When a muscle shortens (contracts) it reduces the distance between the parts of its contents or the space it surrounds. The contraction of skeletal muscles that connect a pair of bones brings the attachment points closer together which then causes the bone to move. When cardiac muscle contract, they reduce the area in the heart chambers which then causes blood to be pumped from the heart into the blood vessels. When smooth muscle contracts, they reduce the diameter of blood vessels and the intestines. ONLY muscle tissue can perform this action.
The ability to respond to certain stimuli by producing electric signals called action potentials or impulses. Both muscle cells and nerve cells can perform this action.
The ability to be stretched. When we bend our forearm, the muscles on the back it the forearm are extended or stretched.
The ability to return to original length when relaxing
Muscle tone- in order for muscles to function, muscles should always be slightly contracted and ready to pull. Muscle tone can be achieved through proper nutrition and regular exercise. Muscle contractions can be ISOTONIC or ISOMETRIC isotonic happens when muscles contract and shorten. This happens when we walk, talk, etc. isometric happens the muscle tension increases but the muscle doesn’t shorten. This happens when we tense our abdominal muscles. Atrophy- muscle shrinkage. Due to not using the muscle Hypertrophy- muscle enlarges because the muscle fiber (cell) enlarges. Due to overuse
Because the muscle was not being used while the cast was on, it caused the muscle to atrophy.
Caused by accumulation of lactic acid in the muscles. During vigorous exercise, the blood is unable to transport enough oxygen for the complete oxidation of glucose in the muscles. This will cause the muscles to contract without oxygen (anaerobic). Normally lactic acid will leave the muscle and pass through the bloodstream. But as exercise continues, the lactic acid level in the blood will raise and cause lactic acid to accumulate in the muscle. When there is lactic acid build up in the muscle, the muscle is not able to contract as well which will cause muscle fatigue and cramps. When exercise is over, the person needs to stop, rest, and take in enough oxygen by breathing. This will change the lactic acid back into glucose and other substances to be used by the muscle cells. The amount of oxygen needed is called OXYGEN DEBT. When the debt is paid back, respirations will go back to a normal rate.
Movement Body form and shape to maintain posture Body Heat
Point of origin is the part of a skeletal muscle that is attached to a fixed structure or bone. This part moves the LEAST during muscle contraction. Point of insertion is the other end that is attached to a movable part. This part moves the MOST during a muscle contraction. With flexion Prime mover produces movement in a single direction (bicep) Antagonist produces movement in the opposite direction (tricep) Synergists help to steady a movement or stabilize the joint activity.
The body temperature likes to stay between 98.6-99.8. For muscles to contract and do their work, muscles need energy. The major source for energy is ATP (adenosine triphosphate) which is found in muscle cells. To make ATP, the cells must have oxygen + glucose+ other material brought to the cell by circulating blood. When a muscle cell is stimulated, ATP is released which then produces heat our body needs and energy for the muscle to contract. To get warm, we may jump up and down or shiver.
Myo= muscle -pathy= disease
Myalgia= means muscle pain Fibromyalgia is a disease which has a collection of symptoms (syndrome). CAUSE : unknown SYMPTOMS : The most prominent symptom is chronic (long lasting -3 or more months) muscle pain. Other symptoms are fatigue, headaches, numbness & tingling, and joint pain. DIAGNOSIS : To be diagnosed with fibromyalgia, you must have had at least 3 months of widespread pain, and pain and tenderness in at least 11 of 18 areas, including Arms (elbows) Buttocks Chest Knees Lower back Neck Rib cage Shoulders & Thighs TREATMENT: Directed at pain relief. They should get enough sleep, exercise regularly, and use massage therapy, use a chiropractor, relaxation techniques, stretching exercises, and medication. PROGNOSIS : Fibromyalgia is a long-term disorder. Sometimes, the symptoms improve. Other times, the pain may get worse and continue for months or years.
Cause : No obvious cause Locations : Abdominal= organs protrude through abdominal wall Inguinal= organs protrude in the inguinal area Hiatal= stomach pushes through the diaphragm Symptoms: Most often there are no symptoms. However, sometimes there may be discomfort or pain. The discomfort may be worse when you stand, strain, or lift heavy objects. In time, most people will complain about a growth that feels tender and is growing. Diagnosis: A health care provider can confirm that you have a hernia during a physical exam. The growth may increase in size when you cough, bend, lift, or strain. Treatment : Surgery is the only treatment that can permanently fix a hernia Prevention: Use proper lifting techniques. Lose weight if you are overweight. Relieve or avoid constipation by eating plenty of fiber, drinking lots of fluid, going to the bathroom as soon as you have the urge, and exercising regularly. Men should see their health care provider if they strain with urination. This may be a symptom of an enlarged prostate.
