Biology - Chp 3 - Cells - PowerPoint


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Biology - Chp 3 - Cells - PowerPoint

  1. 1. Chapter 3Cell Structure and Function
  2. 2. Section 3-1The History of the Cell Theory and Microscopes
  3. 3. Historical View of the Cell Theory• As science improves, so do improvements in scientific instruments, and improved scientific instruments lead to new discoveries.
  4. 4. 1590 – Zacharias Janssen• Built first simple microscope (one set of lenses)
  5. 5. 1670’s Anton Van Leeuwenhoek• Made improvements• 270x magnification• Saw bacteria, protozoa, sperm cells, red blood cells and yeast cells
  6. 6. 1665 – Robert Hooke• Produced a compound microscope• Saw hollow boxes and named them “cells”
  7. 7. 1831 – Robert Brown• Saw central structure in plant cells, called this structure a nucleus
  8. 8. 1838 – Matthias Schleiden• Concluded that all plants are made of cells
  9. 9. 1838 – Theodor Schwann• Concluded that all animals are made of cells
  10. 10. 1839 – Johannes Purkinje• Stated that “the cell is the unit of function of life”
  11. 11. 1858 – Rudolf Virchow• Concluded that “ cells come only from previously existing cells”
  12. 12. The Cell Theory1. All living things are composed of cells2. Cells are the basic units of structure and function3. New cells are produced from existing cells
  13. 13. Compound Microscope• Contains a combination of two lenses
  14. 14. Eyepiece or ocular lens• Lens closest to the eye
  15. 15. Objective Lens• Lens closest to the specimen or object
  16. 16. How to figure out magnification• Eyepiece X objective = Magnification• 10x X• 10x X• 10x X
  17. 17. Nosepiece• Objectives fastened to this revolving structure
  18. 18. Stage• Where you place your slide
  19. 19. Stage clips• Hold slide in place
  20. 20. Body Tube• Light travels through here
  21. 21. Light Source• Provides light
  22. 22. Diaphragm• Regulates the light reaching the objective lens
  23. 23. Base• Supports the microscope
  24. 24. Arm• Holds the body tube, acts as a handle
  25. 25. Coarse focusing knob• Used to focus under low power only
  26. 26. Fine focusing knob• Used to focus under high power only
  27. 27. A microscope reverses and inverts the image of an object seen under itBeforeviewingunder themicroscope eWhileviewing eunder themicroscope
  28. 28. Things moving under a microscope areactually moving in the opposite direction
  29. 29. Things moving under a microscope areactually moving in the opposite direction
  30. 30. Stereomicroscope• Binocular microscope• Object is seen in 3-D• Only used to see large objects• Does not reverse or invert images
  31. 31. Transmission Electron Microscope• Uses a beam of electrons instead of light rays• 200,000x magnification• tissues have to be sliced really thin, dry and in a vacuum chamber• can’t be used with living material
  32. 32. Scanning Electron Microscope• provides images with 3-D quality• can’t be used with living material
  33. 33. Micromanipulator• Used to dissect cells, can remove nuclei• Knowledge of cells has been increased by manipulation and dissection of cells
  34. 34. High – Speed Centrifuge• Spin at high speeds• Cell components sort out at different layers according to density
  35. 35. Microscopic Measurements• Use the unit called the micrometer• 1/1000 of a meter
  36. 36. How to convert millimeters to micrometers• Multiply by one thousand…or• Move the decimal point 3 places to the right
  37. 37. How to convert micrometers to millimeters• Divide by 1,000…or• Move the decimal point 3 places to the left• Ex.) 2,500 micrometers =• .15 micrometers =
  38. 38. How to find the diameter of your field of view• Place a transparent plastic ruler in the field of view like this• 1.3 mm• Convert to micrometers• 1.3 mm =
  39. 39. Section 3-2Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
  40. 40. Eukaryotes• Have a nucleus and membrane covered organelles
  41. 41. Prokaryotes• Don’t have a nucleus and membrane covered organelles
  42. 42. Eukaryotic Cell Structures
  43. 43. Plasma Membrane• Separates the cell from its environment• Controls the transport of materials in and out• Allows some materials but not others to pass through this is called… – Selectively permeable
  44. 44. Endoplasmic Reticulum• Extensive network of tube-like structures that forms a passageway that functions in the transport of materials throughout the cells
  45. 45. Ribosomes• Site of protein synthesis• Attached to the walls of the ER or move freely in the cytoplasm
  46. 46. Golgi Bodies• Stack of tiny, flattened sac-like tubes used in secretion• Package protein molecules in a membrane and send the package to the cells surface
  47. 47. Mitochondria• Where cellular respiration takes place to release energy• “Mighty Mitochondria”• Powerhouse of the cell
  48. 48. Microtubules• Tubes that serve as support for the cell
  49. 49. Microfilaments• Thin threads attached to the cell membranes, play a role in movement
