Pre-task The teacher introduces the topic and gives the students clear instructions on what they will have to do at the task stage and might help the students to recall some language that may be useful for the task. The pre-task stage can also often include playing a recording of people doing the task. This gives the students a clear model of what will be expected of them. The students can take notes and spend time preparing for the task. Task The students complete a task in pairs or groups using the language resources that they have as the teacher monitors and offers encouragement. Planning Students prepare a short oral or written report to tell the class what happened during their task. They then practice what they are going to say in their groups. Meanwhile the teacher is available for the students to ask for advice to clear up any language questions they may have. Report Students then report back to the class orally or read the written report. The teacher chooses the order of when students will present their reports and may give the students some quick feedback on the content. At this stage the teacher may also play a recording of others doing the same task for the students to compare. Analysis The teacher then highlights relevant parts from the text of the recording for the students to analyze. They may ask students to notice interesting features within this text. The teacher can also highlight the language that the students used during the report phase for analysis. Practice Finally, the teacher selects language areas to practice based upon the needs of the students and what emerged from the task and report phases. The students then do practice activities to increase their confidence and make a note of useful language.
Methods and post methods in EFL: a call for situated methodologies
Current perspectives to language teaching
Workshop facilitator: Mauricio Miraglia twitter @mauromiraglia
Discuss with your neighbor to
later share with whole group
AN OVERVIEW IN TIME
gu a y
l an a
o le nt W ia
Wh Sile ped proac
The gesto ral Ap
Sug Natu thod
The ct M
situational methodology (Ur, 2013)
FEATURES OF CLT
meaning is at the heart of teaching / learning
conversations are presented in terms of functions
a key goal is communication
trial and error is part of the learning process
reading and writing can be included from early in any
drilling is done as a resource
mastery of forms is achieved while negotiating meaning
accuracy is evaluated in context
group work is a common type of dynamics in the classroom
motivation comes from what we are communicating
SELF-ASSESSING YOUR CLT
01. What are the characteristics of the teaching / learning
02. What’s the nature of teacher-student and studentstudent interaction?
03. How are students’ feelings and emotions are handled?
04. What’s the role of native language?
05. Which language skills are emphasized?
06. How does the teacher respond to student errors?
TASKS IN THE EFL
TEACHING / LEARNING
A task is a work-plan that requires
pragmatically in order to achieve an
outcome that can be evaluated in terms
of whether the correct or appropriate
conveyed. To this end, it requires them to
give primary attention to meaning and
to make use of their own linguistic
resources, although the design of the
task may predispose them to choose
particular forms. A task is intended to
result in language use that bears a
resemblance, direct or indirect, to the
way language is used in the real world.
Like other language activities, a task can
engage productive or receptive, and
oral or written skills, and also various
In a task-based lesson the
teacher doesn't predetermine what language will
be studied, the lesson is
based around the completion
of a central task and the
language studied is
determined by what happens
as the students complete it.
HIDE AND SEEK
• Discuss with your neighbor the best place in the room in
the picture to hide something small (e.g. a set of keys).
Decide together exactly where you would put it/them.
• Change partners. See how quickly you can guess what
place they have decided on. Ask them questions – but
they can only answer yes or no. (Count the questions.)
Example by Wills, Jane 2007 www.willis-elt.co.uk
HOW “CLOSED” WAS
• Precise goals, predetermined outcome?
• Strategies set?
• Vocabulary items predictable?
• Whole phrases predictable?
• Grammar predictable?
• Interpersonal talk & task-oriented language? (What
would you predict?)
FROM CLOSED TO OPEN
• closed: a very specific outcome, one pre-determined
solution; clearly defined parameters; predictable
• open: learners are free to decide on their own
solution(s) and ways of achieving them. Less
predictable / unpredictable language
TASKS PRIORITIZING VERB
• Present Simple - plan and carry out a survey to find out what
people generally do after class / in the evenings / Sunday
mornings… Collate and report results.
- List 5 things your family does before leaving home to go on
holiday. Compare lists. How many things in common?
• Past simple - A busy day: find who had the busiest day.
- Tell an anecdote e.g. my most embarrassing experience.
• Second conditionals - learners do a personality quiz, then write
their own in pairs: e.g. How courageous are you? What would
you do if … an alien space ship landed in your garden? A. I
would hide under my bed. B. …. (Hint: start by brain-storming
scary scenarios) . Exchange quizzes.
Source: Lamprini Loumpourdi (2005) pp33-39) from
SELF-ASSESSING YOUR TBLT
• Would the activity engage learners’ interest?
• Is there a primary focus on meaning? (Are learners free to
use whatever language forms they choose to?)
• Does it have a clear outcome for learners to achieve? (Is
completion a priority?)
• Is success judged in terms of outcome rather than accuracy
• Does it relate to real world activities?
The more confidently you can answer YES to these questions,
the more task-like the activity.
OTHER POSIBLE MODELS
• Let’s begin
• Dig Deeper
Key Concepts: Teamwork | Inductive teaching |Exploration| Emphasis on real world tasks
| language is taught “just-in-time” | Autonomous learners | Teachers as facilitators
“situated methodology (is) largely grounded in general
pedagogical principles and practice, shared
by teachers of a variety of different subjects, in contrast
with ELT methods, which tend to focus predominantly on
issues related specifically to language teaching”
How are my/our students likely to learn best?
• Discuss and agree (70%) on what students need to lean;
• Agree on a peer observation plan (Yürekli, 2013);
• Collect videos of your lessons or written peer observation;
• Watch / read and analyze your practices 1:1 and later in a larger group;
• Do not jugde them from your own common sense, instead, try to categorize
them according to methods (beliefs, theory, principles behind the actions
performed by the teacher);
• Assess which practices evidence better learning for your students;
• Bring to the surface the principles behind better practices;
• Reflect on best teaching practice and learning experience;
• Write an agreed document with your new predicaments and practices;
• Start again until you can come up with your own methodologies for teaching &
• Share & discuss your document with stakeholders, students and incoming
• Be ready to start again as context changes.
• Brown, D. (2007) Teaching by Principles: an interactive
approach to language pedagogy, Third Edition. White
Plains, NY: Pearson Education.
• Frost, R. (2004). A task-based approach. Retrieved from
• Kumaravadivelu, B. (2006) Tesol Methods: Changing Tracks,
Challenging Trends. Tesol Quarterly, vol. 40 (1), 59-77.
• Ur, P. (2013). Language-teaching method revisited. ELT
Journal, 67(4), 468-474. Retrieved from
• Yürekli, A. (2013). The six-category intervention analysis: a
classroom observation reference. ELT Journal,67(3), 302-312.
Retrieved from http://eltj.oxfordjournals.org