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AGENDA SETTING THEORY OF
MEDIA
&
ITS IMPLICATIONS IN THIS ERA
WHAT AGENDA SETTING MEANS….
 A theory in mass-communication that states
that the media have the ability to determine
which issues are important to the public.
 Media don’t tell people what to think, but
what to think about.
BACKGROUND:
 Walter Lippmann (1922): People do not deal
directly with their environment as much as
they respond to “pictures” in their heads.
 Bernard Cohen (1963): Media successfully
tells readers what to “think about”.
 Maxwell McCombs & Donald Shaw (1972):
Conducted empirical research of Agenda
Setting on US Presidential elections.
 Shanto Iyenger and Donald Kinder (1987):
1- offered testable agenda setting hypothesis,
2- series of experiments examined Agenda Setting
and came up with 3 important features:
 Vividness of News Reports
 The positioning of stories
 Priming
Kurt Lang and Gladys Lang (1983):
Proposed the Concept of Agenda Building.
Influences From Outside Media Organizations
Influence Of Ideology On Media Content
Organizational Influences On Media Content
Individual Media Workers Influence On Media
Content
Influence Of Media Routines
WHO SETS THE MEDIA AGENDA?
FRAMING
 Mc Combs & Ghanem , Dietram
Scheufele
 Media provide a focus and environment
for reporting a story, influencing how
audiences will understand or evaluate it.
Exposure to mass
media
representation of
everyday
communication
Attention directed
towards cues used
by media
professionals
Decoding of media
representation of
everyday
communication
Frames developed
to interpret and
plan human action
AGENDA BUILDING
 A collective process in which media, government,
and the citizenry reciprocally influence one another
in areas of public policy.
 Media mobilize various institutions towards meeting
particular concerns.
QUALITIES AND POWERS OF AGENDA
SETTING THEORY
Provides Empirical
Demonstrations
Explanatory power
Strong predictive
power
Easy to understand
Provide New Areas for
Research
Integrates Similar
Ideas
CRITICISM
It has roots in Mass
Society Perspective
Media cannot create or
conceal issues.
Not a single agent to
disseminate information
Ignores cultural &
Demographic
Differences
Media users may not
be as ideal as this
theory assumes
HOW PAKISTANI MEDIA PRACTISE
AGENDA SETTING
EXAMPLES:
Increasing Rape Cases in Pakistan
Pakistan church blast
Sikandar case
Shahzaib murder case
Geo Education Campaign
MADE BY:
Wajeeha Azam
Kulsoom

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Agenda setting theory

  • 1.
  • 2. AGENDA SETTING THEORY OF MEDIA & ITS IMPLICATIONS IN THIS ERA
  • 3. WHAT AGENDA SETTING MEANS….  A theory in mass-communication that states that the media have the ability to determine which issues are important to the public.  Media don’t tell people what to think, but what to think about.
  • 4. BACKGROUND:  Walter Lippmann (1922): People do not deal directly with their environment as much as they respond to “pictures” in their heads.  Bernard Cohen (1963): Media successfully tells readers what to “think about”.  Maxwell McCombs & Donald Shaw (1972): Conducted empirical research of Agenda Setting on US Presidential elections.
  • 5.  Shanto Iyenger and Donald Kinder (1987): 1- offered testable agenda setting hypothesis, 2- series of experiments examined Agenda Setting and came up with 3 important features:  Vividness of News Reports  The positioning of stories  Priming Kurt Lang and Gladys Lang (1983): Proposed the Concept of Agenda Building.
  • 6. Influences From Outside Media Organizations Influence Of Ideology On Media Content Organizational Influences On Media Content Individual Media Workers Influence On Media Content Influence Of Media Routines WHO SETS THE MEDIA AGENDA?
  • 7. FRAMING  Mc Combs & Ghanem , Dietram Scheufele  Media provide a focus and environment for reporting a story, influencing how audiences will understand or evaluate it.
  • 8. Exposure to mass media representation of everyday communication Attention directed towards cues used by media professionals Decoding of media representation of everyday communication Frames developed to interpret and plan human action
  • 9. AGENDA BUILDING  A collective process in which media, government, and the citizenry reciprocally influence one another in areas of public policy.  Media mobilize various institutions towards meeting particular concerns.
  • 10. QUALITIES AND POWERS OF AGENDA SETTING THEORY Provides Empirical Demonstrations Explanatory power Strong predictive power Easy to understand Provide New Areas for Research Integrates Similar Ideas
  • 11. CRITICISM It has roots in Mass Society Perspective Media cannot create or conceal issues. Not a single agent to disseminate information Ignores cultural & Demographic Differences Media users may not be as ideal as this theory assumes
  • 12. HOW PAKISTANI MEDIA PRACTISE AGENDA SETTING EXAMPLES: Increasing Rape Cases in Pakistan Pakistan church blast Sikandar case Shahzaib murder case Geo Education Campaign