectively, the courses willconvey the following:• Leadership that emphasizes the ethical issues and choicesassociated with government performance, and will providereal-life examples of successful practices and approaches ofsuccessful leaders;• Planning and performance measurement approaches that would help operate andquantify otherwise lofty goals and objectives, thereby ensuring a focused strategy that willdrive critical implementation actions;• A practical approach to performance budgeting as well as methodologies for assessing therelative cost/value of government programs and activities as they relate to critical strategies.Each course will emphasize the need to candidly identify and thoroughly discuss the realobstacles to high level performance of these critical functions and will introduce specificapproaches that emphasize the critical role of leadership.A Distinctive Approach
  19. 19. • A HYBRID/DISTANCE LEARNING FORMAT which will provide students with greater access, more tailored coursecontent, and lesser expensive (austerity/administrative);• A COHORT APPROACH in which a group of students would take the a series of classes together. This could beaccomplished either by having the courses taught to students from a single agency or students whoindividually enrolled from the same sector. (utility);• A SECTOR FOCUS to ensure relevancy and a tailored approach to individual sectors, organized in individualcohorts -- for example, public safety, health care, immigration. (relevance);• A COHESIVE APPROACH in which the courses would be taught sequentially, so that the end of one course setsthe stage for the beginning of the next. As such, students gain a much greater understanding of thepractical applicability of the material (utility);• A COHORT ADVISORY BOARD which consists of high-level executives from the agency or sector, who wouldensure the direct engagement and participation of senior leaders. This would include the formal andpublic participation of sector leadership as speakers. (legitimacy)A Certificate Program andSector-Relevant CurriculumProgram AttributesThis approach simply provides a framework that will enable discussions and debates to be integrated within aframework that will embed specific attributes such as - legitimacy, relevance, utility, austerity, andadministrative/logistical efficiency - thereby assuring that the program will address the real problems, of realpeople, in real organizations, as reflected in the following attributes:
  20. 20. Individual elements of this initiative can be implemented on a pilot basis and assessed in a controlled,limited setting in order to provide actual data to support a long-term investment strategy. As a pilot, aconcentrated effort can be made to design and implement the following over an 18-month period:• ESTABLISH one cohort in the law enforcement sector• DESIGNATE core faculty to form a cohort “team”• DEVELOP a clearinghouse of new, relevant material for instructors, students and associates• PUBLISH an electronic newsletter as a marketing tool• CONDUCT two “Issue Forums” – one virtual and one in a physical conference center• CONTINUED solicitation of associates, sponsors and federal grantsThe evaluation of the pilot would not only include the effectiveness and quality of the initial offerings, butwould provide an indication of the extent to which the content of the courses and services are deemedrelevant and useful by the agencies, thereby creating an expectation of increased enrollments. Such apilot period and assessment would enable the actual results to become a driver of an overall investmentdecision.Jump StartImplementation Strategy: High Impact, Highly VisibilityPilot Program
  21. 21. E X C E R P T SFROM THE INTRODUCTORY COURSE:“LEADERSHIP, ETHICS, AND THE PERFORMANCE IMPERATIVE”
  22. 22. Approach: MergingTheory with PracticeThe approach reflects our attempt to effectively merge theory with practice in asingle, cohesive training course. Five primary chapters will demonstrate thepractical application of leadership in operational, program direction andmanagement settings. These chapters are:• Chapter 1 - The Critical Role of Leadership In Law Enforcement• Chapter 2 - Leadership Case Studies: Operational; Program Direction;Management• Chapter 3 - Performance Ethics: Five Leadership Attributes That Makea Difference• Chapter 4 - Situational Leadership• Chapter 5 - Real World ApplicationsApproach
  23. 23. COURSE CONTENTS• Abstract• Approach• Guest speakers/case studies• Video lectures• Supplemental written material• ExercisesEach course will contain the above sections – excerptsof which are detailed in the following slides
