Gastritis is an inflammation of the lining of thestomach, and has many possible causes. The mainacute causes are excessive alcohol consumption orprolonged use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.Sometimes gastritis develops after major surgery,traumatic injury or burns
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS Symptoms of gastritis vary among individuals, and in many people there are no symptoms. The most common symptoms include: Nausea Abdominal bloating Abdominal pain Vomiting Indigestion Burning or gnawing feeling in the stomach between meals or at night Hiccups Loss of appetite Vomiting blood or coffee ground-like material Black, tarry stools
PREVENTION Avoid use of aspirin or NSAIDs if you are prone to gastritis. 1) Avoid excessive consumption of alcohol. 2) Replace two or three large meals a day with small meals every three hours or so 3) Avoid fast foods 4) Eat slow, chew thoroughly 5) Do chewing gum. 6) Stay away from foods that upset your stomach, especially those heavily seasoned, spicy and fried food 7) Avoid using aspirin, ibuprofen and other irritating foods
TREATMENTTreatment for gastritis usually involves: Taking antacids and other drugs to reduce stomach acid, which causes further irritation to inflamed areas. Avoiding hot and spicy foods. For gastritis caused by H. pylori infection, your doctor will prescribe a regimen of several antibiotics plus an acid blocking drug (used for heartburn). If the gastritis is caused by pernicious anemia, B12 vitamin shots will be given. Eliminating irritating foods from your diet such as lactose from dairy or gluten from wheat. Once the underlying problem disappears, the gastritis usually does, too. You should talk to your doctor before stopping any medicine or starting any gastritis treatment on your own.
The mortality is dependent on the etiology of the gastritis. Generally, most cases of gastritis are treatable once the etiology is determined. The exception to this is phlegmonous gastritis, which has a mortality rate of 65%, even with treatment. Massachusetts General Hospital 55 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114 617-726-2000 TDD: 617-724-8800 http://www.massgeneral.org/conditions/condition.aspx?id=182
• Gastroenteritis is an inflammation of the lining of the intestines caused by a virus, bacteria or parasites.• Results in vomiting or diarrhea.• It is often called the "stomach flu“.• Gastroenteritis, or inflammation of the stomach and intestines. Gastritis is the irritation and inflammation of the stomachs mucous lining.
• Rotaviruses; Noroviruses; Adenoviruses. • Anyone can get it. Rotavirus infants and young children under 5. Adenoviruses and astroviruses affect young children and sometimes adults. Noroviruses infect persons of all ages, including older children and adults.• It spreads through contaminated food or water, and contact with an infected person. The best prevention is frequent hand washing.• Close contact with infected persons.
• Frequent hand washing and disinfection. Rotavirus gastroenteritis can also be prevented by vaccines.• Watery diarrhea and vomiting.• Headache, fever, and stomach ache.• Symptoms begin 1 to 2 days following infection, and may last for 1 to 10 days, depending on the virus. By a physician on the Prevent severe loss of basis of the symptoms fluids (dehydration) by and medical taking fluids. examination. Medications should be Rotavirus infection can avoided unless be diagnosed by recommended by a laboratory testing of a physician. stool specimen.
People who died from gastroenteritis has more thandoubled from 1999 to 2007. The death rate from almost7,000 to over 17,000 per year. Viral gastroenteritis is thesecond most common illness in the U.S. (Centers for DiseaseControl and Prevention) NIDDKNational institute of diabetes and digestive and kidney diseases (alsoinformation in Spanish)http://www2.niddk.nih.gov/
Hepatitis C Hepatitis C is a viral disease that leads to swelling (inflammation) of the liver.
CausesHepatitis C infection is caused by the hepatitis C virus(HCV).
Signs and SymptomsHepatitis C infection usually produces no signs or symptomsduring its earliest stages. When signs and symptoms do occur,theyre generally mild and flu-like and may include: • Fatigue • Muscle and joint pains • Fever • Tenderness in the area of your liver • Nausea or poor appetite Testing should be done among: • Individuals at high risk for prior to 1992 infection. • Persons with abnormal levels of • Children born to chronically liver enzymes in the blood infected mothers • Testing is recommended when • People who received blood, blood exposure to the virus is products, or transplanted organs suspected.
MortalityIn a study in the journal Annals of Internal Medicine, U.S.Centers for Disease Control researchers analyzed causesof death on more than 21.8 million U.S. death certificatesfiled between 1999 and 2007. Rates of death related tohepatitis C, a viral infection that causes chronic liverdisease, rose at an average rate of .18 deaths per100,000 persons per year. More than 15,000 people diedfrom hepatitis C in 2007. HIV-related death rates declined.21 deaths per 100,000 people per year — 12,734 peopledied from HIV in 2007. Rates of death related to a thirdinfection, hepatitis B, remained more or less constant overthe study period, falling .02 deaths per 100,000 people peryear to just more than 1,800 deaths in 2007.
Organization that figths hepatitis c http://www.hepcassoc.org/
Wilsons disease is named after SamuelAlexander Kinnier Wilson (1878–1937), theBritish neurologist who first described thecondition in 1912
Wilson disease is a rare autosomal recessive inherited disorder of copper metabolism. You need a small amount of copper from food to stay healthy. Too much copper is poisonous. This can cause damage to your brain, liver, and eyes.
the most common one KAYSER-FLEISCHER RINGS Symptons can appear in the ages between 6-38
24 hour urine test for copper Liver Biopsy Kayser Fleischer rings
Wilson disease is a very treatable condition. With proper therapy, disease progress can be halted and oftentimes symptoms can be improved. Treatment is aimed at removing excess accumulated copper and preventing its accumulation. Treatment for Wilson disease is a lifelong process. Patients may become progressively sicker from day to day, so immediate treatment can be critical. Treatment delays may cause irreversible damage.
References• Ghany MG, Strader DB, Thomas DL, Seeff LB. American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases. Diagnosis, management, and treatment of hepatitis C: an update. Hepatology. 2009;49:1335-1374.• Jou JH, Muir AJ. In the clinic. Hepatitis C. Ann Intern Med. 2008;148:ITC6-1-ITC6-16.• OLeary JG, Davis GL. Hepatitis C. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger and Fordtrans Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. 9th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2010:chap 79.• Rosen HR. Clinical practice. Chronic hepatitis C infection.N Engl J Med. 2011 Jun 23;364(25):2429-38.• http://articles.latimes.com/2012/feb/21/news/la-heb-hepatitis-c-hiv- deaths-20120221• http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvrd/revb/gastro/faq.htm• http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/243036.php• http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/gastroenteritis.html