1.03 understand the_functions_and_disorders_of_the_skeletal_system

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Health Science I
Unit 1.03 Functions & Disorders of the Skeletal System

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  • Movement Protection Support
  • Hemopoiesis is the formation of blood cells. All blood cells are formed in the red marrow in the long bones and sternum. All blood cells develop from stem cells (undifferentiated cells).
  • Bones serve as the storage area for minerals such as calcium and phosphorus. If you do not have adequate intake of calcium or phosphorus, the body is able to use the stored minerals. Lets say the blood calcium level drops too low, the bones will release calcium into the blood stream to help bring the levels to a normal level. Once the blood level reaches the normal amount, the bones will stop releasing the stored calcium.
  • When skeletal muscles contract, they pull on a bone causing it to move. Bones play a vital part in body movement. They act as a passive lever. Ligaments and tendons also work with the bone. Ligaments connect bone to bone (joints) and cartilage serves as a support for muscles. Tendons connect muscle to bone. Altogether they enable the body to move.
  • Bones protect our soft delicate internal organs. Cranium (Skull) protects the brain, the inner ear and parts of the eye. Ribs and sternum protect the heart and lungs The vertebra protect the spinal colummn
  • Bones support body structures and also provides shape to the body
  • Inflammatory condition of one or more joints. It causes pain and often bone changes. There are at least 20 different types of arthritis. The most common are osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Also known as degenerative joint disease. It occurs with aging and almost 80% of the population is affected by some level of osteoarthritis. The articular cartilage at the end of the bone degenerates (wears away) and a bony spur forms at the joint. The joint may become larger and there will be pain and swelling. This can get worse with activity. There is no cure for osteoarthritis. However the pain and swelling is treated so hopefully it will increase mobility. NSAIDs (nonsteriodal antiinflammatory drugs) Motrin, Aleve can help. Dietary supplements such as glucosamine and chrondrotin can help with pain relief.
  • RA is a chronic autoimmune (the body’s immune system attacks itself) disease which affects the connective tissue and joints. There will be swelling of the connective tissue, a thickening of the synovial membranes, and the joints will fuse together. The joints will be very swollen and very painful. The pain will causes muscle spasms which will then cause the deformities in the joints. The joints will be become stiff and unable to be moved. Since the joint is not moving, the muscles attached to the joint will atrophy (shrink). The cause is unknown and there is no cure. It effects 3 times more women then men. Treatment includes pain relief and try to reduce the swelling. Occupational and physical therapy can help protect from further damage. Surgery might be considered for joint replacement or tendon repair.
  • Gout is a joint disorder. It is characterized by a sudden inflammation. It most often effects the big toe but other joints can be effected. The pain and swelling occurs due to a build up of uric acid crystals in the joint. Tx- NSAIDs like Motrin, Aleve
  • Uric acid accumulated in the hand
  • Porous bone disease is characterized by low bone mass and structural deterioration of bone tissue. Effects estimated 44 million Americans. 80% of those are women. Cause : new bone creation doesn't keep up with the removal of old bone. Risk factors: Decreased intake of calcium Your sex. Women are much more likely to develop osteoporosis than are men. Age. The older you get, the greater your risk of osteoporosis. Race. You're at greatest risk of osteoporosis if you're white or of Asian descent. Family history. Having a parent or sibling with osteoporosis puts you at greater risk, especially if you also have a family history of fractures. Frame size. Men and women who have small body frames tend to have a higher risk because they may have less bone mass to draw from as they age. Sex hormones. The reduction of estrogen levels . Men experience a gradual reduction in testosterone levels as they age. Lowered sex hormone levels tend to weaken bone. Thyroid problems. Too much thyroid hormone can cause bone loss. This can occur if your thyroid is overactive or if you take too much thyroid hormone medication to treat an underactive thyroid. Other glands. Osteoporosis has also been associated with overactive parathyroid and adrenal glands.
  • Caused due to collapsed vertebra due to the weakening bone
  • Cause : extreme and prolonged lack of Vitamin D. Bones become soft and because they don’t calcify (harden) it will cause deformities such as bowlegged. PREVENTION : Vitamin D, calcium, and exposure to the sunshine (necessary for production of Vit D) Treatment :If a vitamin D or calcium deficiency causes rickets, adding vitamin D or calcium to the diet generally corrects any resulting bone problems for your child. Rickets due to a genetic condition may require additional medications or other treatment. Some skeletal deformities caused by rickets may need corrective surgery.
  • Humped curvature of the thoracic spine. The individual bones (vertebrae) that make up a healthy spine look like squares stacked in a column. Kyphosis occurs when the vertebrae in the upper back become more wedge-shaped. This deformity can be caused by a variety of problems, including: Osteoporosis Disk degeneration Cancer and cancer treatments Birth defects Treatment: Pain relievers. Osteoporosis drugs Therapy Exercises Bracing. Surgical
  • Cause : Lordosis can affect persons of any age. Certain conditions can contribute to this condition, including discitis, kyphosis, obesity, and osteoporosis . Treatment: Drugs to relieve pain and swelling Physical therapy to build strength and flexibility and to increase range of motion Braces to control the growth of the curve, especially in children and teens Reducing excess body weight to ideal If the curvature is severe and causing other symptoms, spinal instrumentation, artificial disc replacement and kyphoplasty are all potential surgical treatments for lordosis.
  • Scoliosis is a sideways curvature of the spine that occurs most often during the growth spurt just before puberty. While scoliosis can be caused by conditions such as cerebral palsy and muscular dystrophy, the cause of most scoliosis is unknown. Treatment: Brace surgery -surgeons connect two or more of the bones in the spine (vertebrae) together, so they can't move independently. Pieces of bone or a bone-like material are placed between the vertebrae. Metal rods, hooks, screws or wires typically hold that part of the spine straight and still while the old and new bone material fuses together.
  • Dislocation- bone is displaced from its proper position in a joint Subluxation-the presence of an incomplete or partial dislocation
  • Fracture is a crack or splinter in a bone
  • Splint Cast ORIF- plates and pins
  • A single crack in the bone structure Radius and ulna
  • A fracture in which the skin is pierced by the bone Tibia
  • A fracture in which one or more areas of the bone is displaced Tib Fib
  • The bone cracks but not all the way through the bone Radius
  • A sprain is a stretching or tearing of ligaments — the tough bands of fibrous tissue that connect one bone to another in your joints. The most common location for a sprain is in your ankle. A strain is a stretching or tearing of muscle or tendon. A tendon is a fibrous cord of tissue that connects muscles to bones. Strains often occur in the lower back and in the hamstring muscle in the back of your thigh.
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  • 1.03 understand the_functions_and_disorders_of_the_skeletal_system