  24. 24. Abstract: Leadership, Ethics &Performance in Law EnforcementLaw enforcement organizations are increasingly confronted with new challenges and asked to continuallyaddress difficult circumstances, which seem to defy the approaches and solutions that have worked in thepast. These circumstances, in and of themselves, place an ethical responsibility on our leaders to actwisely, boldly, and in a manner consistent with the public’s values.Our training seeks to address this leadership void and the complex problems law enforcement leaders facein a manner that is more consistent with the values and the culture of the law enforcement community.Difficult issues cannot be adequately addressed merely by writing better policy, obtaining more resources,acquiring new software, or other generalized solutions. Nor will difficult issues be solved by genericallydefining and cataloguing the personality traits and behaviors of leaders.PLI’s training focuses on real and challenging issues faced by law enforcement practitioners in executivepositions, in management, and in operational settings. Specifically, our training aims to show the profoundimpact a leader can have on an organization, define common characteristics of contemporary leaders in lawenforcement, delineate leadership and management practices, and study and examine the decisions ofcontemporary leaders in real and everyday situations.Abstract
  25. 25. When I think ofLEADERSHIPa few keypeople cometomind...LEE BACASheriff of Los Angeles County, California. SheriffBaca has led the LASD for nearly 20 years andhas instituted a leadership curriculum in itstraining programs that is the model for thenation.DAVE BRANTFormer Director of the Naval Criminal InvestigativeService (NCIS). Mr. Brant directed the creation ofthe modern NCIS and established its role as a leaderfor DOD national security efforts.Each person has agreed to participate in this exerciseGuest Speakers:Law Enforcement LeadersMIKE DORSEYFormer Assistant Director of Intelligence andInformation Sharing for the Naval CriminalInvestigative Service (NCIS). Mr. Dorsey led thedevelopment and expansion of the Law EnforcementInformation Exchange (LInX), the most innovativeinformation sharing project in operation.
  26. 26. When I think ofLEADERSHIPa few keypeople cometomind...Each person has agreed to participate in this exerciseKEVIN FAVREAUAssistant Director of Intelligence for the FederalBureau of Intelligence (FBI). Mr. Favreauproduced the first comprehensive IntelligenceStrategy and led the implementation of a lawenforcement approach to intelligence.PETE GRUDENFormer Deputy Administrator of Drug EnforcementAdministration (DEA). Mr. Gruden directed a multi-year investigation of the kidnapping and murder ofDEA Special Agent Enrique Camarena.SANDRA HUTCHENSSheriff of Orange County, California. SheriffHutchens led the Orange County Sheriff’sDepartment (OCSD) in the wake of seriousmorale problems and funding reductions.Guest Speakers:Law Enforcement Leaders
  27. 27. When I think ofLEADERSHIPa few keypeople cometomind...JOHN MCKAYFormer United States Attorney – Western District ofWashington. Mr. McKay led the coordination of federal,state, and local law enforcement in the aftermath of 9/11.MIKE QUINLANFormer Director, United States Department of Justice-Bureau ofPrisons (USDOJ-BOP). Mr. Quinlan is known for establishing anorganizational culture in BOP that became a model for federallaw enforcement agencies.GREG SCOVELFormer Deputy Director of the Naval CriminalInvestigative Service (NCIS). Mr. Scovel led thedevelopment of NCIS’s Cyber Security and IntelligencePrograms in the aftermath of 9/11.BILL SONDERVANFormer Commissioner of Maryland Division of Correction. Mr.Sondervan oversaw the modernization and development of theDivision of Correction, the largest criminal justice agency in theState of Maryland.Each person has agreed to participate in this exerciseGuest Speakers:Law Enforcement Leaders
  28. 28. When I think ofLEADERSHIPa few keypeople cometomind...Each person has agreed to participate in this exerciseDAVE SZADYFirst National Counterintelligence Executive (NCIX)and former Assistant Director for Counterintelligence(CI), Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). Mr. Szadydirected the transformation of the FBI’s post-ColdWar Counterintelligence Program.STEVE TIDWELLFormer Executive Assistant Director of Federal Bureauof Investigation (FBI). Mr. Tidwell was widely acclaimedfor his leadership abilities in transforming a small FBIfield office, a large FBI field division, and the CriminalInvestigative Program at FBI Headquarters.DALE WATSONFormer Executive Assistant Director of Federal Bureau ofInvestigation (FBI) for Counterterrorism (CT) andCounterintelligence (CI). Mr. Watson led thetransformation of the FBI’s CT Program in the monthspreceding and immediately following the 9/11 attacks.Guest Speakers:Law Enforcement Leaders
