Culture on kvarner festivals and manifestations


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Culture on kvarner festivals and manifestations

  1. 1. CULTURE ON KVARNERFESTIVALS and manifestations By Zadar HTUŠ eTwinners
  2. 2. KVARNER Kvarner is culturally privileged space, primarily due to the fact that for centuries a meeting place of different cultures: Roman, Hellenic, Slavic, Germanic, Hungary ... They are there to each other representing its representative features, is also an adjunct, preplitale, mutually enriching, often in multiple dialogue and creating new value. Ulster is also a historical perspective particularly intriguing area. His turbulent history brought many changes, not ceasing to settle their wondrous traces.01/07/13 2
  3. 3. Ancient monuments These tracks on the Kvarner region stretching all the prehistoric, ancient and medieval monuments, to those that occur in the days of which we are active participants. It is a heritage which pleasantly surprised with their different faces and unexpected peaks. She wisely encouraged to send in a review of responses to an adventure that we have for some time thought to be final. She charmingly seduces her utkanih spectrum of emotions, and helps to recognize these emotions as the Kvarner specificity, as universal values.01/07/13 3
  4. 4. Places in boxes The cultural heritage of Kvarner as not to know the limitations of any kind. Since then placed in boxes, books like these? In an attempt for you to choose from the best of that heritage, we knew that you set a task which is perhaps impossible to answer. As there were more topics that have found a place on this site, it was more and those who we think unfairly left for another occasion. Sweet Dilemma called choice has found its intention to resolve the book you hold in your hand serves only as a first step in getting acquainted with the heritage of Kvarner. So, to be an encouragement to go further. How about the cultural values that were recorded in the booklet, as well as in connection with values that are yet waiting to be presented in a similar manner.01/07/13 4
  5. 5. Gorski kotar area Mirjana Kos-Nalis ETHNOGRAPHIC TIMELINE Life in a mrgar and in a ganak A unique and surprising combination of the Mediterranean and Alpine influences on Kvarner, as nowhere else in Croatia, has resulted in a vivid ethnological and anthropological diversity. The islands, the shores and the highlands of Kvarner mutually permeate, creating an utterly distinctive cultural symbiosis. This area has always been an ‘arena of the strong and a refuge of the weak’, at times when authorities were changing, state borders being demarcated or populations migrating. Life used to follow its own routine here, paying more or less attention to these changes, protecting its autonomy, as is so often the case in the Mediterranean milieu. This is the prerequisite for survival and the essence of the mentality. The Gorski kotar region, Kvarner’s mountainous continental hinterland, so different from the coast, closes the circle and makes this area utterly unique.01/07/13 5
  6. 6. Carnival tradition The carnival tradition has taken deep roots here on Kvarner. This winter merrymaking with the practical purpose of catharsis or cleansing is celebrated at the end of the old and the beginning of the new vegetation period. It should beckon fertility, comfort the superstition and call for a new and better world order. It is a celebration of life itself and a pledge for a better future. The carnival begins after the Epiphany or on the feast day of St. Anthony on 17th January, and lasts until the beginning of the 40- day period of Lent before Easter. The origin of the carnival tradition goes back to pagan and antique customs that were modified in the spirit of Christianity and which have remained preserved up to the present day as a very vivid tradition on Kvarner, especially in the Kastav area. Some archaic forms that used to be important elements of ancient rituals are still present today.01/07/13 6
  7. 7. Present carnivals The whole carnival takes place in a very special part of the year when old nature dies and new nature is born, which is very important in terms of rituals and superstition. Our present carnival has much to do with antique rituals like the Saturnalia, the Lupercalia, the Matronalia, etc. The carnival is a period for letting go of accumulated fears; it is the beginning of a new, benevolent and fruitful life cycle, free of evil spirits. Ethnological collections have much to teach us about everyday life on Kvarner in the past. On the coast and on the islands, such collections are open to visitors in Kastav, Mošćenice, Grobnik, Dobrinj, Port, Baška, Lopar, Osor, Beli, Bakar, Novi Vinodolski, and on the small island of Košljun. Gorski kotar includes collections in Prezid, Lič and Čabar. The area of Brod Moravice hosts the ethnic village of Šimatovo.01/07/13 7
  8. 8. ZVONČARI Zvončari, the bell-ringers, are followers of the ancient magical tradition of Lupercalia, pastoral rituals in which men would dress up in animal skins to protect their herds. They are typical of the areas of Rukavac, Halubje, Mune, Zvoneće, Brgud, etc. They are mutually distinguished by the character of their masks that can be either zoomorphic (animal masks) or vegetable (caps with flowers, the so-called krabujosnice). Other details may also vary: their striped sailors’ T-shirts or checked shirts, red or vividly coloured scarves, wooden sticks with grotesque heads which they swing in ritualistic motion, the size of the bell and the way it is rung.01/07/13 8
