CHILDREN AND YOUTH
WITH SPECIAL EDUCATION
Melty B. Francisco
Concept of mental retardation
Definition of mental retardation
Classifications of mental retardation
Incidence and prevalence
Causes of mental retardation
Learning and Behaviour characteristics
Models of assessment
“There is no one who cannot find a
place for himself in our kind of
worlds. Each one of us has some
unique capacity for realization.
Every person is valuable in his her
- George H. Bender
I. Early Development
II. Behaviour and Psychosocial development
III. Psychomotor Skills
IV. Cognitive development and Communication Skills
V. Quantitative Skills Daily Living Skills, Personal management
and Pre- Vocational Skills
VI. Future plans
In 1992, the American Association for Mental
Retardation stressed that the distinction
between the terms trait and state is central to
the understanding of mental retardation.
Mental retardation is not a trait.
Mental retardation is a condition or state.
Experiences difficulties in
coping with various
environments because he/ she
lacks the mental, emotional and
social skills and competencies
to function in environments
mental for normal people.
Suffers from lags or delays in his or
her general development profile.
DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITY –
attribute to mental or physical
impairment or a combination of both
factors that is likely to continue
These are self- care,
receptive and expressive
languange, learning, mobility,
self- direction, capacity for
independent living and
economic self- sufficiency.
Mental retardation was an all-
The condition is accepted to be
Described as “in transition”.
Refers to substantial limitations in present
Characterized by significantly sub- average
intellectual functioning, existing concurrently
with related limitations in two or more of the
following adaptive skills.
Manifests before age 18.
Difficulty in performing
everyday activities related to
taking care of one’s self, doing
ordinary tasks at home and
work related to the other
adaptive skills areas.
The person finds difficulty in learning skills in
school that children of his age are able to learn.
INTELLECTUAL FUNCTIONING- a broad
summation of cognitive abilities, such as the
capacity ‘to learn, solve problems, accumulate
knowledge and adapt to new situations.
Means the person has significantly below
The intelligence quotient score is
approximately in the flexible lower IQ
range 0 to 20 and upper IQ range of
70-75 based on the result of
assessment using one or more
individual intelligence tests.
SUB- AVERAGE INTELLECTUAL
- Indicates that intelligence or at least
intelligence test scores, are not static
Fail to meet the standards of
personal independence and social
responsibility expected of their
chronological age and cultural
Adaptive skills are assessed by
means of standardized adaptive
1. COMMUNICATION- ability to
understand and communicate
information. (facia expressions ,
touch or gestures)
2. SELF- CARE- ability to take care of
one’s needs in hygiene, grooming,
dressing, eating, toileting.
3. HOME LIVING- ability to function in
the home, housekeeping clothing care,
property maintenance, cooking,
shopping, home safety daily scheduling
4. COMMUNITY USE- travel community,
shopping, obtaining services.
5. SOCIAL SKILLS- initiating and
terminating interactions, conversations,
responding to social cues, recognizing
feelings, regulating own behaviour,
assisting others, fostering friendship.
6. SELF- DIRECTION- making choices,
following schedules, completing
required tasks, seeking assistance and
7. HEALTH AND SAFETY- maintaining
own health, identify and preventing
illness, first aid, sexuality, physical
fitness and basic safety.
8. FUNCTIONAL ACADEMICS- learning
the basic skills taught in school.
9. LEISURE- recreational
activities that are
appropriate to the age of
10. WORK- or employment,
appropriate to one’s age.
Manifests before age 18 to 22.
It is a developmental disability.
The old labels are mentally
defective, mentally deficient,
imbecile, and idiot.
1. The existence of limitations in adaptive skills occurs
within the context of community environments
typical of the individual’s age peers and is indexed
to the person’s individualized needs for supports.
2. Valid assessment considers cultural and linguistic
diversity, as well as difference in communication,
sensory poor, and behavioural factors.