  29. 29. In this segment, short video clips will be presented that describe the issues faced by law enforcement leadersin operational, program direction, and management settings. These clips will include a short narrative of thebackground, the issues, and the accomplishments of the leaders, focusing on the specific leadership attributesthat led to success. Video clips will include first-person discussions and analyses by the leaders themselves aswell as comments and descriptions by those who worked closely with them. These clips will provide materialfor the exercises in the remainder of the course. A video lecture will then discuss the case studies in greaterdetail and analyze the choices and outcomes of the leader’s decisions. Student exercises will ask students toselect the most significant leadership moment to them among the case studies and the common leadershiptraits between the leaders shown.Case StudiesDave Szady, former Assistant Director of Counterintelligence, FBIVIDEO: “Dave Szady”Sandra Hutchens, Sheriff, Orange County CaliforniaVIDEO: “Sandra Hutchens”Pete Gruden, former DEA Senior ExecutiveVIDEO: “Pete Gruden”
  30. 30. PERFORMANCE ETHICS - This lecture will define Performance Ethics, a new style of leadership, and its five coreattributes. The lecture will then discuss how the five attributes can be applied to a wide variety of lawenforcement settings. By relating leadership effectiveness to five attainable attributes, an individual will able tomeasure and assess the extent to which performance ethics is present.VIDEO: “5 Attributes”SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP - The situational leadership model and training is based on three major assumptionsconcerning leadership. First, one leadership size does not fit all. Our second assumption is that leadership isnot, and never will be, static. A leader that is successful in one environment may not be successful as theenvironment changes. Third, it presupposes that the success as a leader means addressing organizationalneeds, enhancing performance, and producing outcomes that otherwise would not occur.VIDEO: “Situational Leadership”LEADERSHIP CULTURE - A major assumption of this course is that while some people possess leadershipattributes, the organizational culture is a primary factor in the development of effective leaders. Organizationalcultures that tend to be risk adverse, have weak accountability measures and processes, or discourageinnovation are not likely to develop a robust leadership team. On the other hand, a culture that recognizes andrewards individual acts of leadership tends to encourage leadership actions at every level.VIDEO: “Leadership Culture”Video LecturesThe primary presentation material for this course will be conveyed tostudents through a combination of written narrative and short video clips.Below are excerpts from three of the presentations within this course.
  31. 31. Discussion Paper No. 3Tension -- Leadership v. ManagementSupplemental Written MaterialOrganizations are increasingly confronted with new challenges, and are being asked to continually addressdifficult and dangerous circumstances, which seem to defy the approaches and solutions that have workedin the past. These circumstances, in and of themselves, place an ethical responsibility on our leaders to actwisely, boldly, and in a manner consistent with the public’s values.Unfortunately, in attempting to address these concerns, we have consistently placed an emphasis onimproving management processes as pretext for improving leadership. Nearly all of the initiatives toimprove government over the past decade have been management reforms. If you can accept for themoment that there is a difference between management and leadership, and that there is a great need forwise and bold leadership to address unaddressed performance and ethical imperatives, it becomes clear tosee that we’re not going to improve leadership by focusing on management. In short, someone has to setthe direction and the agenda for managers. And someone has to accept responsibility and be accountable.Unfortunately, leadership training is often very closely aligned with management training, so much so that itis often difficult to distinguish the two. In fact, given the current emphasis and popularity in leadershiptraining, many institutions have responded by simply changing the titles of their courses by deleting theword “management” and inserting the word “leadership”, while retaining the exact same curriculum thatwas previously taught as “management”. Examples abound – strategic management has become strategicleadership; managing change has become leading change; management accountability has becomeleadership accountability. In most cases, the courses do equate leadership and management and rarely areable to identify the defining characteristic that distinguishes between them.
