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  • Under the terms of Versailles , the Rhineland had been made into a demilitarised zone. Germany had political control of this area, but she was not allowed to put any troops into it. Therefore, many Germans concluded that they did not actually fully control the area despite it being in Germany itself. In March 1936, Hitler took what for him was a huge gamble - he ordered that his troops should openly re-enter the Rhineland thus breaking the terms of Versailles once again. He did order his generals that the military should retreat out of the Rhineland if the French showed the slightest hint of making a military stand against him. This did not occur. Over 32,000 soldiers and armed policemen crossed into the Rhineland Why didn’t the Allies (Britain and France) do anything about this violation of the Versailles Treaty ?   France was going through an internal political crisis at the time and there was no political leadership to concentrate against Nazi Germany . Britain generally supported the view that Nazi Germany was only going into her own "backyard" and that this section of Versailles was not needed to be enforced in the mid-1930’s. It was believed that Germany was behaving in a reasonable and understandable manner. Therefore, no action was taken against Nazi Germany , despite Hitler’s later comment that the march into the Rhineland had been the most nerve-racking 48 hours of his life. 
  • William (Welek) Luksenburg Describes the first night of the German invasion of Poland [1990 interview] Born Dabrowa Gornicza, Poland 1923 Shortly after the German invasion of Poland in September 1939, William's family was ordered into a ghetto and his brother went to a work camp. William bribed officials to discharge his brother from a hospital destined for evacuation to Auschwitz. Later, after escaping from a prison camp to tend to his brother, William was jailed. He was sent to Blechhammer, Gleiwitz (where he met his future wife), and other camps. William collapsed during a death march near the Austrian border, but was then liberated. His parents and brother perished.
  • War2010

    1. 1. Europe Goes to War The newspaper: Daily Mirror (British) The date: September 4th 1939 The news event: WWII begins This 'WANTED' poster presents Adolf Hitler as a 'reckless criminal ... wanted - dead or alive'.
    2. 2. Pre Class <ul><ul><li>What was the Treaty of Versailles? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What was its impact on Europe? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do you think it set the stage for WWII? </li></ul></ul>
    3. 4. What were the goals of each of these men? What did they all have in common?
    4. 5. Fascist Italy: Benito Mussolini <ul><ul><li>fascist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extreme nationalism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>well-being of the state above that of the individual </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Militaristic expansionism (“Italian lake”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Charismatic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Private property with strong government controls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-communist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extreme nationalism and racism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Militaristic expansion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forceful leader </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Private property with strong government controls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promises FULL EMPLOYMENT to an economically depressed Germany </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Becomes Chancellor 1933 </li></ul></ul>Nazi Germany: Adolf Hitler <ul><ul><li>Creation of communist state, await world revolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revolution by workers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eventual rule by working class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State ownership of property </li></ul></ul>Communist SU: Joseph Stalin
    5. 6. The Ducktators
    6. 7. A Dangerous Patten of Events… <ul><ul><li>Remilitarization of the Rhineland (‘36) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anschluss (’38)– Germany’s “unification” with Austria </li></ul></ul>The “link up” “… the Nazi Swastika was whipping in the air in every town and hamlet of the Rhineland.”
    7. 8. Appeasement gives way to aggression… <ul><ul><li>Munich Agreement (Sept. 1938) – doctrine of appeasement – giving up principles to pacify an oppressor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allies turned the </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sudetenland </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>over to Germany </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>6 months later, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>German troops </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>invade Czechoslovakia </li></ul></ul></ul>
    8. 9. Striking a deal with the Soviets <ul><ul><li>Nazi-Soviet Non-aggression Pact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Why would Hitler become “friends” with a bitter enemy? (hint: think Germany’s biggest strategic mistake in WWI) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    9. 10. BLITZKRIEG in Poland!! September 1, 1939 Personal Account On 1st September 1939, German forces invaded Poland. Blitzkrieg was now put into practice. German forces attacked on a number of fronts. The map below illustrates these assaults. Black arrows - primary assaults red arrows - secondary assaults arrows to the right hand side of the map - signify the Soviet advance into Poland that followed the German invasion. <ul><li>“ lightning war” </li></ul><ul><li>Fast tanks, powerful aircraft – swift defeat before Allies could mount a defense </li></ul>Junkers Ju 188 medium bomber
    10. 11. WWII in Europe (Flash)
    11. 12. WAR!! Munich Agreement Nazi-Soviet Non-aggression pact France surrenders to Germany Britain and France Declare War on Germany Hitler invades Czechoslovakia Germany invades Poland PRECLASS – Put these events in order (Use reasoning – not your notes!!)