3. Specific adaptive limitations often coexist with
strengths in other adaptive skills or other personal
4. The purpose of describing
limitations often coexists with
5. With appropriate supports over a
sustained period, the life-
functioning of the person with
mental retardation will generally
1. Mild MR with IQ scores from 55 to 70
2. Moderate MR with IQ scores from 40 to 54.
3. Sever MR with IQ scores from 25 to 39, and
4. Profound MR with IQ scores below 25.
1. INTERMITTENT SUPPORTS-are on as
2. LIMITED SUPPORTS- required
consistently, though not only daily basis.
3. EXTENSIVE SUPPORTS- are needed on a
regular basis; daily supports are required
in some envir0nments.
4. PERVASIVE SUPPORTS- daily extensive
supports, perhaps of a life sustaining
nature required in multiple environments.
Mental retardation can occur in 3% of a given
About 15% of these children have greater
than mild disabilities
Concomitant conditions associated with
mental retardation may occur .such as Down
Syndrome, physical handicaps, speech
impairment, visual impairment, hearing
defect, epilepsy and others.
1. TIME OF ONSET
Known about two-thirds of
individuals with more severe forms
that include the MODERATE,
SEVERE and PROFOUND types.
The causes listed are conditions,
disease and syndromes that are
associated with mental retardation.
refers to the number of
symptoms or characteristics
that occur together and
provide the defining
features of a given disease
Traced to a psychological disadvantage
which is a combination of a poor and cultural
environment early in the child’s life.
DEVELOPMENTAL RETARDATION- used to
refer to mild mental retardation thought to be
caused primarily by environmental
influences such as minimal opportunities to
develop early language, child abuse and
neglect and/ or chronic social or sensory
1. Limited parenting practices that produce
low rates of vocabulary growth in early
2. instructional practices in high school and
adolescence that produce low rates of
academic engagement during the school
3. lower rates of academic achievement and
early school failure and early school
4. parenthood and continuance of the
progression into the next generation.
- Originate during conception
or pregnancy until before birth
are chromosomal disorders.
NATURE IMPLICATION PHYSICAL
-Named after Dr.
-TRISOMY 21 -most
common in which
the 21st set of
chromosomes is a
triplet rather than a
account for 5 to 6%
of all cases.
- DS affects about 1
in 1000 live births.
- Most often results
in moderate level of
in the mild or
--DS increases to
approximately 1 in
30 for women at
-Older women are
at “high risk” for
babies with DS and
1. Short stature
2. Flat broad face
with small ears
4. Small mouth
with short roof
6. Hypertonia or
7. Heart defects;
to ears and
-Males receive an extra
male sex organs,
acquisition of female
-Social skills , auditory
sometimes mild levels
of cognitive retardation
are often problems.
-More associated with
than with mental
-A triplet or repeat
mutation on the X
with the production of
-Females may carry and
transmit the mutation to
-It is the most common
clinical type of mental
retardation after Down
to moderate to
severe deficit in
in 4,000 males.
NATURE CAUSES CHARACTERITIC
- Caused by the
deletion of a
portion of the
- Ranges from
moderate to mild
levels of mental
-Elfin r dwarf-like
-Lack of reserve
-Uneven profiles of
and weakness in
visual- spatial skills
NATURE CAUSES CHARACTERISTII
floppy muscles and
may to be tube-fed
-Caused by the
deletion of a
-1 in 10 to 25,000
-Small hands and
-One of the inborn
errors of metabolism.
condition in which a a
child is born without
an important enzyme
needed to break
down an amino acid
found in dairy
products and other
protein rich foods.
treat it with a
ANENCEPHALY- major portions of
the brain is absent.
MICROCEPHALY- the skull is small
and conical , the spine is curved.
HYDROCEPHALY- blockage of
cerebrospinal fluid in the cranial
diabetes mellitus and fetal
alcohol syndrome or FAS.
one of the leading causes of
Diagnosed when the child has
two or more craniofacial
malformation and growth is
below the 10th percentile for
height and weight.
a condition associated with hyperactivity and learning
The incidence is higher then Down syndrome and Cerebral
Cognitive impairment, sleep disturbances, motor dysfunctions,
hyperirritability,aggression and conduct problems.
