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Basketball
Definitions

• Basketball game
  – Basketball is played by two (2) teams of five
    (5) players each. The aim of each team is to
    score in the opponent’s basket and to prevent
    the other team from scoring.
  – The game is controlled by officials, table
    officials and a commissioner, if present.
• Basket: opponents’/ own
  – The basket that is attacked by a team is the
    opponents’ basket and the basket which is
    defended by a team is the team’s own basket.
• Winner of a game
  – The team that has scored the greater number
    of points at the end of playing time shall be
    the winner.
Court
• Playing Court
   – The playing shall have a flat, hard surface free from
     obstructions with dimensions of twenty-eight (28) m in
     length by fifteen (15) m in width measured from the
     inner edge of the boundary line.
   • Backcourt
       A team’s backcourt consists of its team’s own
     basket, the inbounds part of the playing court limited
     by the endline behind the team’s own basket, the
     sidelines and the centre line.
• Frontcourt
  – A team’s court consists of the opponents’
    basket. The inbounds part of the backboard
    and the part of the playing court limited by the
    end line behind the opponents’ basket, the
    sidelines and the inner edge of the centre line
    nearest to the opponents’ basket.
• Lines
  – All line shall be drawn in white colour, five (5)
    cm in width and clearly visible.
 Boundary line
  The playing court shall be limited by the
   boundary line, consisting of the endlines and
   the sidelines. These lines are not part of the
   playing court.
  Any obstruction including seated team bench
   personnel shall be at least two (2) m from the
   playing court.
 Centre line, centre circle and free-throw semi-
  circles
   The centre line shall be marked parallel to the
   endlines from the mid-points of the sidelines. It
   shall be extended 0.15 m beyond each sideline.
   The centre line is part of the backcourt.
  The centre circle shall be marked in the centre of
   the playing court and have a radius of 1.80m
   measured of the outer edge of the circumference.
   If the inside of the centre line is painted, it must
   be the same colour as the restricted areas.
  The free-throw semi-circles shall be marked on the
   playing court with a radius of 1.80m measured to
   the outer edge of the circumference and with their
   centres at the mid-points of the free-throw lines.
 Free-throw lines, restricted areas and free-
  throw rebound places
  The free-throw line shall be drawn parallel to each
   endline. It shall have its furthest edge 5.80m from
   the inner edge of the endline and shall be 3.60m
   long. Its mid-point shall lie on the imaginary line
   joining the mid-points of the two (2) endlines.
  The restricted areas shall be the rectangular areas
   marked on the playing court limited by the
   endlines, the extended free-throw lines and the
   lines which originate at the endlines, their outer
   edges being 2.45m from the mid-points of the
   endlines and terminating at the outer edge of the
   free-throw lines. These lines, excluding the
   endlines, are part of the restricted area. The
   inside of the restricted areas must be painted.
Free-throw rebound places the restricted areas, reserved for
     players during free-throws

Three-point field goal area
 Two (2) parallel lines extending from and perpendicular to the
  end line, with the outer edge 0.90from the inner edge of the
  sidelines.
 An arc of radius 6.75m measured from the point on the floor
  beneath the exact centre of the opponents’ basket to the outer
  edge of the arc. The distance of the point on the floor from the
  inner edge of the mid-point of the mid-point of the end line is
  1.575m. The arc joined to the parallel lines.

      The three-point line is not part of the three-point field goal
  area.
Team bench areas
      The team bench areas shall be marked
  outside the playing court limited by two (2)
  lines as shown in diagram 1.
      There must be fourteen (14) seats
  available in the team bench area for the
  coaches, the assistant coaches, the
  substitutes and the team followers. Any other
  persons shall be at least two (2) m behind the
  team bench.