  9. 9. Each group has its own rules and moves in a particular ritualistic way, accompanied by the traditional figures of the bear, devil, flag carrier, musician, etc. Zvončari are men of all generations – particular importance is given to passing the tradition on to each new generation. During their procession, which is accompanied by the deafening sound of bells, the zvončari sometimes form a specific circular shape, the so-called zvončarsko kolo. Zvončari from Žejane carry a coat made of ribbons in different colours and several smaller bells that jingle rather than produce heavy noise. They also move completely differently and hop in small steps. Other traditional groups come from the areas of Kastav and Grobnik (dondolaši).01/07/13 9
  10. 10. Social games in Kvarner Društvene igre are part of the tradition in the coastal areas. They are the popular leisure activity and entertainment for men and children on Sundays and feast days (recently also for women, but this is more an exception than a rule). Popular games include boccie, cards (briškula and trešete) and mőra. Children used to play Nine Men’s Morris, marbles and games connected with some specific feast, for example at Easter. The court for playing boccie is an essential part of every settlement; it is usually located in the centre and serves as a daily meeting place. Boccie is a kind of lawn bowling in which two groups of players try to roll wooden or metal balls at 1001/07/13 a jack.
  11. 11. The games Sometimes they have to knock out a competitor’s ball with a direct hit, which is a rather impressive achievement. The card games briškula and trešeta are played in pairs with Italian cards, the popular Triestine Cards. Mőra is played by two players: each player shows a number by the fingers of one hand and shouts out a number which should be the sum of all displayed fingers. This is accompanied by rhythmical hitting of the wooden table. Children used to play Nine Men’s Morris, so even today we still find boards for this game cut into stone, for example in Mošćenice.01/07/13 11
  12. 12. THE FOLK COSTUMES IN KVARNER The Folk costumes that people wear on Kvarner are very heterogeneous and were created under various cultural influences. Every region or island has its own distinctive features: the costumes differ from place to place in their detail, the way they are worn, adornments, etc. This diversity that cannot be explained by a simple definition is the most valuable heritage of Kvarner’s folk costumes. Let us mention some of the curiosities. The costume of the women from Krk consists of a white blouse with wide, folded sleeves and a heavy, mostly black or red, folded skirt. The kotiga is a very special winter skirt made of sheep’s fleece that provides excellent protection from the cold bura wind.01/07/13 12
  13. 13. About the costumes The headgear is called a rub or dubljenac. This is a wide woven ribbon, mainly of a yellow colour, that is wound around the head in different ways, like a turban. Men wear a kaban – a heavy coat made of linen to protect from the cold. Particularly vivid are the costumes from some of the other islands, like the islands of Susak and Cres. The costume from Orlec is finely embellished with corals and a necklace made of a row of medals and coins with a small box – a reliquary.01/07/13 13
  14. 14. The Crossbowmen from Rab They are the main protagonists of a knights’ tournament that was first established in 1364 to commemorate the defence of the town of Rab by crossbows, a weapon that goes back to ancient times. These medieval games were revived in 1995 and now take place in Rab every year. Crossbows are also used by the balestrieri from San Marino. The tournament lasts for several days and begins with the arrival of the duke and his entourage into the town’s loggia where crossbowmen and flag carriers are gathered. They then receive a blessing in the cathedral, to the sound of drums, fanfares and ringing church bells. This is followed by the opening ceremony on the square in front of the church and the raising of the 1401/07/13
  15. 15. RAB FJESTA-fjera On the sign of the honoured judge, twelve knights start the tournament. The winner is declared by the duke of Rab and awarded the Felix prize. The event continues with music, a display of old trades and historical costumes. The tournament takes place twice a year, at the end of May and the end of July. The Feast of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary on the 15th of August is also celebrated in a medieval spirit.01/07/13 15
  16. 16. Images related to fjera01/07/13 16
  17. 17. CHESTNUT FESTIVAL Marunada (Chestnut Days) is a gastronomic festival that takes place in Lovran, a town that has always been famous for its sweet fruits: figs, grapes, olives, cherries, wild plants and of course sweet chestnuts, locally called the maruni – hence the name of the festival. Their quality was praised by J.W. Valvasor in the 17th century and travel writers and explorers like Dragutin Hirc at the end of the 19th century. The Marunada takes place in the second half of October in Lovran, Dobreč and Liganj. This much-appreciated type of chestnut grows only here on Liburnia, in the area between Ika and Mošćenička Draga.01/07/13 17