  32. 32. WHAT IS ETHICAL LEADERSHIP?Taken from the HBO series Band of Brothers,this short video excerpt presents the real-lifesituation of an Army Major during World War IIwho was confronted with a very difficultleadership decision. The purpose of this videois to stimulate discussion about the definition ofleadership, the responsibilities of leadership,how leaders react in difficult, unplanned situations, and the options they have to choose from.The film depicts a situation that took place towards the end of the War, when a squad from ECompany was being asked to complete missions of high risk and limited value for the sole purposeof enhancing the wartime record of a colonel who was looking to solidify his position in the postwar military hierarchy. In this scene, Col. Sink, the brigade commander, has ordered the men togo on dangerous patrols, late at night, in enemy territory in order to capture German prisonersand thereby increase statistics. In one of these unnecessary missions, an E Company trooper waskilled. Despite this, the colonel commanded that the Company repeat the patrol the next night.Sample ExerciseVideo: “Band of Brothers”
  33. 33. This video clip causes an endless debate over whether Major Winters’ action in fact qualifies asleadership. On one hand, many see it as a bad example – encouraging insubordination. On the otherhand, others see it as the epitome of leadership – stepping into a void, doing what you believe to bethe right thing, acting in the interests of your subordinates, and taking full responsibility for your ownactions. Still others believe that there were other options that Major Winters could have pursued, likeconfronting the colonel with his doubts about the wisdom of the mission.Student DiscussionQuestions for StudentsRank the following statements in order of the most compelling leadership actions taken byMajor Winters. Fully explain your ranking in terms of the concepts presented in thiscourse:• He decided to personally provide the unwelcome news about the mission to thesquad;• He directed the squad to NOT perform the mission;• He advised the squad that they were being moved out of the war zone the nextday;•He advised his subordinate that he would write the mission report, submit itpersonally to the colonel, and risk any adverse consequence.
  34. 34. ConclusionVideo: “Final Words fromProfessor McWeeney”Thank YouFor taking part in our program
  35. 35. Sample WebliographyLeadership/EthicsGeneral Failure. The Atlantic. November 2012. By Thomas E. Ricks.[In this article, Tom Ricks sets out the argument in his new book The Generals.]From the article: Since 9/11, the armed forces have played a central role in our national affairs, waging two long wars—each considerablylonger than America’s involvement in World War II. Yet a major change in how our military operates has gone almost unnoticed. Relief ofgenerals has become so rare that, as Lieutenant Colonel Paul Yingling noted during the Iraq War, a private who loses his rifle is now punishedmore than a general who loses his part of a war. In the wars of the past decade, hundreds of Army generals were deployed to the field, and theavailable evidence indicates that not one was relieved by the military brass for combat ineffectiveness. This change is arguably one of the mostsignificant developments in our recent military history—and an important factor in the failure of our wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. Read moreReview of Benghazi attack faults ‘grossly’ inadequate security, leadership failures. The Washington Post. December 18, 2012. By AnneGearan.From the article: An independent investigation of the fatal attack on a U.S. diplomatic post in Libya on Sept. 11 found that “grossly” inadequatesecurity and reliance on local militias left U.S. diplomats and other personnel vulnerable, the State Department told Congress on Tuesday.The review of the assault on the mission in Benghazi, Libya, that killed Ambassador J. Christopher Stevens and three other Americans faultedsystemic failures of leadership and management deficiencies at senior levels within two bureaus of the State Department, according to anunclassified version posted on the department’s Web site Tuesday night…Despite the broad security failures, the report did not single out any individual officials as violating procedures and did not recommend anydisciplinary action…Read moreMaking IGs Part of the Solution. Government Executive. November 7, 2012. By Gadi Dechter.From the article: The internal government watchdogs known as inspectors general spend their days examining the federal bureaucracy forcrooked contractors, wasteful spending and $16 muffins.With an army of 12,000 workers and an aggregate budget of around $2 billion, their feared audits and investigations annually identify tens ofbillions of dollars in questionable costs and lead to thousands of successful criminal prosecutions, indictments, contractor debarments andfirings. Read more(Note: These articles represent a small sample of the material that is available as part of the curriculum. They are specifically categorized so asto provide background and further reading for each class.)
  36. 36. w w w. C S M - P L I . o r g

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