Throw-in Lines
      The two (2) lines of 0.15m in length shall
  be marked outside the playing court at the
  sideline opposite the scorer’s table, with the
  outer edge of the lines 8.325m from the inner
  edge of the nearest endline.
No-charge semi-circle areas
     The no-charge semi-circle lines shall be
 marked outside the playing court, limited by:
   A semi-circle with the radius of 1.25m measured from
    the point on the floor beneath the exact centre of the
    basket to the inner edge of the semi-circle. The semi-
    circle is joined to:
   Two (2) parallel lines perpendicular to the endline, the
    inner edge 1.25m from the point on the floor beneath
    the exact centre of the basket, 0.375m in length and
    ending 1.20m from the inner edge of the endline.

  The no-charge semi-circle areas are completed by
    imaginary lines joining the ends of the parallel lines
    directly below the front edges of the backborads.
  The no-charge semi-circle lines are not part of the no-
    charge of the semi-circle areas.
Equipment
 The following equipment will be required:
   backstop units, consisting of:
     Backboards
     Basket comprising (pressure release) rings and
       nets
     Backboard support structures including padding
      Basketballs
      Game clock
      Scoreboard
      Twenty-four (24) second clock
      Stopwatch or suitable (visible) device (not the
       game clock) for timing time-outs
 Two (2) separate, distinctly different and loud
  sound signals
 Scoresheet
 Player foul markers
 Team foul markers
 Alternating possession arrow
 Playing floor
 Playing court
 Adequate lighting
Officials and their Duties
1.   REFEREE- the official in charge of the
     game. His duties are:
    Put the ball in play at the center circle to
     start each half period and extra period of
     the game.
    Administer penalties.
    Watch the players in lanes and free throw
     line during free-throw.
    Disqualify a player for fouls.
    Indicate each goal made.
    Order time-in
    Sign score book at the end of the game.
     He shall carefully examine the score sheet
     at the end of each half and of each extra
     period or at anytime he feels necessary,
     approve the score and/or confirm the time
     that remains to be played.
 Shall inspect and approve all equipment to be used
  during the game.
 Designate the official time piece and recognize the
  table officials.
 He shall not permit any player to wear objects, which
  are dangerous to the other players.
 He shall make the final decision if the officials disagree
  on whether or not a goal shall count.
 He shall have power to stop a game when conditions
  warrant it. He shall also have the power to determine
  that a team shall forfeit the game if it refuses to play
  after being instructed to do so or if the team, by its
  action, prevents the game from being played.