Causes :Spasms may occur when a muscle is overused and tired, particularly if it is overstretched or if it has been held in the same position for a prolonged period of time dehydration and depletion of electrolytes will lead to muscle spasm and cramping. Systemic illnesses like diabetes , anemia (low red blood cell count), kidney disease and thyroid and other hormone issues Diseases of the nervous system Locations : anywhere there is a muscle Symptoms :There is acute onset of pain as the muscle contracts. A bulging muscle may be seen or felt underneath the skin where the muscle is located Diagnosis :a history and physical examination electromyography (EMG) may be done to determine whether there may be an abnormality of the muscle, of the nerves, or both. Treatment :is the key to most skeletal muscle spasm episodes. Since they are often associated with dehydration and electrolyte disturbances, it is important to keep the body well hydrated. If the fluid loss is due to an illness with fever or vomiting and diarrhea, controlling the symptoms will help limit fluid loss and prevent spasms. Similarly, for those who work or exercise in a hot environment, drinking enough fluids to keep hydrated is very important. Muscles should also be prepared for the activity that they are expected to do. Just as athletes stretch and warm up before the game, nonathletes should warm up before heavy labor, including jobs like raking, mowing, and shoveling snow the initial treatment is to gently stretch the muscle back to length to break the spasm cycle and resolve the acute situation.
a group of inherited disorders that involve muscle weakness and loss of muscle tissue, which get worse over time. Cause : passed down through families Symptoms : Muscle weakness that slowly gets worse Delayed development of muscle motor skills Difficulty using one or more muscle groups Drooling Eyelid drooping ( ptosis ) Frequent falls Loss of strength in a muscle or group of muscles as an adult Loss in muscle size Problems walking (delayed walking) Diagnosis : A physical examination and your medical history Heart testing - electrocardiography (ECG) Nerve testing - electromyography ( EMG ) Blood testing - including CPK level Genetic testing for some forms of muscular dystrophy Treatment : There are no known cures for the various muscular dystrophies. The goal of treatment is to control symptoms Prognosis : The severity of disability depends on the type of muscular dystrophy. All types of muscular dystrophy slowly get worse, but how fast this happens varies widely. Some types of muscular dystrophy are deadly. Other types cause little disability and people with them have a normal lifespan.
Neuromuscular disorders involve the muscles and the nerves that control them. Cause : Autoimmune disorder. the body produces antibodies that block the muscle cells from receiving messages (neurotransmitters) from the nerve cell. Unknown why this happens. Symptoms : weakness of the voluntary (skeletal) muscles Breathing difficulty because of weakness of the chest wall muscles Chewing or swallowing difficulty, causing frequent gagging, choking , or drooling Difficulty climbing stairs, lifting objects, or rising from a seated position Difficulty talking Drooping head Facial paralysis or weakness of the facial muscles Fatigue Hoarseness or changing voice Double vision Difficulty maintaining steady gaze Eyelid drooping Diagnosis :a physical exam, including a detailed nervous system (neurological) examination Treatment :There is no known cure. Lifestyle changes often help you continue your daily activities. The following may be recommended: Scheduling rest periods An eye patch if double vision is bothersome Avoiding stress and heat exposure, which can make symptoms worse Medications that may be prescribed include: Prognosis :There is no cure, but long-term remission is possible. You may have to restrict some daily activities
Knee pain due to a strain- a stretching or tearing of the muscle or tendon which will result in minimal bleeding inside the muscle, pain, and swelling. Treatment : Apply ice to stop the bleeding inside the muscle and to reduce the swelling. Prognosis: Good. He should have a full recovery.
Cause : most often an overuse injury Symptoms :Tenderness directly over the tendon Pain with movement of muscles and tendons Swelling of the tendon Diagnosis : x-rays and MRI Treatment : Rest and protect the area Apply an ice pack Take an anti-inflammatory Possible steroid shots Prognosis : Good is follow through with doctor’s treatment.