  50. 50. Lysosomes• Vesicles that contain enzymes used in digestion• Fuses with food vacuoles to digest food into smaller pieces• Digest old cell structures to dispose of them or even entire cells
  51. 51. Nucleus• Regulates all the cells activities
  52. 52. Chromosomes• Long coiled fibers that carry the material of heredity• Made of protein and DNA
  53. 53. Nucleolus• Composed of RNA• Involved in the passage of RNA into the cytoplasm
  54. 54. Centrioles• Small cylinders in the cytoplasm that play a role in cell division
  55. 55. Cilia
  56. 56. Flagella
  57. 57. Chloroplasts• Organelle found only in plants, used to make food
  58. 58. Vacuoles• Spherical, bubble-like storage sacs• Plant cells have very large vacuoles compared to animal cells
  59. 59. Cell Wall• Rigid structure Cell Wall that surrounds the cell membrane• Made of cellulose• Permits most things to pass through
  60. 60. Section 3-3Cellular Processes
  61. 61. The Big Idea• Cells need to regulate the movement of dissolved molecules on either side of the membrane
  62. 62. Cell membrane• Regulates what enters and leaves the cell and also provides protection and supportOutsideof cell Carbohydrate chains ProteinsCellmembrane Inside of cell Protein (cytoplasm) channel Lipid bilayer
  63. 63. Cell membrane• Made of a double layered sheet called a lipid bilayerOutsideof cell Carbohydrate chains ProteinsCellmembrane Inside of cell Protein (cytoplasm) channel Lipid bilayer
  64. 64. Cell Wall• Provide support and protection for cell• Found in more than just plants• Contrary to popular belief, not selectively permeable
  65. 65. Cell Walls
  66. 66. Diffusion Through Cell Boundaries• One of the more important functions of the cell membrane is to regulate the movement of dissolved molecules from one side of a membrane to the other
  67. 67. Concentration• The mass of solute in a given volume of solution• Mass/volume
  68. 68. • What is the concentration of 12 grams of salt in 3 liters of water?• What is the concentration of 12 grams of salt in 6 liters of water?
  69. 69. In a solution, particles move constantly
  70. 70. Diffusion• Process by which molecules of a substance move from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration
  71. 71. Diffusion
  72. 72. Diffusion
  73. 73. Equilibrium• When the concentration of the solute is the same throughout a system
  74. 74. • Because diffusion depends on random particle movements, substances diffuse across membranes without energy being used• Even during equilibrium, particles still move, but there is no net change in concentration
  75. 75. Osmosis• The diffusion of water
  76. 76. Osmosis
  77. 77. Isotonic• The concentration of solutes is the same inside and outside the cell
  78. 78. Hypertonic• Solution has a higher solute concentration than the cell
  79. 79. Hypotonic• Solution has a lower solute concentration than the cell
  80. 80. Facilitated Diffusion• Movement of specific molecules across cell membranes through protein channels Glucose •Only go from high High molecules concentrations Concentration to low Cell concentrations Membrane •Does not require Low energy Concentration Protein channel
  81. 81. Types of Active Transport• Sometimes cells must move materials in the opposite direction – Low concentrations to high concentrations
  82. 82. Active Transport• Energy requiring process that moves materials across a cell membrane against a concentration gradient
  83. 83. Molecule to be carriedActive Transport Energy Molecule being carried
  84. 84. Molecular transport• Small molecules and ions are actively transported
  85. 85. Carrier proteins• Proteins that act like pumps
  86. 86. Endocytosis• The process of taking material into the cell by means of infolding of the membrane Food particle engulfing Forms a vacuole
  87. 87. Phagocytosis • Cell eating • White blood cells do this
  88. 88. Pinocytosis • Cell drinking
  89. 89. Exocytosis• Forces contents out of the cell• Endocytosis in reverse
  90. 90. Section 3-4The Diversity of Cellular life
  91. 91. Unicellular Organism• Single celled• Do everything a living organism does
  92. 92. Multicellular Organism• Many celled• Depend on communication and cooperation among specialized cells
  93. 93. Specialization• When cells develop in different ways to perform different tasks
  94. 94. Red Blood Cells • Transport oxygen
  95. 95. Pancreatic Cells • Make proteins • Packed with ribosomes
  96. 96. Skeletal Muscle • Generate force • Packed with mitochondria • Overdeveloped cytoskeleton
  97. 97. Nerve Cell • Send messages
  98. 98. Guard Cells• Open and close the stomata
  99. 99. Levels of OrganizationCells Tissues Organs Organ Systems
  100. 100. Tissues• Group of similar cells that perform specific function• Ex.) smooth muscle
  101. 101. Organ• Group of tissues that work together to perform a specific function• Ex.) stomach
  102. 102. Organ System• Group of organs that work together to perform a specific function• Ex.) digestive system• This organization creates a division of labor that makes multicellular life possible
  103. 103. Biological organization