Pregnant women should a void drinking alcohol anytime.
1. INTRAUTERINE DISORDERS- maternal anemia,
premature, delivery abnormal presentation,
umbilical cord accidents and multiple gestation
in the case of twins. triplets, quadruplets and
other types of multiple births.
Birth Trauma-result from anoxia or cutting off of
oxygen supply to the brain.
2. NEONATAL DISORDERS- intracranial
hemorrhage, neonatal seizures, respiratory
disorders, meningitis, encephalities, head
trauma at birth.
HEAD INJURIES- cerebral concussion, contusion or laceration.
INFECTIONS- encephalitis, meningitis, malaria, German measles,
DEMYELINATING DISORDERS- post infectious disorders, post
DEGENERATIVE DISORDERS- Rett syndrome, Huntington disease,
SEIZURE DISORDERS- Epilepsy, toxic-metabolic disorders such as
Reye’s Syndrome, lead or mercury poisoning.
MALNUTRITION- lack of proteins
disadvantage, child abuse and
neglect, chronic social/sensory
SHAKEN BABY SYNDROME- crying
infant is violently shaken by a
Traumatic brain injury
Refers to the existence of lowered
intelligence of unknown origin associated
with a history of mental retardation in one or
more family members.
Results from the lack of adequate stimulation
during infancy and early childhood.
Sexually transmitted diseases such as
syphilis, gonorrhea, AIDS,
toxoplasmosis(blood poisoning) and
Maternal rubella- most likely to cause
retardation, blindness and deafness
when the disease occurs during the
trimester of pregnancy.
Manifest substantial limitations in age
appropriate intellectual and adaptive behaviour.
Deficits in cognitive functioning ;(poor memory,
slow learning rates, attention problems, difficulty
and generalizing, lack of motivation)
Able to acquire the skills for adaptive behaviour
Find difficulties in doing school work and fail the
Moderate retardation show
significant delays in
development during the
Intellectual development and
adaptive functioning become
wider when compared o normal
a.1SUB-AVERAGE INTELLECTUAL SKILLS- below average mental
ability as measured by standardized tests.
a.2 LOW ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT- mentally retarded are
likely to be slower in reaching levels of academic achievement
equal to their peers.
a.3 DIIFFICULTY IN ATTENDING TO TASKS- distracted by
irrelevant stimuli rather than those that pertain to the lesson.
- difficulties in remembering and generalizing newly
learned lessons and skills.
Difficulty in retaining and recording information in the short term
or working memory.
• DIFFICULTY WITH THE GENERALIZATION OF SKILLS.- often have
trouble in transferring their new knowledge and skills.
• LOW MOTIVATION- lack of interest in learning their lessons.
• Develop learned helplessness where they continue to fail in doing
• tend to set very low expectations for oneself.
SELF- CARE AND DAILY LIVING SKILLS- Direct instruction,
simplified routine, prompts and task analysis, hygiene,
grooming, eating, toileting, communication.
SOCIAL DEVLOPMENT- cognitive processing skills, poor
language development. Making friends and sustaining
BEHAVIORAL EXCESS AND CHALLENGING
BEHAVIOR- difficulties in accepting criticisms,
limited self- control, aggression or self- injury.
PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS- slower
psychological development (toilet training,
POSITIVE CHARACTERISTICS- Friendliness
- Being with
them make’s one appreciate one’s normal
AINITIAL ASSESSMENT(CHECKLIST OF THE LEARNING AND
1. More intensive observation and evaluation of the child’s
cognitive and adaptive skills.
2. Analysis of medical history
A. Informal and standardized tests
B. Home visit
E. Evaluation report
F. Inclusion and participation of
A. TRADITIONAL ASSESSMENT
- Parents fill in a pre-referral form
- Referred to a team of clinical practitioners
- Consist of developmental psychologist, early childhood
special educator, early childhood educator,
speech/language pathologist(SLP), occupational therapist,
physical therapist, physical therapist, child psychiatrist or
clinical psychologist, physician and nurse, audiologist.