Tetanus is an infection of the nervous system with the potentially deadly bacteria Clostridium tetani (C. tetani) Cause: spores of the bacteria C. tetani live in the soil and are found around the world. In the spore form, C. tetani may remain inactive in the soil, but it can remain infectious for more than 40 years. Infection begins when the spores enter the body through an injury or wound. The spores release bacteria that spread and make a poison called tetanospasmin. This poison blocks nerve signals from the spinal cord to the muscles, causing severe muscle spasms. The spasms can be so powerful that they tear the muscles or cause fractures of the spine. The time between infection and the first sign of symptoms is typically 7 to 21 days. Most cases of tetanus in the United States occur in those who have not been properly vaccinated against the disease. Symptoms :Tetanus often begins with mild spasms in the jaw muscles (lockjaw). The spasms can also affect the chest, neck, back, and abdominal muscles. Back muscle spasms often cause arching. Sometimes the spasms affect muscles that help with breathing, which can lead to breathing problems. Prolonged muscular action causes sudden, powerful, and painful contractions of muscle groups. This is called tetany. These episodes can cause fractures and muscle tears. Diagnosis : Your doctor will perform a physical exam and ask questions about your medical history. No specific lab test is available to determine the diagnosis of tetanus Treatment :Antibiotics Bedrest with a nonstimulating environment (dim light, reduced noise, and stable temperature) Medicine to reverse the poison of the spores Muscle relaxers Sedatives Surgery to clean the wound and remove the source of the poison (debridement) Breathing support with oxygen, a breathing tube, and a breathing machine may be necessary. Prognosis :Without treatment, one out of four infected people die
1.05 Understand thefunctions and disorders of the muscular system
1.05 Understand the functions and disorders of the muscular system• What are the characteristics of muscles?• What are the functions of the muscular system?• What are common disorders of the muscular system?• How are muscular disorders treated?• How does the muscular system relate to the body’s support and movement? 1.05 Understand the functions 2 and disorders of the muscular
Characteristics of Muscles Contractibility Excitability Extensibility Elasticity 1.05 Understand the functions 3 and disorders of the muscular
Characteristics of MusclesContractibility 1.05 Understand the functions 4 and disorders of the muscular
Characteristics of MusclesContractibility Myoneural stimulation + contraction of muscle proteins = movement and heat 1.05 Understand the functions 5 and disorders of the muscular
Characteristics of MusclesContractibilityNeurotransmitter at site of The sodium-potassiummuscle stimulus. pump of the membrane of a muscle cell. The purpose of this slide is to illustrate the complexity of the process of movement. 1.05 Understand the functions 6 and disorders of the muscular
Characteristics of MusclesExcitability 1.05 Understand the functions 7 and disorders of the muscular
Characteristics of MusclesExtensibility 1.05 Understand the functions 8 and disorders of the muscular
Characteristics of MusclesElasticity 1.05 Understand the functions 9 and disorders of the muscular
Characteristics of Muscles Contractibility Excitability Extensibility Elasticity 1.05 Understand the functions 10 and disorders of the muscular
Muscle ToneDiscuss muscle tone.•Atrophy: a- ________ -trophy ________•Hypertrophy: hyper- _______ -trophy ________ 1.05 Understand the functions 11 and disorders of the muscular
Muscle ToneJohn just got a cast off his leg. His calf muscle on the affected leg is 1” smaller in diameter than his other calf muscle.• What happened?• How do you explain this to him? 1.05 Understand the functions 12 and disorders of the muscular
Muscle Tone Exercise & TrainingWhat are theadvantages ofexercise?Are there anydisadvantages ofexercise? 1.05 Understand the functions 13 and disorders of the muscular
Muscle Fatigue– What causes muscle fatigue?– How does the body correct muscle fatigue? 1.05 Understand the functions 14 and disorders of the muscular
Functions of the Muscular SystemWhat are thefunctions of themuscular system? 1.05 Understand the functions 15 and disorders of the muscular
Movement: Skeletal Muscle• Receptors in muscles provide the brain with information about body position and movement.• The brain controls the contraction of skeletal muscle. 1.05 Understand the functions 16 and disorders of the muscular
Movement Point of origin Point of insertionIdentify the: Prime mover Antagonist Synergists 1.05 Understand the functions 17 and disorders of the muscular
Movement: Digestive SystemThe nervous system regulates the speed at whichfood moves through the digestive tract. 1.05 Understand the functions 18 and disorders of the muscular
Movement: Circulatory System HeartbeatThe nervous system and hormones regulate thespeed at which the heart beats. 1.05 Understand the functions 19 and disorders of the muscular
Posture• How does the muscular system effect posture? 1.05 Understand the functions 20 and disorders of the muscular
Body HeatWhat is the body’s response to cold? Why? 1.05 Understand the functions 21 and disorders of the muscular
Myopathy Myo- -pathy1.05 Understand the functions 22and disorders of the muscular
FibromyalgiaCauseSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPrognosis 1.05 Understand the functions 23 and disorders of the muscular
HerniaCausesLocationsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPrevention 1.05 Understand the functions 24 and disorders of the muscular
Muscle Spasms (Involuntary hypertonicity)CausesLocationsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatment 1.05 Understand the functions 25 and disorders of the muscular
Muscular DystrophyCauseSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPrognosis 1.05 Understand the functions 26 and disorders of the muscular
Myasthenia GravisCauseSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPrognosis 1.05 Understand the functions 27 and disorders of the muscular
Strain• What happened here?• What symptoms is this man having? Why?• How will he treat them?• What is his prognosis? 1.05 Understand the functions 28 and disorders of the muscular
TendonitisCauseSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPrognosis 1.05 Understand the functions 29 and disorders of the muscular
TetanusCauseSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPrognosis 1.05 Understand the functions 30 and disorders of the muscular
1.05 Understand the functions and disorders of the muscular system• What are the characteristics of muscles?• What are the functions of the muscular system?• What are common disorders of the muscular system?• How are muscular disorders treated?• How does the muscular system relate to the body’s support and movement? 1.05 Understand the functions 31 and disorders of the muscular