Kinds of Referee:
1. Lead Referee
2. Trail Referee
2. OFFICIAL SCOREKEEPER AND ASSISTANT
   SCORER
 Sit at the table alongside the court.
 Shall use the official score sheet.
 Keep a record of the names and numbers of
   players who are to start the game and of all
   substitutes who are enter the game. When
   there is an infraction (violation) of these rules
   pertaining to a substitution of a line-
   up, substitution or numbers of players, he
   shall notify the nearer official as soon as
   possible after the infraction is discovered.
 Record the personal and technical fouls
   called on each player and shall notify the
   referee immediately when the 5th foul (for
   games of 2 x 20 minutes) or the 6th foul (for
   games of 4 x 12 minutes is called on any
   player. Similarly he shall record the technical
   fouls called on each coach and shall notify the
   referee.
 The scorer shall notify the officials at the next
   time-out opportunity when a team has
   requested a charged time-out record the
   time-outs and notify the coach through an
   official which is the Assistant Scorer.
3. TIMEKEEPER:
 The timer operates the clock
   according to the rules governing when
   time is in (ball in play) and when it is
   not.
 Shall keep a record of playing time
   and time of stoppage as provided in
   these rules.
 Shall note when each half is to start.
 To notify the teams and the officials or
   cause them to be notified at least
   minutes in advance.
 The 30-second operator shall operate
   the 30-second device and shall start
   as soon as a player gains control of a
   live ball on the court.
4. COACH
 At least 20 minutes before the game is scheduled to begin, each
   coach or his representative shall give the scorer a written list of the
   names and numbers of the team members who are to play in the
   game, as well as the names of the captain of the team, the coach
   and the assistant coach.
 At least 10 minutes before the game, both coaches shall confirm
   their agreement with the names and numbers of their team
   members and the names of the coaches inscribed by signing the
   score sheet. At the same time they shall indicate the five players
   who are to start the game. The “A” will be the first to provide this
   information.
 Only the coach or the assistant coach may makes the request for
   changed time-out.
 When a coach or assistant coach requires a substitution to be
   effected, the substitute must report to the scorer to make the request
   and must be ready to play immediately.
 If there is an assistant coach his name must be inscribed on
  the score sheet before the beginning of the game (his
  signature is not necessary). He shall assume the
  responsibilities of the coach if for any reason, the coach is
  unable to continue.
 The team captain, shall act as coach if there is no coach or if
  the coach is unable to continue and there is no assistant
  coach inscribed on the score sheet (or the later is unable to
  continue). If the captain must leave the playing court for any
  valid reason, he may continue to act as coach. However, if he
  must leave following a disqualifying foul, or if he is unable to
  act as coach because of injury, his substitute as captain shall
  replace him as coach.
 Only the coach, whose name is inscribed on the score
  sheet, is permitted to remain standing during the game. This
  also applies to any individual who replaces the coach for any
  reason.
5. CAPTAIN
 When necessary, captain shall represent
   his team on the court.
 He may address an official to obtain
   essential information. But this should be
   done in a courteous manner and only when
   the ball is dead and the clock is stopped.
 When the captain leaves the playing court
   or any valid reasons, the coach shall inform
   an official o the number of player who will
   replace him as captain on the court during
   his absence.
 The captain may act as coach.
 The captain shall designate the jumper of
   his team in a jump ball situation and the
   free-throw shooter determined by the rules.
6. GUARDS AND FORWARDS: should possess the following:
   1. FORWARDS:
       1. ability to shoot consistently from different positions
       2. ability to rebound
       3. ability to vary style and speed
       4. ability to plan and execute plays
       5. ability to remain calm under pressure

  2. GUARDS
      1. ability to feel out strength and weaknesses of
  opponents and to analyze pattern of movements
      2. ability to stay with the players and to anticipate
  possible plays
      3. ability to steal or tie the ball without fouling
      4. ability to rebound and pass accurately
      5. ability to shift pattern of defensive play

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Basketball definitions, facilities and equipment