    12. 13. Munich Agreement Hitler invades Czechoslovakia Nazi-Soviet Non-aggression pact Germany invades Poland Britain and France Declare War on Germany France surrenders to Germany
    13. 15. “ My friends, there has come back from Germany peace with honor. I believe it is peace in our time” – Neville Chamberlain “ Britain and France had to choose between war and dishonor. They chose dishonor. They will have war .” – Winston Churchill
    14. 16. German offenses begin… <ul><ul><li>Invasion of Czechoslovakia – in violation of Munich Pact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact – NO 2 FRONT WAR! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blitzkrieg in Poland – Luftwaffe rained bombs over Poland on Sept. 1, 1939 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sept 3 – Britain/France dec. war on Germany </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Phony War – “sitting war” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maginot and Siegfried Lines </li></ul></ul></ul>
    15. 17. Maginot Line DA Ardennes: blockhouse with the graves of four French soldiers in the foreground
    16. 18. France Falls <ul><ul><li>France falls to the Germans and Italians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nazi controlled puppet govt. established at Vichy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Charles de Gaulle – govt.-in-exile in England </li></ul></ul></ul>“ In three weeks England will have her neck wrung like a chicken.” - Marshal Petain, 1940 .
    17. 19. <ul><li>The Battle of Britain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Germ. Prepared navy and launched air attack on Britain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Luftwaffe targeted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>airfields, aircrafts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and neighborhoods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RAF was victorious </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>radar </li></ul></ul></ul>&quot;radio detecting and ranging&quot;
    18. 20. Battle of Britain: A Spotter on London Rooftop
    19. 21. St. Paul's Cathedral in London Air Raid
    20. 22. Children in East London After a Night Air Attack
    21. 23. Berkshire Almshouse Residents After a Night Air Attack
    22. 24. Which agreements has Hitler broken? <ul><ul><li>Treaty of Versailles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Munich Agreement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Realizing he cannot defeat the RAF… Hitler invades the Soviet Union (June 1941) </li></ul><ul><li>elimination of the perceived Communist threat </li></ul><ul><li>seizure of prime land within Soviet borders for long-term German settlement </li></ul>
    23. 25. <ul><ul><li>What is happening in the cartoon? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the opinion of the cartoonist? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Would you call them an isolationist or an interventionist? </li></ul></ul>
    24. 26. ISOLATIONISM Neutrality WHY?? What was the role of the U.S. up to this point?
    25. 27. America Abandons Neutrality… <ul><li>Before German victories of 1940 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neutrality acts (1935-39) – no monetary/ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>military aid to ANY belligerent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ cash and carry” (1939) </li></ul></ul>
    26. 28. “ The Great Arsenal of Democracy” <ul><ul><li>After German victories… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selective Service Act – 1st peacetime draft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FDR runs for a 3rd term promising to keep US out of war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lend-Lease Plan – US would lend or lease arms to “any country whose defense was vital to the United States” (GB and SU received aid) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atlantic Charter (“United Nations”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shoot on sight </li></ul></ul>“ No man can tame a tiger into a kitten by stroking it.”
    27. 29. Why was aid to the Soviets so controversial?? “ If Hitler invaded Hell, the British would be prepared to work with the devil himself” ~ Winston Churchill
    28. 30. FDR’s “Four Freedoms” Speech We look forward to a world founded upon four essential human freedoms. The first is freedom of speech and expression--everywhere in the world. The second is freedom of every person to worship God in his own way-- everywhere in the world. The third is freedom from want . . . everywhere in the world. The fourth is freedom from fear . . . anywhere in the world. --President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Message to Congress, January 6, 1941
    29. 31. With your partner, read the Point/Counterpoint selection on p. 758 in your text and answer the following questions. <ul><ul><li>What did isolationists believe about America’s role in the world? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What was the interventionist position? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In what ways did Lindbergh believe democracy would be saved? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why did FDR think the US was threatened by what was happening in Europe? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do you recommend the U.S. practice isolationism today? Why or why not? </li></ul></ul>
    30. 32. Map Quiz <ul><ul><li>At the bottom of the paper, identify: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3 Axis Powers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 Allied Powers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3 Neutral countries </li></ul></ul></ul>