- It is described as multidisciplinary, interdisciplinary and
transdisciplinary in nature;
a. MULTIDISCIPLINARY ASSESSMENT- independently assessed
the child and report results without consulting or integrating
their findings with one another.
b. . INTERDISCIPLINARY ASSESSMENT- the members conduct
an independent assessment and evaluation individually the
findings are integrated together with the recommendations.
- Allows other team
members as facilitators
during the assessment
- The assessment materials have a curriculum and evaluation
components and do not require specialized materials or test
- CRITERION REFERENCED ASSESSMENT TOOLS-ARE;
- Assessment evaluation and programming system for infants
- Infant preschool Assessment Scale(IPAS)
1. Differential Ability Scales(DAS)
2. Wechsler preschool and Primary
Scale of Intelligence-
3. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for
4. Stanford- Binet : Fourth edition
1. Vineland Adaptive Behaviour
2. AAMR Adaptive Behaviour
3. Scales of Independent
Early Intervention Program
-Natural setting home
- Willingness on their part to be patient
- Set strong base for future special education programs
- Formal training in early childhood education and
- Participate in in-service training programs and
agencies, conferences and workshops.
- Intervisitation among programs and agencies.
1. During intervention secondary disabilities can be observed.
2. Prevent the occurrence of secondary disabilities,
3. Lessen the chances for placement in a residential school.
4. Family gains information
5. Hasten the child’s acquisition of the desirable learning and
1. HOME-BASED INSTRUCTION PROGRAM
- Its goal is to provide a continous program of instruction
- Utilizes the Filipino adaptation of the Portgage Project (NCR,
REGION V, DAVAO).
- Monitoring and evaluation of the program show positive
2. HEAD START PROGRAM
- Addresses preschool education for the socially
and economically deprived children
- Operates on the principle of early intervention
as a preventive measure against behaviour
problems among young children
- The participants are young offenders, slum
dwellers, street children and other preschool
- Adopted by the Special education centers of
3. COMMUNITY- BASED REHABILITATION(CBR) SERVICES
- Measures taken at the community level
- Use to build on the resources of the community
- Assist in the rehabilitation of those who need assistance(disabled
and handicapped person)
- Acclaimed as the answer to the rehabilitation needs in poverty-
- Piloted by National Commission for the Disabled persons(NCWPD)
- Expanded to selected communities in Luzon,Visayas, Mindanao
- Employed and maximized in providing rehabilitation programs to
urban and rural communities.
- Utilized the Filipino adaptation of the Portgage Guide to Early
- Twelve(12) barangays or villages identified as depressed and
- Twenty two parents are trained yearly
- Minimizing the effects of the disabilities and increasing the
children’s readiness and response to rehabilitation programs.
It goal is toward self- direction and regulation
and the ability to select appropriate options
in everyday life
Fosters independent living
Enjoyment of leisure and social activities
Improved quality of life
based on Piaget’s theory of
cognitive development, Vygotsky’s
Zone of Proximal Development,
and Feuerstein’s concept of
Builds its instructional program
around the child’s deficits in
- The child is trained to
develop a sense of
intentionality and a
feeling of competence.
study, the student’s IEP and agree on the teacher’s roles and
Set regular meetings with each other
Encourage acceptance of the student by the classmates
Use instructional procedures
Abstract concepts, procvide multipole concrete examples.
Supplement verbal instructions
Assign a peer tutor to assist
Vary y the tasks and drills
Encourage the use of computer- based tutorials
Utilize the lecture
Have a volunteer tape- record reading assignments
Use cooperative learning strategies.
Use multilayered activities
Pair students with mental retardation
Encourage regular students to assist students with mental
Transition service- Provide the bridge to life after school and help
individual in both community, adjustment and employment.