  • 2. Definitions • Basketball game – Basketball is played by two (2) teams of five (5) players each. The aim of each team is to score in the opponent’s basket and to prevent the other team from scoring. – The game is controlled by officials, table officials and a commissioner, if present.
  • 3. • Basket: opponents’/ own – The basket that is attacked by a team is the opponents’ basket and the basket which is defended by a team is the team’s own basket. • Winner of a game – The team that has scored the greater number of points at the end of playing time shall be the winner.
  • 4. Court • Playing Court – The playing shall have a flat, hard surface free from obstructions with dimensions of twenty-eight (28) m in length by fifteen (15) m in width measured from the inner edge of the boundary line. • Backcourt A team’s backcourt consists of its team’s own basket, the inbounds part of the playing court limited by the endline behind the team’s own basket, the sidelines and the centre line.
  • 5. • Frontcourt – A team’s court consists of the opponents’ basket. The inbounds part of the backboard and the part of the playing court limited by the end line behind the opponents’ basket, the sidelines and the inner edge of the centre line nearest to the opponents’ basket. • Lines – All line shall be drawn in white colour, five (5) cm in width and clearly visible.
  • 6.  Boundary line The playing court shall be limited by the boundary line, consisting of the endlines and the sidelines. These lines are not part of the playing court. Any obstruction including seated team bench personnel shall be at least two (2) m from the playing court.
  • 7.  Centre line, centre circle and free-throw semi- circles The centre line shall be marked parallel to the endlines from the mid-points of the sidelines. It shall be extended 0.15 m beyond each sideline. The centre line is part of the backcourt. The centre circle shall be marked in the centre of the playing court and have a radius of 1.80m measured of the outer edge of the circumference. If the inside of the centre line is painted, it must be the same colour as the restricted areas. The free-throw semi-circles shall be marked on the playing court with a radius of 1.80m measured to the outer edge of the circumference and with their centres at the mid-points of the free-throw lines.
  • 8.  Free-throw lines, restricted areas and free- throw rebound places The free-throw line shall be drawn parallel to each endline. It shall have its furthest edge 5.80m from the inner edge of the endline and shall be 3.60m long. Its mid-point shall lie on the imaginary line joining the mid-points of the two (2) endlines. The restricted areas shall be the rectangular areas marked on the playing court limited by the endlines, the extended free-throw lines and the lines which originate at the endlines, their outer edges being 2.45m from the mid-points of the endlines and terminating at the outer edge of the free-throw lines. These lines, excluding the endlines, are part of the restricted area. The inside of the restricted areas must be painted.
  • 9. Free-throw rebound places the restricted areas, reserved for players during free-throws Three-point field goal area  Two (2) parallel lines extending from and perpendicular to the end line, with the outer edge 0.90from the inner edge of the sidelines.  An arc of radius 6.75m measured from the point on the floor beneath the exact centre of the opponents’ basket to the outer edge of the arc. The distance of the point on the floor from the inner edge of the mid-point of the mid-point of the end line is 1.575m. The arc joined to the parallel lines. The three-point line is not part of the three-point field goal area.
  • 10. Team bench areas The team bench areas shall be marked outside the playing court limited by two (2) lines as shown in diagram 1. There must be fourteen (14) seats available in the team bench area for the coaches, the assistant coaches, the substitutes and the team followers. Any other persons shall be at least two (2) m behind the team bench. Throw-in Lines The two (2) lines of 0.15m in length shall be marked outside the playing court at the sideline opposite the scorer’s table, with the outer edge of the lines 8.325m from the inner edge of the nearest endline.
  • 11. No-charge semi-circle areas The no-charge semi-circle lines shall be marked outside the playing court, limited by:  A semi-circle with the radius of 1.25m measured from the point on the floor beneath the exact centre of the basket to the inner edge of the semi-circle. The semi- circle is joined to:  Two (2) parallel lines perpendicular to the endline, the inner edge 1.25m from the point on the floor beneath the exact centre of the basket, 0.375m in length and ending 1.20m from the inner edge of the endline. The no-charge semi-circle areas are completed by imaginary lines joining the ends of the parallel lines directly below the front edges of the backborads. The no-charge semi-circle lines are not part of the no- charge of the semi-circle areas.
  • 12. Equipment The following equipment will be required:  backstop units, consisting of: Backboards Basket comprising (pressure release) rings and nets Backboard support structures including padding  Basketballs  Game clock  Scoreboard  Twenty-four (24) second clock  Stopwatch or suitable (visible) device (not the game clock) for timing time-outs
  • 13.  Two (2) separate, distinctly different and loud sound signals  Scoresheet  Player foul markers  Team foul markers  Alternating possession arrow  Playing floor  Playing court  Adequate lighting
