Chapter 1


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Chapter 1

  1. 1. Welcome to Environmental Science!<br />What do you think of when you hear “environmental science”??<br />Make a list of anything that comes to mind.<br />
  2. 2. Chapter 1: Planet Earth<br />What we will learn:<br /><ul><li>What are the unique traits of Earth that enables it to support life?
  3. 3. What are the features of the lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere & biosphere that are important to living organisms?</li></li></ul><li>1.1 Planet of Life<br />Characteristics of planets in our solar system are determined by distance from sun, density & composition<br />Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars = inner planets, mostly rock<br />Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune = outer planets, mostly gas<br />Earth is only planet that contains life<br />
  4. 4. 1.1 Cont.<br />Organism – any living thing<br />To have life:<br />need just the right mix of materials, like carbon, oxygen, water, etc. <br />need the right temperatures for life, most other planets are too hot or too cold. <br />need an atmosphere that would protect any life from the sun’s radiation. <br />So what characteristics does Earth have?<br />
  5. 5. On Earth: <br />liquid water – stores and then releases heat, keeping temperatures steadier. <br />Atmosphere supports life – nitrogen, oxygen, CO2.<br />Energy comes from the sun and travels in wavelengths<br />Visible Spectrum is very small = ROYGBIV<br />Ozone Layer protects us from the sun’s radiation.<br />Life is found on the ground, in the air, and in the water.<br />1.1 Cont.<br />
  6. 6. 1.1 Cont.<br />Lithosphere– the layer of land that forms the Earth’s surface<br /> Hydrosphere– all parts of the Earth made of water (oceans, lakes, rivers, underground, clouds)<br /> Atmosphere– the layer of air that surrounds the Earth<br />Ecology – interactions between the living & nonliving parts of earth<br />
  7. 7. 1.2 Earth’s Land & Water<br />Lithosphere:<br />10-200km thick<br />3 main types of rocks<br />Igneous: formed by the cooling of liquid rock (ex. Granite)<br />Sedimentary: layers of sediments compressed (ex. Sandstone)<br />Metamorphic: rock transformed by heat and pressure (ex. Marble and Slate)<br />
  8. 8. 1.2 Cont.<br />Hydrosphere:<br />70% of Earth’s surface = water<br />97% of that is salt water<br />Fresh water:<br />Surface water: lakes, streams<br />Groundwater: underground, moves between rocks<br />2/3 of fresh water is frozen in glaciers and ice caps<br />
  9. 9. 1.2 Cont.<br />Hydrosphere Cont.:<br />Aquifer = underground layer of porous rock that contains water. Replenishes slowly<br />Artesian well = well where water flows to surface because high underground pressure<br />We pump water out of aquifers faster than it can be replenished, many are drying up.<br />
  10. 10. Think About It:<br />Water, like all liquids, expands when it is heated. Many scientists are worried about the temperatures of Earth rising.<br />Please answer the following questions & turn them in.<br />1. If the temperature of Earth’s oceans were to rise, what would happen to the size of the oceans?<br />2. What might happen to the land along the coasts of the continents? <br />
  11. 11. 1.2 Cont.<br />Remember:<br />What is a hypothesis?<br />Hypothesis – possible explanation for a set of observations<br />Set-up atmosphere activity<br />
  12. 12. 1.3 The Atmosphere<br />Atmosphere: Envelope of gases surrounding Earth<br />What do you think it is made up of?<br />Nitrogen = 78%, Oxygen = 21%, Carbon Dioxide = 0.04%, other matter = 0.06% (water vapor, dust particles, small amount of other gases)<br />Why is CO2 important? <br />Plants need it for photosynthesis to make O2<br />
  13. 13. 1.3 Cont.<br />4 Layers:<br />  <br /> Thermosphere (>85km)<br /> Mesosphere (50-85km)<br />Stratosphere (18-50km)<br /> Troposphere (8-18km)<br />
  14. 14. 1.3 Cont.<br />
  15. 15. 1.3 Cont.<br />Troposphere – touches surface of Earth. <br />Contains most of the water vapor in atmosphere. <br />Where most of weather occurs<br />Winds are important factor in climates. <br />Wind patterns are caused by rotation of the earth (pg. 10)<br />
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  17. 17. 1.3 Cont.<br />Stratosphere <br />Contains ozone layer = form of oxygen gas containing 3 oxygen atoms per molecule. (in troposphere O2) <br />Ozone layer filters most ultraviolet radiation, which would destroy much of the life on Earth.<br />Mesosphere<br />Coldest layer of atmosphere, as low as -100C<br />
  18. 18. 1.3 Cont.<br />Thermosphere <br />Outermost layer, higher temps, as high as 2000C, air pressure very low.<br />Gas molecules in one part of thermosphere are bombarded with rays from sun, cause gas molecules to lose electrons, becoming ions. Therefore called ionosphere. <br />When gas molecules interact with free electrons light is given off. Usually occurs near poles and results in light displays called an aurora.<br />
  19. 19. 1.3 Cont.<br />
  20. 20. 1.4 The Biosphere<br />Biosphere – all the parts of the earth that support and contain life<br />About 20 km thick<br />Most life is between 500m below sea level – 6km above sea level<br />Organisms find energy they need in many different parts of biosphere.<br />Ex. Humans live on lithosphere, drink water from hydrosphere & breathe from atmosphere<br />
  21. 21. 1.4 Cont.<br />Changes in environment can effect organisms and organisms can cause changes in environment.<br />Biosphere is a complex network of interactions.<br />