    1. 1. 1.03 Understand thefunctions and disorders of the skeletal system
    2. 2. 1.03 Understand the functions and disorders of the skeletal systemEssential Standards:• What are the functions of the skeletal system?• What are some disorders of the skeletal system?• How are skeletal disorders treated?• How does the skeletal system relate to the body’s systems of support and movement? 1.03 Understand the functions and disorders of the skeletal system 2
    3. 3. Functions of the Skeletal SystemWhat functions ofthe skeletalsystem aredemonstrated inthis picture? 1.03 Understand the functions and disorders of the skeletal system 3
    4. 4. Functions of the Skeletal SystemHemopoiesis 1.03 Understand the functions and disorders of the skeletal system 4
    5. 5. Functions of the Skeletal SystemMineral Storage 1.03 Understand the functions and disorders of the skeletal system 5
    6. 6. Functions of the Skeletal System Movement 1.03 Understand the functions and disorders of the skeletal system 6
    7. 7. Functions of the Skeletal System Types of Movement Flexion - Extension Abduction - Adduction Pronation - SupinationRotation - Circumduction 1.03 Understand the functions and disorders of the skeletal system 7
    8. 8. Functions of the Skeletal System Which skeletal structures provide protection? Which organs do they protect? 1.03 Understand the functions and disorders of the skeletal system 8
    9. 9. Functions of the Skeletal System Provides support 1.03 Understand the functions and disorders of the skeletal system 9
    10. 10. Disorders of theSkeletal System 1.03 Understand the functions and disorders of the skeletal system 10
    11. 11. Disorders of the Skeletal System Arthritisarthr/o = joint + -itis= inflammation 1.03 Understand the functions and disorders of the skeletal system 11
    12. 12. Disorders of the Skeletal SystemOsteoarthritis  What is the cause?  How is it treated? 1.03 Understand the functions and disorders of the skeletal system 12
    13. 13. Disorders of the Skeletal SystemRheumatoid arthritis What is the cause How is it treated 13
    14. 14. Disorders of the Skeletal System Gout  What is the cause  How is it treated 1.03 Understand the functions and disorders of the skeletal system 14
    15. 15. Gout1.03 Understand the functions and disorders of the skeletal system 15
    16. 16. Disorders of the Skeletal System Osteoporosis  What is the cause  How is it treated 1.03 Understand the functions and disorders of the skeletal system 16
    17. 17. Disorders of the Skeletal SystemOsteoporosis 1.03 Understand the functions and disorders of the skeletal system 17
    18. 18. Disorders of the Skeletal System Rickets  What causes rickets?  How is it treated 1.03 Understand the functions and disorders of the skeletal system 18
    19. 19. Disorders of the Skeletal System Abnormal spinal curvaturesKyphosis 1.03 Understand the functions and disorders of the skeletal system 19
    20. 20. Lordosis1.03 Understand the functions and disorders of the skeletal system 20
    21. 21. Scoliosis 1.03 Understand the functions and disorders of the skeletal system 21
    22. 22. Disorders of the Skeletal System Trauma  Dislocation  Fractures 1.03 Understand the functions and disorders of the skeletal system 22
    23. 23. Skeletal System Trauma Dislocation  What are the characteristics of a dislocation?  Compare dislocation to subluxation. 1.03 Understand the functions and disorders of the skeletal system 23
    24. 24. Skeletal System Trauma Trauma  Fractures 1.03 Understand the functions and disorders of the skeletal system 24
    25. 25. Skeletal System Trauma Trauma  How is a fracture treated? 1.03 Understand the functions and disorders of the skeletal system 25
    26. 26. Skeletal System Trauma Simple or Closed Fracture 1.03 Understand the functions and disorders of the skeletal system 26
    27. 27. Skeletal System Trauma Open or Compound Fracture 27
    28. 28. Skeletal System Trauma Comminuted Fracture 28
    29. 29. Skeletal System Trauma Greenstick Fracture 1.03 Understand the functions and disorders of the skeletal system 29
    30. 30. SPRAIN1.03 Understand the functions and disorders of the skeletal system 30
    31. 31. 1.03 Understand the functions and disorders of the skeletal systemEssential Standards:• What are the functions of the skeletal system?• What are some disorders of the skeletal system?• How are skeletal disorders treated?• How does the skeletal system relate to the body’s systems of support and movement? 1.03 Understand the functions and disorders of the skeletal system 31
    32. 32. 1.03 Understand thefunctions and disorders of the skeletal system The End 1.03 Understand the functions and disorders of the skeletal system 32

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