  • 14. Officials and their Duties 1. REFEREE- the official in charge of the game. His duties are:  Put the ball in play at the center circle to start each half period and extra period of the game.  Administer penalties.  Watch the players in lanes and free throw line during free-throw.  Disqualify a player for fouls.  Indicate each goal made.  Order time-in  Sign score book at the end of the game. He shall carefully examine the score sheet at the end of each half and of each extra period or at anytime he feels necessary, approve the score and/or confirm the time that remains to be played.
  • 15.  Shall inspect and approve all equipment to be used during the game.  Designate the official time piece and recognize the table officials.  He shall not permit any player to wear objects, which are dangerous to the other players.  He shall make the final decision if the officials disagree on whether or not a goal shall count.  He shall have power to stop a game when conditions warrant it. He shall also have the power to determine that a team shall forfeit the game if it refuses to play after being instructed to do so or if the team, by its action, prevents the game from being played. Kinds of Referee: 1. Lead Referee 2. Trail Referee
  • 16. 2. OFFICIAL SCOREKEEPER AND ASSISTANT SCORER  Sit at the table alongside the court.  Shall use the official score sheet.  Keep a record of the names and numbers of players who are to start the game and of all substitutes who are enter the game. When there is an infraction (violation) of these rules pertaining to a substitution of a line- up, substitution or numbers of players, he shall notify the nearer official as soon as possible after the infraction is discovered.  Record the personal and technical fouls called on each player and shall notify the referee immediately when the 5th foul (for games of 2 x 20 minutes) or the 6th foul (for games of 4 x 12 minutes is called on any player. Similarly he shall record the technical fouls called on each coach and shall notify the referee.  The scorer shall notify the officials at the next time-out opportunity when a team has requested a charged time-out record the time-outs and notify the coach through an official which is the Assistant Scorer.
  • 17. 3. TIMEKEEPER:  The timer operates the clock according to the rules governing when time is in (ball in play) and when it is not.  Shall keep a record of playing time and time of stoppage as provided in these rules.  Shall note when each half is to start.  To notify the teams and the officials or cause them to be notified at least minutes in advance.  The 30-second operator shall operate the 30-second device and shall start as soon as a player gains control of a live ball on the court.
  • 18. 4. COACH  At least 20 minutes before the game is scheduled to begin, each coach or his representative shall give the scorer a written list of the names and numbers of the team members who are to play in the game, as well as the names of the captain of the team, the coach and the assistant coach.  At least 10 minutes before the game, both coaches shall confirm their agreement with the names and numbers of their team members and the names of the coaches inscribed by signing the score sheet. At the same time they shall indicate the five players who are to start the game. The “A” will be the first to provide this information.  Only the coach or the assistant coach may makes the request for changed time-out.  When a coach or assistant coach requires a substitution to be effected, the substitute must report to the scorer to make the request and must be ready to play immediately.
  • 19.  If there is an assistant coach his name must be inscribed on the score sheet before the beginning of the game (his signature is not necessary). He shall assume the responsibilities of the coach if for any reason, the coach is unable to continue.  The team captain, shall act as coach if there is no coach or if the coach is unable to continue and there is no assistant coach inscribed on the score sheet (or the later is unable to continue). If the captain must leave the playing court for any valid reason, he may continue to act as coach. However, if he must leave following a disqualifying foul, or if he is unable to act as coach because of injury, his substitute as captain shall replace him as coach.  Only the coach, whose name is inscribed on the score sheet, is permitted to remain standing during the game. This also applies to any individual who replaces the coach for any reason.
  • 20. 5. CAPTAIN  When necessary, captain shall represent his team on the court.  He may address an official to obtain essential information. But this should be done in a courteous manner and only when the ball is dead and the clock is stopped.  When the captain leaves the playing court or any valid reasons, the coach shall inform an official o the number of player who will replace him as captain on the court during his absence.  The captain may act as coach.  The captain shall designate the jumper of his team in a jump ball situation and the free-throw shooter determined by the rules.
  • 21. 6. GUARDS AND FORWARDS: should possess the following: 1. FORWARDS: 1. ability to shoot consistently from different positions 2. ability to rebound 3. ability to vary style and speed 4. ability to plan and execute plays 5. ability to remain calm under pressure 2. GUARDS 1. ability to feel out strength and weaknesses of opponents and to analyze pattern of movements 2. ability to stay with the players and to anticipate possible plays 3. ability to steal or tie the ball without fouling 4. ability to rebound and pass accurately 5. ability to shift pattern of defensive play